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1.
Adv Microb Physiol ; 79: 25-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836612

RESUMO

Toward the end of August 2000, the 6.3 Mbp whole genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 was published. With 5570 open reading frames (ORFs), PAO1 had the largest microbial genome sequenced up to that point in time-including a large proportion of metabolic, transport and antimicrobial resistance genes supporting its ability to colonize diverse environments. A remarkable 9% of its ORFs were predicted to encode proteins with regulatory functions, providing new insight into bacterial network complexity as a function of network size. In this celebratory article, we fast forward 20 years, and examine how access to this resource has transformed our understanding of P. aeruginosa. What follows is more than a simple review or commentary; we have specifically asked some of the leaders in the field to provide personal reflections on how the PAO1 genome sequence, along with the Pseudomonas Community Annotation Project (PseudoCAP) and Pseudomonas Genome Database (pseudomonas.com), have contributed to the many exciting discoveries in this field. In addition to bringing us all up to date with the latest developments, we also ask our contributors to speculate on how the next 20 years of Pseudomonas research might pan out.

2.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(6): 2254-2256, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792854
4.
Metab Eng ; 67: 373-386, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343699

RESUMO

Pseudomonas putida is evolutionarily endowed with features relevant for bioproduction, especially under harsh operating conditions. The rich metabolic versatility of this species, however, comes at the price of limited formation of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) from sugar substrates. Since acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic precursor for a number of added-value products, in this work we deployed an in silico-guided rewiring program of central carbon metabolism for upgrading P. putida as a host for acetyl-CoA-dependent bioproduction. An updated kinetic model, integrating fluxomics and metabolomics datasets in addition to manually-curated information of enzyme mechanisms, identified targets that would lead to increased acetyl-CoA levels. Based on these predictions, a set of plasmids based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and dead CRISPR-associated protein 9 (dCas9) was constructed to silence genes by CRISPR interference (CRISPRi). Dynamic reduction of gene expression of two key targets (gltA, encoding citrate synthase, and the essential accA gene, encoding subunit A of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase complex) mediated an 8-fold increase in the acetyl-CoA content of rewired P. putida. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was adopted as a proxy of acetyl-CoA availability, and two synthetic pathways were engineered for biopolymer accumulation. By including cell morphology as an extra target for the CRISPRi approach, fully rewired P. putida strains programmed for PHB accumulation had a 5-fold increase in PHB titers in bioreactor cultures using glucose. Thus, the strategy described herein allowed for rationally redirecting metabolic fluxes in P. putida from central metabolism towards product biosynthesis-especially relevant when deletion of essential pathways is not an option.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas putida , Acetilcoenzima A/genética , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Engenharia Metabólica , Plasmídeos , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo
5.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(5): 2214-2226, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327837

RESUMO

Understanding metabolism is fundamental to access and harness bacterial physiology. In most bacteria, nutrient utilization is hierarchically optimized according to their energetic potential and their availability in the environment to maximise growth rates. Low-throughput methods have been largely used to characterize bacterial metabolic profiles. However, in-depth analysis of large collections of strains across several conditions is challenging since high-throughput approaches are still limited - especially for non-traditional hosts. Here, we developed a high-throughput dilution-resolved cultivation method for metabolic footprinting of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method was benchmarked against a conventional low-throughput time-resolved cultivation approach using either a synthetic culture medium (where a single carbon source is present) for P. putida or a complex nutrient mixture for P. aeruginosa. Dynamic metabolic footprinting, either by sugar quantification or by targeted exo-metabolomic analyses, revealed overlaps between the bacterial metabolic profiles irrespective of the cultivation strategy, suggesting a certain level of robustness and flexibility of the high-throughput dilution-resolved method. Cultivation of P. putida in microtiter plates imposed a metabolic constraint, dependent on oxygen availability, which altered the pattern of secreted metabolites at the level of sugar oxidation. Deep-well plates, however, constituted an optimal cultivation set-up yielding consistent and comparable metabolic profiles across conditions and strains. Altogether, the results illustrate the usefulness of this technological advance for high-throughput analyses of bacterial metabolism for both biotechnological applications and automation purposes.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas putida , Transporte Biológico , Meios de Cultura , Metabolômica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
6.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(5): 1214-1226, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843192

RESUMO

The development of complex phenotypes in industrially relevant bacteria is a major goal of metabolic engineering, which encompasses the implementation of both rational and random approaches. In the latter case, several tools have been developed toward increasing mutation frequencies, yet the precise control of mutagenesis processes in cell factories continues to represent a significant technical challenge. Pseudomonas species are endowed with one of the most efficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) systems found in the bacterial domain. Here, we investigated if the endogenous MMR system could be manipulated as a general strategy to artificially alter mutation rates in Pseudomonas species. To bestow a conditional mutator phenotype in the platform bacterium Pseudomonas putida, we constructed inducible mutator devices to modulate the expression of the dominant-negative mutLE36K allele. Regulatable overexpression of mutLE36K in a broad-host-range, easy-to-cure plasmid format resulted in a transitory inhibition of the MMR machinery, leading to a significant increase (up to 438-fold) in DNA mutation frequencies and a heritable fixation of mutations in the genome. Following such an accelerated mutagenesis-followed by selection approach, three phenotypes were successfully evolved: resistance to antibiotics streptomycin and rifampicin (either individually or combined) and reversion of a synthetic uracil auxotrophy. Thus, these mutator devices could be applied to accelerate the evolution of metabolic pathways in long-term evolutionary experiments, alternating cycles of (inducible) mutagenesis coupled to selection schemes toward the desired phenotype(s).

7.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(5): 2522-2531, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734558

RESUMO

The dnt pathway of Burkholderia sp. R34 is in the midst of an evolutionary journey from its ancestral, natural substrate (naphthalene) towards a new xenobiotic one [2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT)]. The gene cluster encoding the leading multicomponent ring dioxygenase (DntA) has activity on the old and the new substrate, but it is induced by neither. Instead, the transcriptional factor encoded by the adjacent gene (dntR) activates expression of the dnt cluster upon addition of salicylate, one degradation intermediate of the ancestral naphthalene route but not any longer a substrate/product of the evolved DntA enzyme. Fluorescence of cells bearing dntA-gfp fusions revealed that induction of the dnt genes by salicylate was enhanced upon exposure to bona fide DntA substrates, i.e., naphthalene or DNT. Such amplification was dependent on effective dioxygenation of these pathway-specific head compounds, which thereby fostered expression of the cognate catabolic operon. The phenomenon seems to happen not through direct binding to a cognate transcriptional factor but through the interplay of a non-specific regulator with a substrate-specific enzyme. This regulatory scenario may ease transition of complete catabolic operons (i.e. enzymes plus regulatory devices) from one substrate to another without loss of fitness during the evolutionary roadmap between two optimal specificities.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Burkholderia , Dioxigenases , Animais , Burkholderia/genética , Dinitrobenzenos
8.
Eng Life Sci ; 21(3-4): 258-269, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716623

RESUMO

In this study, the biocatalytic performance of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) catalyzing the reaction of cyclohexanone to ε-caprolactone was investigated in Pseudomonas biofilms. Biofilm growth and development of two Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 variants, Ps_BVMO and Ps_BVMO_DGC, were evaluated in drip flow reactors (DFRs) and rotating bed reactors (RBRs). Engineering a hyperactive diguanylate cyclase (DGC) from Caulobacter crescentus into Ps_BVMO resulted in faster biofilm growth compared to the control Ps_BVMO strain in the DFRs. The maximum product formation rates of 92 and 87 g m-2 d-1 were observed for mature Ps_BVMO and Ps_ BVMO_DGC biofilms, respectively. The application of the engineered variants in the RBR was challenged by low biofilm surface coverage (50-60%) of rotating bed cassettes, side-products formation, oxygen limitation, and a severe drop in production rates with time. By implementing an active oxygen supply mode and a twin capillary spray feed, the biofilm surface coverage was maximized to 70-80%. BVMO activity was severely inhibited by cyclohexanol formation, resulting in a decrease in product formation rates. By controlling the cyclohexanone feed concentration at 4 mM, a stable product formation rate of 14 g m-2 d-1 and a substrate conversion of 60% was achieved in the RBR.

9.
Bio Protoc ; 11(4): e3917, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732804

RESUMO

Precise genome engineering has become a commonplace technique for metabolic engineering. Also, insertion, deletion and alteration of genes and other functional DNA sequences are essential for understanding and engineering cells. Several techniques have been developed to this end (e.g., CRISPR/Cas-assisted methods, homologous recombination, or λ Red recombineering), yet most of them rely on the use of auxiliary plasmids, which have to be cured after the editing procedure. Temperature-sensitive replicons, counter-selectable markers or repeated passaging of plasmid-bearing cells have been traditionally employed to circumvent this hurdle. While these protocols work reasonably well in some bacteria, they are not applicable for other species or are time consuming and laborious. Here, we present a fast and versatile protocol of fluorescent marker-assisted genome editing in Pseudomonas putida, followed by clean curing of auxiliary plasmids through user-controlled plasmid replication. One fluorescent marker facilitates identification of genome-edited colonies, while the second reporter enables detection of plasmid-free bacterial clones. Not only is this protocol the fastest available for Pseudomonas species, but it can be easily adapted to any type of genome modifications, including sequence deletions, insertions, and replacements. Graphical abstract: Rapid genome engineering of Pseudomonas with curable plasmids.

10.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(3): 1732-1749, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559269

RESUMO

Although the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bears a bona fide adenylate cyclase gene (cyaA), intracellular concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are barely detectable. By using reporter technology and direct quantification of cAMP under various conditions, we show that such low levels of the molecule stem from the stringent regulation of its synthesis, efflux and degradation. Poor production of cAMP was the result of inefficient translation of cyaA mRNA. Moreover, deletion of the cAMP-phosphodiesterase pde gene led to intracellular accumulation of the cyclic nucleotide, exposing an additional cause of cAMP drain in vivo. But even such low levels of the signal sustained activation of promoters dependent on the cAMP-receptor protein (CRP). Genetic and biochemical evidence indicated that the phenomenon ultimately rose from the unusual binding parameters of cAMP to CRP. This included an ultratight cAMP-CrpP. putida affinity (KD of 45.0 ± 3.4 nM) and an atypical 1:1 effector/dimer stoichiometry that obeyed an infrequent anti-cooperative binding mechanism. It thus seems that keeping the same regulatory parts and their relational logic but changing the interaction parameters enables genetic devices to take over entirely different domains of the functional landscape.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas putida , AMP Cíclico , Proteína Receptora de AMP Cíclico/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Regulon
11.
ISME J ; 15(6): 1751-1766, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432138

RESUMO

As a frequent inhabitant of sites polluted with toxic chemicals, the soil bacterium and plant-root colonizer Pseudomonas putida can tolerate high levels of endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress. Yet, the ultimate reason of such phenotypic property remains largely unknown. To shed light on this question, metabolic network-wide routes for NADPH generation-the metabolic currency that fuels redox-stress quenching mechanisms-were inspected when P. putida KT2440 was challenged with a sub-lethal H2O2 dose as a proxy of oxidative conditions. 13C-tracer experiments, metabolomics, and flux analysis, together with the assessment of physiological parameters and measurement of enzymatic activities, revealed a substantial flux reconfiguration in oxidative environments. In particular, periplasmic glucose processing was rerouted to cytoplasmic oxidation, and the cyclic operation of the pentose phosphate pathway led to significant NADPH-forming fluxes, exceeding biosynthetic demands by ~50%. The resulting NADPH surplus, in turn, fueled the glutathione system for H2O2 reduction. These properties not only account for the tolerance of P. putida to environmental insults-some of which end up in the formation of reactive oxygen species-but they also highlight the value of this bacterial host as a platform for environmental bioremediation and metabolic engineering.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas putida , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Biotechnol J ; 16(3): e2000165, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085217

RESUMO

Growing environmental concern sparks renewed interest in the sustainable production of (bio)materials that can replace oil-derived goods. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are isotactic polymers that play a critical role in the central metabolism of producer bacteria, as they act as dynamic reservoirs of carbon and reducing equivalents. PHAs continue to attract industrial attention as a starting point toward renewable, biodegradable, biocompatible, and versatile thermoplastic and elastomeric materials. Pseudomonas species have been known for long as efficient biopolymer producers, especially for medium-chain-length PHAs. The surge of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches in recent years offers the possibility of exploiting the untapped potential of Pseudomonas cell factories for the production of tailored PHAs. In this article, an overview of the metabolic and regulatory circuits that rule PHA accumulation in Pseudomonas putida is provided, and approaches leading to the biosynthesis of novel polymers (e.g., PHAs including nonbiological chemical elements in their structures) are discussed. The potential of novel PHAs to disrupt existing and future market segments is closer to realization than ever before. The review is concluded by pinpointing challenges that currently hinder the wide adoption of bio-based PHAs, and strategies toward programmable polymer biosynthesis from alternative substrates in engineered P. putida strains are proposed.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Pseudomonas putida , Carbono , Engenharia Metabólica , Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas putida/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5045, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028813

RESUMO

Fluorine is a key element in the synthesis of molecules broadly used in medicine, agriculture and materials. Addition of fluorine to organic structures represents a unique strategy for tuning molecular properties, yet this atom is rarely found in Nature and approaches to integrate fluorometabolites into the biochemistry of living cells are scarce. In this work, synthetic gene circuits for organofluorine biosynthesis are implemented in the platform bacterium Pseudomonas putida. By harnessing fluoride-responsive riboswitches and the orthogonal T7 RNA polymerase, biochemical reactions needed for in vivo biofluorination are wired to the presence of fluoride (i.e. circumventing the need of feeding expensive additives). Biosynthesis of fluoronucleotides and fluorosugars in engineered P. putida is demonstrated with mineral fluoride both as only fluorine source (i.e. substrate of the pathway) and as inducer of the synthetic circuit. This approach expands the chemical landscape of cell factories by providing alternative biosynthetic strategies towards fluorinated building-blocks.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Halogenação/genética , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Flúor/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mutação , Pseudomonas putida/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Riboswitch/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(18): 7745-7766, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789744

RESUMO

Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can be encountered in diverse ecological habitats. This ubiquity is traced to its remarkably versatile metabolism, adapted to withstand physicochemical stress, and the capacity to thrive in harsh environments. Owing to these characteristics, there is a growing interest in this microbe for industrial use, and the corresponding research has made rapid progress in recent years. Hereby, strong drivers are the exploitation of cheap renewable feedstocks and waste streams to produce value-added chemicals and the steady progress in genetic strain engineering and systems biology understanding of this bacterium. Here, we summarize the recent advances and prospects in genetic engineering, systems and synthetic biology, and applications of P. putida as a cell factory. KEY POINTS: • Pseudomonas putida advances to a global industrial cell factory. • Novel tools enable system-wide understanding and streamlined genomic engineering. • Applications of P. putida range from bioeconomy chemicals to biosynthetic drugs.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas putida , Biotecnologia , Genômica , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Biologia Sintética , Biologia de Sistemas
17.
Chembiochem ; 21(18): 2551-2571, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274875

RESUMO

The diversity of life relies on a handful of chemical elements (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus) as part of essential building blocks; some other atoms are needed to a lesser extent, but most of the remaining elements are excluded from biology. This circumstance limits the scope of biochemical reactions in extant metabolism - yet it offers a phenomenal playground for synthetic biology. Xenobiology aims to bring novel bricks to life that could be exploited for (xeno)metabolite synthesis. In particular, the assembly of novel pathways engineered to handle nonbiological elements (neometabolism) will broaden chemical space beyond the reach of natural evolution. In this review, xeno-elements that could be blended into nature's biosynthetic portfolio are discussed together with their physicochemical properties and tools and strategies to incorporate them into biochemistry. We argue that current bioproduction methods can be revolutionized by bridging xenobiology and neometabolism for the synthesis of new-to-nature molecules, such as organohalides.


Assuntos
Biologia Sintética , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/química , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Enxofre/química , Enxofre/metabolismo
18.
Metab Eng Commun ; 10: e00126, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215253

RESUMO

Genome engineering of non-conventional microorganisms calls for the development of dedicated synthetic biology tools. Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, non-pathogenic soil bacterium widely used for metabolic engineering owing to its versatile metabolism and high levels of tolerance to different types of stress. Genome editing of P. putida largely relies on homologous recombination events, assisted by helper plasmid-based expression of genes encoding DNA modifying enzymes. Plasmid curing from selected isolates is the most tedious and time-consuming step of this procedure, and implementing commonly used methods to this end in P. putida (e.g. temperature-sensitive replicons) is often impractical. To tackle this issue, we have developed a toolbox for both target- and self-curing of plasmid DNA in Pseudomonas species. Our method enables plasmid-curing in a simple cultivation step by combining in vivo digestion of vectors by the I-SceI homing nuclease with synthetic control of plasmid replication, triggered by the addition of a cheap chemical inducer (3-methylbenzoate) to the medium. The system displays an efficiency of vector curing >90% and the screening of plasmid-free clones is greatly facilitated by the use of fluorescent markers that can be selected according to the application intended. Furthermore, quick genome engineering of P. putida using self-curing plasmids is demonstrated through genome reduction of the platform strain EM42 by eliminating all genes encoding ß-lactamases, the catabolic ben gene cluster, and the pyoverdine synthesis machinery. Physiological characterization of the resulting streamlined strain, P. putida SEM10, revealed advantageous features that could be exploited for metabolic engineering.

19.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(6): 2230-2242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202357

RESUMO

The two As resistance arsRBC operons of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 are followed by a downstream gene called arsH that encodes an NADPH-dependent flavin mononucleotide reductase. In this work, we show that the arsH1 and (to a lesser extent) arsH2 genes of P. putida KT2440 strengthened its tolerance to both inorganic As(V) and As(III) and relieved the oxidative stress undergone by cells exposed to either oxyanion. Furthermore, overexpression of arsH1 and arsH2 endowed P. putida with a high tolerance to the oxidative stress caused by diamide (a drainer of metabolic NADPH) in the absence of any arsenic. To examine whether the activity of ArsH was linked to a direct action on the arsenic compounds tested, arsH1 and arsH2 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, which has an endogenous arsRBC operon but lacks an arsH ortholog. The resulting clones both deployed a lower production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to As salts and had a superior endurance to physiological redox insults. These results suggest that besides the claimed direct action on organoarsenicals, ArsH contributes to relieve toxicity of As species by mediating reduction of ROS produced in vivo upon exposure to the oxyanion, e.g. by generating FMNH2 to fuel ROS-quenching activities.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , FMN Redutase/genética , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Óperon , Estresse Oxidativo , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(2): 368-385, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045111

RESUMO

Owing to its wide metabolic versatility and physiological robustness, together with amenability to genetic manipulations and high resistance to stressful conditions, Pseudomonas putida is increasingly becoming the organism of choice for a range of applications in both industrial and environmental applications. However, a range of applied synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches are still limited by the lack of specific genetic tools to effectively and efficiently regulate the expression of target genes. Here, we present a single-plasmid CRISPR-interference (CRISPRi) system expressing a nuclease-deficient cas9 gene under the control of the inducible XylS/Pm expression system, along with the option of adopting constitutively expressed guide RNAs (either sgRNA or crRNA and tracrRNA). We showed that the system enables tunable, tightly controlled gene repression (up to 90%) of chromosomally expressed genes encoding fluorescent proteins, either individually or simultaneously. In addition, we demonstrate that this method allows for suppressing the expression of the essential genes pyrF and ftsZ, resulting in significantly low growth rates or morphological changes respectively. This versatile system expands the capabilities of the current CRISPRi toolbox for efficient, targeted and controllable manipulation of gene expression in P. putida.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Pseudomonas putida , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Expressão Gênica , Pseudomonas putida/genética , RNA Guia
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