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1.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 33(6): 432-441, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072222

RESUMO

Background. Understanding the relationship between movement quality (impairment) and performance (activity) in poststroke patients is important for rehabilitation intervention studies. This has led to an interest in kinematic characterization of upper limb motor impairment. Since instrumented motion analysis is not readily clinically available, observational kinematics may be a viable alternative. Objective. To determine if upper limb movement quality during a reach-to-grasp task identified by observation could be used to describe the relationship between motor impairments and the time to perform functional tasks. Methods. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis of baseline data from 141 participants with stroke, age 18 to 85 years, who participated in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Clinical assessment of movement quality using the Reaching Performance Scale for Stroke (RPSS-Close and Far targets) and of performance (activity) from the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-7 items) was assessed. The degree to which RPSS component scores explained scores on WMFT items was determined by multivariable regression. Results. Clinically significant decreases (>2 seconds) in performance time for some of the more complex WMFT tasks involving prehension were predicted from RPSS-Close and Far target components. Trunk compensatory movements did not predict either increases or decreases in performance time for the WMFT tasks evaluated. Overall, the strength of the regression models was low. Conclusions. In lieu of kinematic analysis, observational clinical movement analysis may be a valid and accessible method to determine relationships between motor impairment, compensations and upper limb function in poststroke patients. Specific relationships are unlikely to generalize to all tasks due to kinematic redundancy and task specificity.

2.
J Neurol Sci ; 399: 209-213, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851659

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Stroke etiology and risk factors vary by age, sex, setting (hospital or community-based) and by region. Identifying these differences would improve our understanding of stroke etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. AIM: The Age, Sex and Setting in the Etiology of Stroke Study (ASSESS) is a multicenter cohort study to assess differences in stroke etiology. METHODS AND DESIGN: Data from all centers will be categorized according to age, sex, setting, stroke subtypes. Centers with extensive hospital- or community-based data regarding stroke from Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, Iran, Italy, Ghana, Nigeria, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States have agreed to participate so far. STUDY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome includes differences in stroke etiology in study centers. The secondary outcomes include stroke incidence, risk factors, preventive strategies, and short- and long-term outcomes. CONCLUSION: ASSESS will enable comparisons of data from different regions to determine the age and sex distribution of the most common causes of stroke in each setting. This will help clinicians to tailor the assessment and treatment of stroke patients on the basis of their specific local characteristics. It will also empower stroke epidemiologists to design preventive measures by targeting the specific characteristics of each population.

3.
Lancet ; 391(10134): 2019-2027, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels. METHODS: We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month. FINDINGS: We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes. FUNDING: Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 161: 98-103, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke who received or did not receive intravenous fluid. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment. We enrolled acute ischemic stroke patients without dehydration aged between 18 and 85 years with NIH Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) score from 1 to 18 who presented within 72h after onset. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 0.9% NaCl solution 100ml/h for 3days or no intravenous fluid. RESULTS: On the interim unblinded analysis of the safety data, significant excess early neurological deterioration was observed among patients in the non-intravenous fluid group. Therefore, the study was prematurely discontinued after enrollment of 120 patients, mean age 60 years, 56.6% male. Early neurological deterioration (increased NIHSS ≥3 over 72h) not of metabolic or hemorrhagic origin was observed in 15% of the non-IV fluid group and 3.3% of the IV fluid group (p=0.02). Predictors of neurological deterioration were higher NIHSS score, higher plasma glucose, and increased pulse rate. There was no difference in the primary efficacy outcome, NIHSS≤4 at day 7, 83.3% vs 86.7%, p=0.61 or secondary efficacy outcomes. CONCLUSION: Administration of 0.9% NaCl 100ml/h for 72h in patients with acute ischemic stroke is safe and may be associated with a reduced risk of neurological deterioration. These study findings support the use of intravenous fluid in acute ischemic stroke patients with NIHSS less than 18 who have no contraindications.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos
5.
Lancet ; 388(10046): 761-75, 2016 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. METHODS: We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated, with 99% confidence intervals. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher (OR 2·98, 99% CI 2·72-3·28; PAR 47·9%, 99% CI 45·1-50·6), regular physical activity (0·60, 0·52-0·70; 35·8%, 27·7-44·7), apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio (1·84, 1·65-2·06 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·8%, 22·2-31·9 for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), diet (0·60, 0·53-0·67 for highest vs lowest tertile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index [mAHEI]; 23·2%, 18·2-28·9 for lowest two tertiles vs highest tertile of mAHEI), waist-to-hip ratio (1·44, 1·27-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·6%, 13·3-25·3 for top two tertiles vs lowest), psychosocial factors (2·20, 1·78-2·72; 17·4%, 13·1-22·6), current smoking (1·67, 1·49-1·87; 12·4%, 10·2-14·9), cardiac causes (3·17, 2·68-3·75; 9·1%, 8·0-10·2), alcohol consumption (2·09, 1·64-2·67 for high or heavy episodic intake vs never or former drinker; 5·8%, 3·4-9·7 for current alcohol drinker vs never or former drinker), and diabetes mellitus (1·16, 1·05-1·30; 3·9%, 1·9-7·6) were associated with all stroke. Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 90·7% of the PAR for all stroke worldwide (91·5% for ischaemic stroke, 87·1% for intracerebral haemorrhage), and were consistent across regions (ranging from 82·7% in Africa to 97·4% in southeast Asia), sex (90·6% in men and in women), and age groups (92·2% in patients aged ≤55 years, 90·0% in patients aged >55 years). We observed regional variations in the importance of individual risk factors, which were related to variations in the magnitude of ORs (rather than direction, which we observed for diet) and differences in prevalence of risk factors among regions. Hypertension was more associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke, whereas current smoking, diabetes, apolipoproteins, and cardiac causes were more associated with ischaemic stroke (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Ten potentially modifiable risk factors are collectively associated with about 90% of the PAR of stroke in each major region of the world, among ethnic groups, in men and women, and in all ages. However, we found important regional variations in the relative importance of most individual risk factors for stroke, which could contribute to worldwide variations in frequency and case-mix of stroke. Our findings support developing both global and region-specific programmes to prevent stroke. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Stroke Network, Health Research Board Ireland, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, The Health & Medical Care Committee of the Regional Executive Board, Region Västra Götaland (Sweden), AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada), Pfizer (Canada), MSD, Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland, and The Stroke Association, with support from The UK Stroke Research Network.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Atividade Motora , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
6.
Lancet Neurol ; 15(10): 1019-27, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27365261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-immersive virtual reality is an emerging strategy to enhance motor performance for stroke rehabilitation. There has been rapid adoption of non-immersive virtual reality as a rehabilitation strategy despite the limited evidence about its safety and effectiveness. Our aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of virtual reality with recreational therapy on motor recovery in patients after an acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial we enrolled adults (aged 18-85 years) who had a first-ever ischaemic stroke and a motor deficit of the upper extremity score of 3 or more (measured with the Chedoke-McMaster scale) within 3 months of randomisation from 14 in-patient stroke rehabilitation units from four countries (Canada [11], Argentina [1], Peru [1], and Thailand [1]). Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) by a computer-generated assignment at enrolment to receive a programme of structured, task-oriented, upper extremity sessions (ten sessions, 60 min each) of either non-immersive virtual reality using the Nintendo Wii gaming system (VRWii) or simple recreational activities (playing cards, bingo, Jenga, or ball game) as add-on therapies to conventional rehabilitation over a 2 week period. All investigators assessing outcomes were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was upper extremity motor performance measured by total time to complete the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) at the end of the 2 week intervention period, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NTC01406912. FINDINGS: The study was done between May 12, 2012, and Oct 1, 2015. We randomly assigned 141 patients: 71 received VRWii therapy and 70 received recreational activity. 121 (86%) patients (59 in the VRWii group and 62 in the recreational activity group) completed the final assessment and were included in the primary analysis. Each group improved WMFT performance time relative to baseline (decrease in median time from 43·7 s [IQR 26·1-68·0] to 29·7 s [21·4-45·2], 32·0% reduction for VRWii vs 38·0 s [IQR 28·0-64·1] to 27·1 s [21·2-45·5], 28·7% reduction for recreational activity). Mean time of conventional rehabilitation during the trial was similar between groups (VRWii, 373 min [SD 322] vs recreational activity, 397 min [345]; p=0·70) as was the total duration of study intervention (VRWii, 528 min [SD 155] vs recreational activity, 541 min [142]; p=0·60). Multivariable analysis adjusted for baseline WMFT score, age, sex, baseline Chedoke-McMaster, and stroke severity revealed no significant difference between groups in the primary outcome (adjusted mean estimate of difference in WMFT: 4·1 s, 95% CI -14·4 to 22·6). There were three serious adverse events during the trial, all deemed to be unrelated to the interventions (seizure after discharge and intracerebral haemorrhage in the recreational activity group and heart attack in the VRWii group). Overall incidences of adverse events and serious adverse events were similar between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: In patients who had a stroke within the 3 months before enrolment and had mild-to-moderate upper extremity motor impairment, non-immersive virtual reality as an add-on therapy to conventional rehabilitation was not superior to a recreational activity intervention in improving motor function, as measured by WMFT. Our study suggests that the type of task used in motor rehabilitation post-stroke might be less relevant, as long as it is intensive enough and task-specific. Simple, low-cost, and widely available recreational activities might be as effective as innovative non-immersive virtual reality technologies. FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and Ontario Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Jogos Recreativos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos
7.
Lancet ; 388(1046): 761-775, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34758

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifi able risk factors for stroke in diff erent regions of the world,and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. Methods We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute fi rst stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke,and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks(PARs) were calculated, with 99% confi dence intervals...(AU)


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Controle , Risco
8.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 98(3): 260-4, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25920296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data concerning stroke awareness and factors associated with time of hospital arrival for acute stroke patients in Thailand are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess stroke awareness and to identify factors influencing hospital arrival time after an acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is aprospective study comprising consecutive acute stroke patients admitted in Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand between August 2010 and December 2011. Demographic data, stroke severity using the NIHSS, diagnosis and stroke awareness questionnaire were collected. RESULTS: Of 217 acute stroke patients, mean age was 66 ± 13.7 years. Mean stroke severity was 10 ± 7.6. Patients arrived at the Emergency Department within 4.5 hours (early hospital arrival: EHA) in 38.2% of the cases, 16.6% by ambulance. Only 34.6% of patients recognized that they were having stroke. Factors associated with EHA were 1) stroke awareness (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07-3.60, p = 0.030), 2) arrival by ambulance (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03-4.81, p = 0.042), and 3) NIHSS >15 (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.17-4.35, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Only one-third of patients were aware of stroke symptoms. Only one in six patients used emergency transportation. Public educational campaign is needed to increase the community awareness of stroke warning symptoms and the urgent emergency medical services.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 23(2): 213-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data concerning quality of acute stroke care and outcome are scarce in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate quality of acute stroke care and stroke outcomes in Thailand. METHODS: We performed a multicenter countrywide prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with an acute ischemic stroke admitted to the participating institutions between June 2008 and November 2010 were included. Baseline characteristics, process measures including thrombolysis use, acute stroke unit admission, initiation of aspirin within 48 hours, and antithrombotic and/or anticoagulation medication at discharge were recorded. Main outcome measures were death and disability at discharge as well as in-hospital complications. RESULTS: A total of 1222 patients were included with a mean (±SD) age of 65.0 ± 13 years, and 55.0% were men. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 6.5. Patients were given aspirin within 48 hours, admitted to acute stroke unit, and given thrombolytic therapy in 71.1%, 24.6%, and 3.8%, respectively. Good recovery at discharge (modified Rankin scale score 0-1) was found in 26.1%, and 3.2% of patients died during hospitalization. The median length of stay was 4 days. Factors predicting poor outcome (modified Rankin scale score 5-6) at discharge included: age (by 10-year increments: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.43), female sex (adjusted OR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19), initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (adjusted OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.27-1.43), and in-hospital complications (adjusted OR 3.16; 95% CI, 1.58-6.35). CONCLUSIONS: Limited access to acute ischemic stroke care interventions were observed in many domains especially thrombolysis and stroke unit admission. These findings emphasize an urgent need for strategies to improve standard acute stroke care among developing countries.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Terapia Combinada , Países em Desenvolvimento , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 2(6): e000372, 2013 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24275627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We evaluated clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, and outcomes in AIS patients with PE. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all AIS patients admitted to participating institutions in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network. Clinically PE was documented by a physician and confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography within 30 days of the stroke case index. The primary outcome was death or disability at discharge. Secondary outcomes included disposition, length of hospital stay, mortality at 3 months and 1 year. Among 11 287 patients with AIS, PE was found in 89 (0.78%) patients. History of cancer, deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/PE, and DVT during the hospitalization were associated with PE. PE was associated with higher risk of death at 30 days (25.8% versus 13.6%; P<0.001), at 1 year (47.2% versus 24.6%; P<0.001), and disability at discharge (85.4% versus 63.6%; P<0.001). Mean length of stay was longer in stroke patients with PE (36 versus 16 days; P=0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and stroke severity, PE remained associated with lower survival at 30 days and 1 year, and death or disability at discharge (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.56 to 5.83). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, PE occurred in nearly 1% of AIS patients. PE was more common in patients with severe stroke, history of cancer, previous DVT/PE or acute DVT and associated with lower short- and long-term survival, greater disability, and longer length of stay.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Alta do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
11.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 96 Suppl 2: S54-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23590022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS) is one of the most reliable stroke severity assessment scales. There is a strong need for a simple and well validated stroke severity assessment scale among Thais. OBJECTIVE: To translate and perform a reliability and validity study of the Canadian Neurological Scale, Thai version (CNS-T). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forward and backward translations of the original CNS version were independently performed. The final version of the CNS-T was prospectively tested for reliability and validity in acute ischemic stroke setting. Consecutive series of acute stroke patients were assessed by one of the six raters from three different types of healthcare providers: 2 stroke nurses, 2 internal medicine residents and 2 stroke fellows. Each patient was independently assessed twice at 3 weeks interval using video tape by all raters. Extent of infarction was measured by MRI lesion volume. Clinical outcome at 3 months was measured using modified Rankin Score (mRS). Correlation among the CNS-T and 3-mo mRS and MRI lesion volume were assessed. Inter and intra-observer reliabilities were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients were enrolled. Median CNS-T was 8.5. Intra-observer reliability demonstrated a high agreement with an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.99, 0.97, 0.98, 0.96, 0.93 and 0.98 for 2 stroke fellows, 2 internal medicine residents and 2 stroke nurses respectively. Inter-observer reliability between the 6 raters was excellent: ICC 0.87 (95% CI; 0.81-0.92). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was -0.55 (p = 0.001) between the initial CNS-T score versus initial MRI lesion volume and -0.61 (p < 0.001) between the initial CNS-T score versus 3-mo mRS. CONCLUSION: The CNS-T can be performed by trained nurses, internists and neurologists with an excellent reliability. The CNS-T is a valid and simple clinical tool for stroke severity assessment among Thais.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
12.
Collegian ; 20(4): 207-13, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24596989

RESUMO

AIM: This study examined factors influencing functional recovery, including neurological and psychological function and activity of daily Living (ADL), in individuals hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A prospective observational study was undertaken in a sample of 141 hospitalized adults with acute ischemic stroke in three hospitals in metropolitan Bangkok and one in regional Thailand. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Co-morbidity burden was assessed using the Charlson Co-morbidity Index-Modified-Thai version (CCI-T) and acute stroke care services usage using the Measurement of Acute Stroke Care Services Received form. Recovery of neurological function was measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale-Thai (NIHSS-T), and ADL function was measured by the Modified Barthel Index Measurement-Thai Version (BI-T). Psychological function was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Thai version (CES-D-T). Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive ability of pre-specified variables. RESULTS: Receiving thrombolytic therapy was a significant predictor of functional recovery in terms of neurological (OR=4.714; P=.004) and ADL functions on the day of discharge (OR= 5.408; P=.002). Accessing acute stroke care service was the only factor predicting improved psychological function on hospital discharge (OR=1.312; P=.049).


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 95(9): 1167-72, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23140033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data concerning perioperative stroke incidence and risk factors are lacking in Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To study incidence and risk factors of perioperative stroke in Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors conducted a nested case-control study between July 2007 and June 2010. Consecutive perioperative stroke cases were compared with age-matched controls that had undergone surgery without having a stroke at a 1:4 ratio. Patients' characteristics, co-morbidities, clinical manifestation, stroke subtypes, duration, and types of surgery were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with a stroke during perioperative period. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients with perioperative stroke from 99,283 that underwent surgery were included. This resulted in an incidence of 66.5/100,000. Men comprised 65.2%. Mean age of stroke patients was 66.6-years-old. Age-match controls included 264 consecutive patients who underwent surgery without having a stroke. A multivariate analysis showed that male sex (adjusted OR 3.1, p = 0.003), surgical types: open heart surgery (adjusted OR 54.3, p < 0.0001), vascular surgery (adjusted OR 20.6, p < 0.0001) and endovascular procedure (adjusted OR 15.4, p < 0.0001), emergency surgery (adjusted OR 8.3, p < 0.0001), the presence of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 2.6, p = 0.018), chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR 2.6, p = 0.027), and coronary artery disease (adjusted OR 0.4, p = 0.039) were associated with perioperative stroke. CONCLUSION: Incidence of perioperative stroke was higher than a previous report. Male, type of surgery, emergency operation, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease were risk factors of perioperative stroke.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 95 Suppl 2: S227-34, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22574554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke and HIV infection are major health problems in Thailand. There is limited data regarding the etiology and risk factors of stroke in HIV-infected Thai patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors, types, and mechanisms of stroke in HIV-infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors reviewed records of consecutive HIV-infected patients with acute first stroke in a large urban medical center from August 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. Age-matched controls of HIV-infected patients without stroke were consecutively recruited at a 2:1 ratio. Data collection included demographics, stroke subtypes, risk factors of stroke, and HIV disease parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05) identified factors associated with stroke in HIV-infected patients. RESULTS: There were 37 subjects and 74 controls. In HIV-positive stroke patients, 81.1% were males and mean age was 50.5 years. There were 33 and 4 cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes respectively. HIV infection was previously diagnosed in 70%, mean CD4 count was 287 cells/uL and 33% had CD4 counts < 200 cells/uL. Prior antiretroviral medications were used in 49%. TOAST classification of stroke was as follows: large artery atherosclerosis 2 (6.1%), small vessel occlusion 9 (27.3%), cardioembolism 2 (6.1%), other determined etiology 9 (27.3%) (vertebral artery dissection 1, anti-thrombin III deficiency 1, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 1, tuberculous meningitis 4, cryptococcal meningitis 1, intravenous heroin 1) and undetermined 11 (33.2%) (incomplete evaluation 10, negative evaluation 1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated the following to be significant risk factors of stroke: smoking p = 0.001, adjusted OR 6.9 (95% CI 12.3, 21.1) and tuberculous meningitis p = 0.034, adjusted OR 11.9 (95% CI 1.2, 117.2). CONCLUSION: Stroke etiology in HIV-infected patients is more heterogeneous than in non-immunocompromised hosts. Smoking and concurrent tuberculous meningitis were significantly associated with stroke in HIV-infected Thai patients. Further prospective cohort studies should be performed in a larger population of more severely immunocompromised patients in Thailand.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 94 Suppl 1: S94-8, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21728273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationship between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Ankle Brachial index (ABI), severity of atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic stroke has been well documented. Studies concerning the association of ABI, hs-CRP and initial disability level in acute ischemic stroke are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP, ABI and level of initial disability in acute stroke setting. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a prospective observational study in patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours of onset. Initial ABI, hs-CRP were measured. Disability level was assessed at admission and 3 months using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and the National Institue of Health Stroke scale (NIHSS). Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: This study included 36 patients with a mean +/-SD age of 67.8 +/- 9.3 years. Sixteen (44.4%) were male. Median NIHSS and mRS were 10 and 4 respectively. Correlation between initial ABI and hs-CRP was poor (r(s) = -0.11, p = 0.57). There was a significant negative relationship between ABI and mRS at 0 and 3 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.45 (p = 0.006) and -0.41 (p = 0.02), respectively. CONCLUSION: There was a significant inverse relationship between ABI and initial stroke disability. However, correlation coefficient indicated only fair agreement beyond chance. This findings suggest that ABI may be used as a clinical predictor of initial disability level in acute stroke.


Assuntos
Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 94 Suppl 1: S89-93, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21721433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data concerning accuracy of portable coagulometer in emergency setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the CoaguChek XS international normalized ratio (INR) monitor compared to the standard laboratory method in emergency department. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Emergency room patients who required coagulation test were recruited. Parallel INR measurements between portable coagulometer and standard laboratory were performed. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients with a mean age of 59.1 +/- 15.7 years (20-87) were included. Men constituted 56.4%. Indications for testing were as follows: acute stroke 72.7%; abnormal bleeding 7.3%; taking anticoagulant 7.3%; and others 12.7%. Mean time +/- SD used from blood drawn to INR result report was 65.02 +/- 24.5 minutes for standard laboratory and 1 minute for portable coagulometer. Mean difference of INR result from portable coagulometer and standard laboratory was 0.02 +/- 0.13 and an excellence correlation between INR (r = 0.969) was demonstrated. There was no significant difference between the INR value from the two methods (p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: The use of portable coagulometer (CoaguChek XS) in emergency setting was accurate and required less time. Acute ischemic stroke patients are likely to benefit from a timely clinical decision making for thrombolysis medication.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/instrumentação , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 120-6, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20501997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) are among the most reliable stroke severity assessment scales. The CNS requires less extensive neurological evaluation and is quicker and simpler to administer. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop and validate a simple conversion model from the CNS to the NIHSS. METHODS: A conversion model was developed using data from a consecutive series of acute-stroke patients who were scored using both scales. The model was then validated in an external dataset in which all patients were prospectively assessed for stroke severity using both scales by different observers which consisted of neurology residents or stroke fellows. RESULTS: In all, 168 patients were included in the model development, with a median age of 73 years (20-94). Men constituted 51.8%. The median NIHSS score was 6 (0-31). The median CNS score was 8.5 (1.5-11.5). The relationship between CNS and NIHSS could be expressed as the formula: NIHSS = 23 - 2 x CNS. A cohort of 350 acute-stroke patients with similar characteristics was used for model validation. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the observed and predicted NIHSS score (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). The predicted NIHSS score was on average 0.61 higher than the observed NIHSS score (95% CI = 0.31-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: The CNS can be reliably converted to the NIHSS using a simple conversion formula: NIHSS = 23 - 2 x CNS. This finding may have a practical impact by permitting reliable comparisons with NIHSS-based evaluations and simplifying the routine assessment of acute-stroke patients in more diverse settings.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Modelos Estatísticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Ontário , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Tailândia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 93 Suppl 1: S171-8, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20364572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a well validated stroke severity assessment scale. The scale is used to assess neurological deficits, progression and degree of recovery in acute stroke settings. To date, no Thai version exists. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to adapt and validate a Thai version of the NIHSS (NIHSS-T). MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross-cultural adaptation of the NIHSS was developed according to the methods recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project Group. Forward and backward translations were performed. A final version of the NIHSS-T was validated against initial MRI infarction volume and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in a consecutive series of acute stroke patients. The patients were prospectively evaluated by 3 different types of health care providers: 2 stroke fellows, 2 internists, and 2 stroke nurses. Mean NIHSS-T scores from all raters were used in the analysis. RESULTS: The study included 32 acute ischemic stroke patients with a mean age (+/- SD) of 64.53 +/- 14.97 years of age. Men comprised 71.9%. Mean NIHSS-T score (+/- SD) was 7.49 +/- 7.02. Intra-observer reliability demonstrated a high agreement with an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.98, 0.98, 0.96, 0.98, 0.90 and 0.98 for 2 stroke fellows, 2 internists and 2 stroke nurses respectively. Inter-observer reliability between 6 raters was excellent, i.e.; ICC, 0.99 (0.98, 0.99). Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the initial NIHSS-T score versus initial MRI lesion volume and mRS at 3 months were 0.53 and 0.69 with a p-value of 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively. CONCLUSION: The Thai version of NIHSS is valid for assessing acute stroke severity. The scale is also reliable when administered in a Thai-speaking setting by trained healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/classificação , Comparação Transcultural , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etnologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Tailândia , Estados Unidos
19.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 92(1): 73-86, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19260247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze CT findings in hemorrhagic stroke patients correlation with clinical outcome and assess the interobserver agreement of hemorrhagic stroke identification on CT imaging. MATERIAL AND METHOD: CT imaging features of 131 cases and clinical data were verified and collected at Siriraj Hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2005 and retrospectively analyzed for type, location, mass effect, size of hemorrhage, intraventricular extension, initial level of consciousness (GCS), hospital length of stay and patient outcome. The percentages, predictive values, kappa were calculated. RESULTS: From all types of hemorrhagic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage remains a common and devastating clinical problem. The most common site was the thalamus and basal ganglia. In the present study, the authors found that fifty-three cases (53/131 cases, 40.5%) with thalamic-ganglionic hemorrhage, nineteen cases (19/131 cases, 14.5%) in lobar hemorrhage, five cases (5/131 cases, 3.8%) in cerebellum, five cases (5/131 7 cases, 3.8%) in brainstem and eight cases (8/131 cases, 6.1%) occurred in multiple locations. There were twenty-five cases (25/131 cases, 19.1%) of subarachnoid hemorrhage, thirteen cases (13/131 cases, 9.9%) of subdural hemorrhage and three cases (3/131 cases, 2.3%) of intraventricular hemorrhage. Two variables on CT imaging, identified as significant as early mortality predictors, were hematoma volume more than 60 cm3, and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage extension (p < 0.05). The mass effect defined as midline and/or enlargement of contralateral ventricle was not significant (p = 0.067). The present study found concordance between CT brain interpretation by two neuroradiologists for the type of hemorrhagic stroke was very good, Kappa = 0.861 as well as for location was 0.866. CONCLUSION: CT imaging is an imaging instrument for early identification of hemorrhagic stroke patients and providing imaging evidence of high mortality risk.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
20.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 91(8): 1296-301, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18788706

RESUMO

Neurological involvement in Henoch-SchOnlein purpura (HSP) such as stroke is uncommon manifestiation, particularly in association with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The authors reported a 17-year-old man who developed sudden onset of right hemiparesis while he was admitted in the hospital about his prolonged fever, palpable purpura and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He also had evidence of MRSA septicemia before the onset of right hemiparesis. Skin biopsy was done and showed that there was leukocytoclastic vasculitis with IgA deposition. He had received completed course of antibiotics and then he was subsequently improved after steroid therapy in the next 2 weeks. Review of case reports from previous English literatures, discovered the association between MRSA infection and HSP which can cause several CNS manifestations including stroke symptoms from cerebral vasculitis.


Assuntos
Resistência a Meticilina , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Vasculite Leucocitoclástica Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/microbiologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Vasculite Leucocitoclástica Cutânea/complicações , Vasculite Leucocitoclástica Cutânea/microbiologia
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