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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 56: 103251, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccine among patients receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Ab) treatment has not been fully investigated. Detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) are believed to have a predictive value for immune protection against COVID-19 and is currently a surrogate indicator for vaccine efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To determine IgG Abs in anti-CD20 treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: IgG Abs against SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain were measured with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott Laboratories) before and after vaccination (n = 60). RESULTS: 36.7% of patients mounted a positive SARS-CoV-2 spike Ab response after the second dose of vaccine. Five patients (8.3%) developed Abs >264 BAU/mL, another 12 patients (20%) developed intermediate Abs between 54 BAU/mL and 264 BAU/mL and five patients (8.3%) had low levels <54 BAU/mL. Of all seropositive patients, 63.6% converted from seronegative to seropositive after the 2nd vaccine. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates decreased humoral response after BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in MS patients receiving B-cell depleting therapy. Clinicians should advise patients treated with anti-CD20 to avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Future studies should investigate the implications of a third booster vaccine in patients with low or absent Abs after vaccination.

2.
J Neurol ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the national Danish N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDARE) cohort. METHODS: All NMDAR immunoglobulin G (IgG) positive cases in Denmark from 2009 to 2019 were included. Medical information was assessed retrospectively for clinical phenotype, workup, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were NMDAR IgG positive in serum/CSF. Fifty-five fulfilled the criteria of NMDARE, 18 did not and 4 had missing data. Incidence was 0.17/100,000 persons per year in 2018, and incidence rates increased since 2009. Of the 55 NMDARE patients (median age 27; 60% female), 9 had post-herpes simplex (HSE) NMDARE and 7 had a tumor (four teratomas). MRI was normal in 51% of patients. Brain FDG PET was performed in 17 patients, and was abnormal in 47% of patients with a normal MRI. First-line therapy was administered to 91%, and 24% required second-line therapy. Maintenance therapy during recovery was given 84% of patients, with no effect on relapse-risk. ICU admission occurred in 29%. Poor outcome (mRS > 2) was reported in 27% and dependent on age and etiology. Patients > 45 years had a poorer outcome (71% vs 8%, p < 0.0001), more frequently post-HSE NMDARE (47% vs 3%, p < 0.0001) and underlying malignancies (18% vs 0%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of NMDARE in Denmark is currently 0.17/100,000 persons per year, and has increased since 2009. NMDARE patients in Denmark display a higher median age, lower female:male ratio, a less frequent tumor association and need for ICU admission. Maintenance therapy did not reduce relapse rate. Poor outcome was seen with higher age, likely related to underlying etiology.

4.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(9): 1056-1077, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261379

RESUMO

Aim: This Danish national guideline describes the treatment of adult patients with Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile (CD) infection and the use of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). It suggests minimum standard for implementing an FMT service.Method: Four scientific societies appointed members for a working group which conducted a systematic literature review and agreed on the text and recommendations. All clinical recommendations were evalluated for evidence level and grade of recommendation.Results: In CD infection, the use of marketed and experimental antibiotics as well as microbiota-based therapies including FMT are described. An algorithm for evaluating treatment effect is suggested. The organisation of FMT, donor recruitment and screening, laboratory preparation, clinical application and follow-up are described.Conclusion: Updated evidence for the treatment of CD infection and the use of FMT is provided.

5.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is currently not well described if a two-dose regimen of a Covid-19 vaccine is sufficient to elicit an immune response in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. RESULTS: A total of 80 SOT recipients completed a two-dose regimen with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA vaccine. Only 35.0% (n = 28) were able to mount a positive IgG immune response 6 weeks after the second dose of vaccine. CONCLUSION: This emphasizes that SOT recipients need continued use of personal protective measures. Future studies need to closely examine the cellular immune response in patients with compromised antibody response to Covid-19 vaccination.

6.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(25)2021 06 21.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169823

RESUMO

Autoimmune encephalitis is an important, treatable subtype of acute encephalitis where autoantibodies target intra- or extracellular neural antigens. Despite research advances, diagnosis is often delayed or incorrect, which affects outcome negatively. We summarise clinical features of the most common autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis subtypes and focus on classification, current diagnostic challenges using commercially available diagnostic assays, in an attempt to increase awareness.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Doença de Hashimoto , Autoanticorpos , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 249-253, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has tremendous consequences for our societies. Knowledge of the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to accurately monitor the spread of the epidemic and to calculate the infection fatality rate (IFR). These measures may help the authorities make informed decisions and adjust the current societal interventions. The objective was to perform nationwide real-time seroprevalence surveying among blood donors as a tool to estimate previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and the population-based IFR. METHODS: Danish blood donors aged 17-69 years giving blood 6 April to 3 May were tested for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G antibodies using a commercial lateral flow test. Antibody status was compared between geographical areas, and an estimate of the IFR was calculated. Seroprevalence was adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity taking the uncertainties of the test validation into account when reporting the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The first 20 640 blood donors were tested, and a combined adjusted seroprevalence of 1.9% (95% CI, .8-2.3) was calculated. The seroprevalence differed across areas. Using available data on fatalities and population numbers, a combined IFR in patients <70 years is estimated at 89 per 100 000 (95% CI, 72-211) infections. CONCLUSIONS: The IFR was estimated to be slightly lower than previously reported from other countries not using seroprevalence data. The IFR is likely severalfold lower than the current estimate. We have initiated real-time nationwide anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveying of blood donations as a tool in monitoring the epidemic.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 381-388, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate six commercial serological assays for detection of IgA, IgM or IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different disease severities. METHODS: Three lateral flow tests (LFTs) (Acro IgM/IgG, CTK IgM/IgG, Livzon IgM/IgG) and three ELISA assays (Euroimmun IgA and IgG, Wantai IgM) were included. Application was evaluated using samples from 57 patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, stratified according to disease severity. Specificity was assessed using historical samples from 200 blood donors. RESULTS: While IgM LFTs failed to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 37-84% of non-hospitalised patients, the Wantai IgM ELISA detected antibodies in 79%. The Euroimmun IgG ELISA detected antibodies in 95% of non-hospitalised patients. IgA, IgM and IgG ELISA levels were initially low, increased over time, and correlated with disease severity. LFT sensitivity declined in samples taken >28 days after symptom onset/resolution. The Livzon IgG LFT had the highest specificity (98.5%), followed by the Euroimmun IgG ELISA (96.2%). The specificity for Euroimmun IgA ELISA improved (≥97.5%) using a custom cut-off value (4.0). CONCLUSIONS: The sensitive and semi-quantitative ELISA assays are most appropriate for serologic detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in mild cases. Livzon LFT and Euroimmun ELISA had the highest specificity among the IgG assays, making them most suitable for seroprevalence studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Adulto , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 182(47)2020 11 16.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215583

RESUMO

In the era of the coronavirus disease pandemic, a new disease entity named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children has emerged. This is a case report of a seven-year-old boy with hyperinflammation and cardiac involvement, compatible with this disease entity. Antibody tests and symptoms indicated previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The patient was treated according to international guidelines with full symptom resolution. Awareness of this inflammatory syndrome should prompt immediate treatment and could possibly avoid fatal outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has tremendous consequences for our societies. Knowledge of the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to accurately monitor the spread of the epidemic and to calculate the infection fatality rate (IFR). These measures may help the authorities to make informed decisions and adjust the current societal interventions. The objective was to perform nationwide real-time seroprevalence surveying among blood donors as a tool to estimate previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and the population based IFR. METHODS: Danish blood donors aged 17-69 years giving blood April 6 to May 3 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G antibodies using a commercial lateral flow test. Antibody status was compared between geographical areas and an estimate of the IFR was calculated. The seroprevalence was adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity taking the uncertainties of the test validation into account when reporting the 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The first 20,640 blood donors were tested and a combined adjusted seroprevalence of 1.9% (CI: 0.8-2.3) was calculated. The seroprevalence differed across areas. Using available data on fatalities and population numbers a combined IFR in patients younger than 70 is estimated at 89 per 100,000 (CI: 72-211) infections. CONCLUSIONS: The IFR was estimated to be slightly lower than previously reported from other countries not using seroprevalence data. The IFR is likely several fold lower than the current estimate. We have initiated real-time nationwide anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveying of blood donations as a tool in monitoring the epidemic.

12.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1135-1141, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468608

RESUMO

Worldwide, there is a rising demand for thoroughly screened, high-quality fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) products that can be obtained at a reasonable cost. In the light of this evolving therapeutic area of the intestinal microbiota, both private and public stool banks have emerged. However, some of the larger difficulties when establishing stool banks are caused by the absence of or international disagreement on regulation and legislative formalities. In this context, the establishment of a stool bank within a nonprofit blood and tissue transplant service has several advantages. Especially, this setting can ensure that every step of the donation process, laboratory handling, and donor-traceability is in agreement with the current expert guidelines and meets the requirements of the European Union's regulative directives on human cells and tissues. Although safety and documentation are the top priority of the stool bank setup presented here, cost-effectiveness of the production is possible due to a high donor screening success rate and the knowhow, infrastructure, facilities, personnel, and laboratory- and quality-management systems that were already in place. Overall, our experience is that a centralized, nonprofit, blood and tissue transplant service is an ideal and safe facility to run a stool bank of high quality FMT products that are based on stool donations from volunteer, unpaid, healthy, blood donors.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes , Humanos
13.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(8): 1461-1470, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172371

RESUMO

The role of CXCL13 as a marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is under investigation, and CXCL13 is not part of routine diagnostics in suspicion of LNB. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off value of CXCL13 for LNB in a Danish population and to investigate the role of CXCL13 both in early LNB and as a discriminatory marker between LNB and other neuroinflammatory disorders. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including all patients with a cerebrospinal CXCL13 test performed at the Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2018. We included 619 patients, of which 51 had definite LNB, 14 patients had possible LNB with neurological symptoms suggestive of LNB and pleocytosis but no intrathecal Borrelia antibodies, eight patients had prior LNB and 546 had no LNB. With an optimal CXCL13 cut-off of 49 ng/L we found a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 94% (AUC 0.988, 95% CI 0.980-0.996) when patients treated with antibiotics prior to lumbar puncture were excluded (n = 130). All patients with possible LNB had a CXCL13 value above the cut-off value; 18/546 patients (3.3%) without LNB had a CXCL13 value ≥ 50 ng/L. While CXCL13 cannot be used as a stand-alone test, it can be used as a reliable additional marker in treatment-naive patients suspected of LNB. CXCL13 can be used to monitor treatment response in LNB patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL13/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate inflammatory cytokines in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) evaluating the putative contribution of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing gene variants. METHODS: This study is a retrospective case series with prospective follow-up (1994-2016) of 248 patients with MND, of whom 164 had ALS who were screened for mutations in the genes for SOD1 and C9orf72. Paired CSF and plasma were collected at the diagnostic evaluation before treatment. A panel of cytokines were measured blindly via digital ELISA on the Simoa platform. RESULTS: Time from disease onset to death was longer for patients with ALS-causing SOD1 mutations (mSOD1, n = 24) than those with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion (C9orf72HRE) ALS (n = 19; q = 0.001) and other ALS (OALS) (n = 119; q = 0.0008). Patients with OALS had higher CSF tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) compared with those with C9orf72HRE ALS (q = 0.014). Patients with C9orf72HRE ALS had higher CSF interferon alpha compared with those with OALS and mSOD1 ALS (q = 0.042 and q = 0.042). In patients with ALS, the survival was negatively correlated with plasma interleukin (IL) 10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30). Plasma TNF-α, IL-10, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) (HR 1.01 [1.00-1.02], 1.15 [1.02-1.30], and 1.01 [1.00-1.01], respectively) of patients with OALS, plasma IL-1ß (HR 5.90 [1.27-27.5]) of patients with C9orf72HRE ALS, and CSF TRAIL (10.5 [1.12-98.6]) of patients with mSOD1 ALS all correlated negatively with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in survival times in ALS subtypes were correlated with cytokine levels, suggesting specific immune responses related to ALS genetic variants.

15.
Dan Med J ; 67(2)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this retrospective, register-based population study, we evaluated if anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is a better choice than immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) in primary care when rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suspected, as it determines predictive values in real-life settings. Furthermore, the study described ordering patterns to investigate the benefit of repeated testing. METHODS: Test result, requisitioning unit, test date and the patient's social security number were collected from the Department of Clinical Immunology at Odense University Hospital in 2007-2016 and merged with patient diagnoses from the Danish National Patient Registry. RESULTS: Overall, 5% were diagnosed with RA. IgM RF remained the preferred test during the entire period. Test sensitivity was 61% for IgM RF and 54% for ACPA. The test specificity was 88% for IgM RF and 96% for ACPA. Positive predictive value (PPV) was higher for ACPA than for IgM RF (30% versus 12%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was equal (99%) in primary care. Few individuals seroconverted from negative to positive (ACPA 2% and IgM RF 5%) and positive to negative (ACPA 3% and IgM RF 6%). CONCLUSIONS: ACPA has a higher PPV for RA than IgM RF, whereas their NPV is identical. ACPA is the better choice when testing for RA in primary care. Seroconversion is rare, and it is only rarely relevant to retest. FUNDING: The Department of Clinical immunology at Odense University Hospital funded the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Dinamarca , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos/tendências
17.
Front Neurol ; 10: 666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293505

RESUMO

Rheumatoid meningitis is a rare extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis, often with non-specific symptoms. In most cases brain MRI shows a patchy lepto- and pachymeningeal enhancement, but the diagnosis currently relies on examination of a meningeal biopsy with presence of plasma cells and rheumatoid noduli. Presence of IgM rheumatic factor (RF) has been found in several cases and recently four cases have shown high titer anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) in CSF, suggesting this as a potential marker for rheumatoid meningitis. We present a 62 year-old woman with sero-positive (IgM RF and anti-CCP) rheumatoid arthritis, presenting with headache and gait impairment. Brain MRI revealed the classical patchy meningeal enhancement and the diagnosis of rheumatoid meningitis was confirmed by neuropathological examination of a meningeal biopsy. Analysis of the CSF revealed positive IgM RF (92.7 IU/mL) and strongly positive anti-CCP (19,600 IU/mL) and CXCL-13 (>500 ng/L). After treatment with high-dose steroid and Rituximab the clinical symptoms resolved. A 6 month follow-up analysis of CSF showed a dramatic decrease in all these markers with negative IgM RF and a decrease in both anti-CCP (64 IU/mL) and CXCL-13 (<10 ng/L). Our case further underlines the potential use of CSF anti-CCP and IgM RF in the diagnosis of RM and the use of these markers and CXCL-13 in evaluation of treatment response. A case review of 48 cases of rheumatoid meningitis published since 2010, including, symptoms, serum, and CSF findings, treatment, and outcome is provided.

18.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 4(2): 241-245, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024994

RESUMO

Objective: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) may be caused by a primary malignancy and associated immune cross-reactivity. We aimed to illuminate underlying causes of VCP and to assess if onconeural antibodies occur in association to VCP as an early predictor of cancer. Methods: A prospective study was performed in patients with newly diagnosed VCP from 2014 to 2016. All patients underwent fiberoptic laryngoscopy, ultrasound of the neck and computed tomography (CT) of the neck and thorax. Patients with idiopathic VCP underwent neurological examination, positron emission tomography/CT, and serum analysis for onconeural antibodies. All patients were offered a one-year clinical follow-up. Results: In total 53 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Left VCP occurred in 37 (70%), right in 15 (28%), and bilateral in one patient (2%). The cause of VCP was cancer in 27 (51%) patients, of those 15 (56%) had VCP as the primary symptom, including all cases with laryngeal and esophageal cancer. Median time interval between VCP and cancer was 7 days (range 1-30). In 12 (23%) VCP was a secondary symptom. Lung cancer was the most common etiology, 14 of 27 (52%), 12 patients (86%) with non-small cell lung cancer. Idiopathic VCP was diagnosed in 18 (34%) patients, of those nine patients had a neurological examination and were screened for well-known onconeural antibodies, which were not detected. Reactions against Purkinje cell nuclei were seen in three patients, none showed symptoms or signs of cancer at follow-up. Conclusions: The causes of VCP were described. VCP was frequently the primary symptom, and also occurred as a secondary symptom of cancer. Exclusion of malignancy is important in patients with VCP. Level of Evidence: 1b.

20.
Dan Med Bull ; 58(4): A4257, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21466765

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with autoimmune traits of unknown aetiology which primarily affects synovial joints. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are still widely used in RA treatment despite the expanding use of targeted and very efficient agents. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of treatment with tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi) on GC utilization in real-life practice among Danish RA patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The DANBIO registry is a nationwide rheumatologic database which collects demographic and clinical data. This retrospective study included RA outpatients from a tertiary rheumatologic department recruited from the DANBIO registry who initiated their first TNFi treatment between January 2000 and February 2010 (n = 171). GC dosing during the year before and the year after TNFi initiation were compared. Patients acted as their own control. RESULTS: The median daily prednisolone dose was significantly decreased after initiation of TNFi treatment (p < 0.01). At TNFi initiation, 78 patients (46%) received prednisolone compared with 53 (31%) by the end of follow-up. After TNFi initiation, 30 patients (38%) discontinued prednisolone and in 34 (44%) prednisolone dose was reduced. Similarly, the number of GC injections decreased significantly at 13, 26 and 52 weeks following TNFi initiation (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: GC utilization is significantly reduced after initiation of TNFi treatment. Among patients on prednisolone at TNFi onset, prednisolone was withdrawn in one third and the dose was reduced in nearly half. Furthermore, the need for GC injections decreased.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Medição da Dor , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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