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1.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 70, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier breeding is one of the strongest responses to global change in birds and is a key factor determining reproductive success. In most studies of climate effects, the focus has been on large-scale environmental indices or temperature averaged over large geographical areas, neglecting that animals are affected by the local conditions in their home ranges. In riverine ecosystems, climate change is altering the flow regime, in addition to changes resulting from the increasing demand for renewable and clean hydropower. Together with increasing temperatures, this can lead to shifts in the time window available for successful breeding of birds associated with the riverine habitat. Here, we investigated specifically how the environmental conditions at the territory level influence timing of breeding in a passerine bird with an aquatic lifestyle, the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus. We relate daily river discharge and other important hydrological parameters, to a long-term dataset of breeding phenology (1978-2015) in a natural river system. RESULTS: Dippers bred earlier when winter river discharge and groundwater levels in the weeks prior to breeding were high, and when there was little snow in the catchment area. Breeding was also earlier at lower altitudes, although the effect dramatically declined over the period. This suggests that territories at higher altitudes had more open water in winter later in the study period, which permitted early breeding also here. Unexpectedly, the largest effect inducing earlier breeding time was territory river discharge during the winter months and not immediately prior to breeding. The territory river discharge also increased during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The observed earlier breeding can thus be interpreted as a response to climate change. Measuring environmental variation at the scale of the territory thus provides detailed information about the interactions between organisms and the abiotic environment.


Assuntos
Hidrologia , Passeriformes , Animais , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
2.
Evolution ; 72(11): 2325-2342, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259522

RESUMO

In changing environments, phenotypic traits are shaped by numerous agents of selection. The optimal phenotypic value maximizing the fitness of an individual thus varies through time and space with various environmental covariates. Selection may differ between different life-cycle stages and act on correlated traits inducing changes in the distribution of several traits simultaneously. Despite increasing interests in environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection, estimating varying selective optima on various traits throughout the life cycle, while considering (a)biotic factors as potential selective agents has remained challenging. Here, we provide a statistical model to measure varying selective optima from longitudinal data. We apply our approach to analyze environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection on egg-laying date and clutch size throughout the life cycle of a white-throated dipper population. We show the presence of a joint optimal phenotype that varies over the 35-year period, being dependent on altitude and temperature. We also find that optimal laying date is density-dependent, with high population density favoring earlier laying dates. By providing a flexible approach, widely applicable to free-ranging populations for which long-term data on individual phenotypes, fitness, and environmental factors are available, our study improves the understanding of phenotypic selection in varying environments.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Ninhada , Oviposição/fisiologia , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Fatores Etários , Altitude , Animais , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Estatísticos , Noruega , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura
3.
Ecol Evol ; 8(8): 4065-4073, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721280

RESUMO

Interactions between birds and fish are often overlooked in aquatic ecosystems. We studied the influence of Atlantic salmon and brown trout on the breeding population size and reproductive output of the white-throated dipper in a Norwegian river. Acidic precipitation led to the extinction of salmon, but salmon recolonized after liming was initiated in 1991. We compared the dipper population size and reproductive output before (1978-1992) and after (1993-2014) salmon recolonization. Despite a rapid and substantial increase in juvenile salmon, the breeding dipper population size and reproductive output were not influenced by juvenile salmon, trout, or total salmonid density. This might be due to different feeding strategies in salmonids and dippers, where salmonids are mainly feeding on drift, while the dipper is a benthic feeder. The correlation between the size of the dipper population upstream and downstream of a salmonid migratory barrier was similar before and after recolonization, indicating that the downstream territories were not less attractive after the recolonization of salmon. Upstream dipper breeding success rates declined before the recolonization event and increased after, indicating improved water quality due to liming, and increasing invertebrate prey abundances and biodiversity. Surprisingly, upstream the migratory barrier, juvenile trout had a weak positive effect on the dipper population size, indicating that dippers may prey upon small trout. It is possible that wider downstream reaches might have higher abundances of alternative food, rending juvenile trout unimportant as prey. Abiotic factors such as winter temperatures and acidic precipitation with subsequent liming, potentially mediated by prey abundance, seem to play the most important role in the life history of the dipper.

4.
Sci Adv ; 3(2): e1602298, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164157

RESUMO

Climate change will affect the population dynamics of many species, yet the consequences for the long-term persistence of populations are poorly understood. A major reason for this is that density-dependent feedback effects caused by fluctuations in population size are considered independent of stochastic variation in the environment. We show that an interplay between winter temperature and population density can influence the persistence of a small passerine population under global warming. Although warmer winters favor an increased mean population size, density-dependent feedback can cause the local population to be less buffered against occasional poor environmental conditions (cold winters). This shows that it is essential to go beyond the population size and explore climate effects on the full dynamics to elaborate targeted management actions.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163213, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732602

RESUMO

In facultative partial migrants some individuals in a population are migratory and others are resident and individuals decide each year anew which strategy to choose. While the proportion of birds migrating is in part determined by environmental conditions and competitive abilities, the timing of individual departure and behaviours on route are little understood. Individuals encounter different environmental conditions when migrating earlier or later. Based on cost/ benefit considerations we tested whether behaviours on route were affected by time constraints, personality and/or age in a partially migrating population of Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We captured female Blue tits on migration at the Southern tip of Sweden during early, peak and late migration and measured latency to feed in an unfamiliar environment, exploration of a novel object and hesitation to feed beside a novel object (neophobia). Lean birds and birds with long wings started feeding earlier when released into the cage indicating that foraging decisions were mainly determined by energetic needs (lean and large birds). However, juveniles commenced feeding later with progression of the migratory season in concordance with predictions about personality effects. Furthermore, lean birds started to explore earlier than birds with larger fat reserves again indicating an effect of maintaining threshold energy reserves. Moreover, late migrating juveniles, started to explore earlier than early migrating juveniles possibly due to time constraints to find high-quality foraging patches or a suitable winter home. Finally, neophobia did not change over the migratory season indicating that this behaviour is not compromised by time constraints. The results overall indicate that decisions on route are mainly governed by energetic requirements and current needs to learn about the environment and only to a small extent by differences in personality.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Passeriformes/anatomia & histologia , Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Asas de Animais/fisiologia
6.
Int J Biometeorol ; 55(6): 797-804, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21710281

RESUMO

To study the ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on timing of annual events, scientists need access to data that have been collected over long time periods. High-quality long-term phenology data are rare and costly to obtain and there is therefore a need to extract this information from other available data sets. Many long-term studies on breeding birds include detailed information on individually marked parents and offspring, but do not include information on timing of breeding. Here, we demonstrate how a study of repeated standard measurements of white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus nestlings in our study system in southernmost Norway can be used for modeling nestling growth, and how this statistical model can be used to estimate timing of breeding for birds with sparser data. We also evaluate how the accuracies of nestling growth models based on different morphological traits (mass and feather length) differ depending on the nestling age, present user guidelines and demonstrate how they can be applied to an independent data set. In conclusion, the approach presented is likely to be useful for a wide variety of species, even if the preferred measurement may differ between species.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Noruega , Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 86(4): 928-46, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21489123

RESUMO

Recent shifts in phenology in response to climate change are well established but often poorly understood. Many animals integrate climate change across a spatially and temporally dispersed annual life cycle, and effects are modulated by ecological interactions, evolutionary change and endogenous control mechanisms. Here we assess and discuss key statements emerging from the rapidly developing study of changing spring phenology in migratory birds. These well-studied organisms have been instrumental for understanding climate-change effects, but research is developing rapidly and there is a need to attack the big issues rather than risking affirmative science. Although we agree poorly on the support for most claims, agreement regarding the knowledge basis enables consensus regarding broad patterns and likely causes. Empirical data needed for disentangling mechanisms are still scarce, and consequences at a population level and on community composition remain unclear. With increasing knowledge, the overall support ('consensus view') for a claim increased and between-researcher variability in support ('expert opinions') decreased, indicating the importance of assessing and communicating the knowledge basis. A proper integration across biological disciplines seems essential for the field's transition from affirming patterns to understanding mechanisms and making robust predictions regarding future consequences of shifting phenologies.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Aves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Estações do Ano
8.
J Anim Ecol ; 80(1): 235-43, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20880020

RESUMO

1. Climate change may have profound consequences for many organisms. We have studied fluctuations in a population of the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus during 31 years (1978-2008) in a river system in southern Norway in relation to both large-scale and local weather conditions occurring during the non-breeding season. 2. Multiple regression and partial least squares regression were used to model the growth rate of the population, accounting for population size in the previous year. 3. Population growth was influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), mean winter temperature, precipitation and timing of ice formation on the main lake in the river system in autumn. These variables explained 84% of the variation in population growth over the 31-year study period. 4. Local winter conditions played a prominent role in explaining the population fluctuations, which is plausible because the dipper depends on open water for foraging. In the study area, winters can be harsh and rivers and lakes may freeze and severely affect the subsequent population size of the dipper in spring. 5. The breeding population of the dipper does not seem yet to have reached a level where all possible territories in the area have been occupied, even after mild winters, and the estimated carrying capacity is also decidedly lower (66 breeding pairs) than the number of available territories. If the trend of milder winters continues, the population might increase in the future. However, strong climate variation is expected to continue in the future, and hence periods of rapid growth of the dipper population will probably be followed by severe declines.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Gelo , Dinâmica Populacional , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Naturwissenschaften ; 97(11): 981-5, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20842492

RESUMO

Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Migração Animal , Comportamento Animal , Aves/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Exploratório , Personalidade , Suécia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
10.
Biol Lett ; 5(4): 480-3, 2009 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19429650

RESUMO

The hormone corticosterone (CORT) is an important component of a bird's response to environmental stress, but it can also have negative effects. Therefore, birds on migration are hypothesized to have repressed stress responses (migration-modulation hypothesis). In contrast to earlier studies on long-distance migrants, we evaluate this hypothesis in a population containing both migratory and resident individuals. We use a population of partially migratory blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in southern Sweden as a model species. Migrants had higher CORT levels at the time of capture than residents, indicating migratory preparations, adaptation to stressors, higher allostatic load or possibly low social status. Migrants and residents had the same stress response, thus contradicting the migration-modulation hypothesis. We suggest that migrants travelling short distances are more benefited than harmed by retaining the ability to respond to stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Migração Animal , Hormônios/metabolismo , Corticosteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Fezes , Feminino , Hidrólise , Passeriformes , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Suécia
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