Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 719
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319893050, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795762
2.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313032, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CD4+CD28null T cells have been shown to be associated with recurrent coronary events and suggested as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. It is unknown whether CD4+CD28null T cells associate with first-time cardiovascular events. We examined CD4+CD28null T cells in a prospective population-based cohort and in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Approach and Results: CD4+CD28null T cells were quantified in 272 individuals experiencing a first-time coronary event during up to 17 years of follow-up and 272 age- and sex-matched controls in a case-control study, nested within the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. The highest tertile of CD4+CD28null T cells was associated with a lower incidence of first-time coronary events compared with the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.29-0.79] P=0.004) when adjusting for Framingham risk factors. This association remained significant for events recorded after >9 years of follow-up, when most coronary events occurred, but not during the first 9 years of follow-up, despite similar odds ratio. Additionally, we analyzed CD4+CD28null T cells in 201 patients with advanced atherosclerosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy. The adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis was 2.11 (95% CI, 1.10-4.05, P=0.024), comparing the highest with the lowest CD4+CD28null T-cell tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal complex associations between CD4+CD28null T cells and cardiovascular disease. Although we confirm the reported positive associations with an adverse prognosis in patients with already established disease, the opposite associations with first-time coronary events in the population-based cohort may limit the clinical use of CD4+CD28null T cells.

3.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) remains controversial, since the underlying mechanisms behind this phenotype remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of MHO, as well as prospective risks. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out in a subsample of 3812 obese subjects selected from the Malmo diet cancer study (n=28,403). Subjects with MHO (n=1182) were defined by having no records of hospitalization for somatic disorders prior to baseline examination. MHO subjects were further compared to subjects with metabolically unhealthy obesity, MUO (obese individuals with at least one recorded hospitalization: n=2630), and all non-obese cohort controls (NOC; n=24,591). Moreover, prospective risk analyses for incident cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality were carried out. RESULTS: Compared to MUO individuals, MHO individuals reported a significantly lower proportion of sedentary life style (p=0.009), but also significantly lower HbA1c (p=0.012), fasting glucose (p=0.001) and triglyceride levels (p=0.011) than MUO. Cox-regression analysis (follow-up 20±6 years) showed both a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk for MHO individuals as compared to MUO (p=0.001), as well as lower incident CV morbidity risk (p=0.001). When comparing MHO individuals to NOC, there were no significant differences in neither mortality risk nor incident CV morbidity risk. CONCLUSION: Compared to MUO individuals, MHO individuals presented with a higher level of physical activity, a more favorable lipid- and glucose profile and a lower prospective risk of total mortality and CV morbidity during 20-years follow-up. Notably, no significant differences could be seen in mortality and CV morbidity risks when comparing MHO subjects to non-obese controls.

4.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713011

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort. METHODS: GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. RESULTS: GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that incident diabetes in adults has an element of autoimmune aetiology. Thus, there might be a reason to re-evaluate the present subclassification of diabetes in adulthood.

5.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764586

RESUMO

: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased over the past few decades. T2D has a strong genetic propensity that becomes overt when a patient is exposed to a typical Western lifestyle, gain weight and becomes obese, whereas weight loss protects from the development of T2D. Except of lifestyle modifications, the choice of the appropriate treatment is essential in the management of patients with T2D and appears critical for the obese population with T2D. The new pharmacological approach for the treatment of T2D, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, seems to be effective not only in the management of T2D but also for weight loss, reduction of blood pressure and improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues reduced cardiovascular risk, prevented cardiovascular disease and mortality, thereby playing an important role in the treatment of obese patients with hypertension and T2D.

6.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central haemodynamics have in recent years emerged as a promising predictor of cardiovascular health and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central haemodynamics are affected early in the development of vascular aging and contributes to target organ damage. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV), augmentation index (Aix) and central SBP (cSBP) are variables that reflect arterial stiffness and central haemodynamics. AIM: To study the association between patterns of central haemodynamics across three related generations focusing on c-f PWV. METHODS: In all, 1131 participants from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study (MDCS) and Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) were included. c-f PWV was measured (Sphygmocor) in grandparents and in all offsprings. Correlation analyses of c-f PWV between offspring and c-f PWV in parents and grandparents were conducted. Parents and grandparents were stratified into quartiles by c-f PWV. Offspring c-f PWV means were compared with one-way ANOVA analyses. Multiple regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, SBP and fasting glucose. Bonferroni corrections were used. RESULTS: c-f PWV in offsprings was positively correlated with c-f PWV in parents (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) and in grandparents (r = 0.29, P < 0.001). Parents with high c-f PWV had offspring with significantly higher means of c-f PWV. CONCLUSION: A measure of aortic stiffness (c-f PWV) is positively correlated across three related generations in this population-based study.

7.
Sci Signal ; 12(609)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772123

RESUMO

The proteins secreted by human cells (collectively referred to as the secretome) are important not only for the basic understanding of human biology but also for the identification of potential targets for future diagnostics and therapies. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of proteins predicted to be secreted in human cells, which provides information about their final localization in the human body, including the proteins actively secreted to peripheral blood. The analysis suggests that a large number of the proteins of the secretome are not secreted out of the cell, but instead are retained intracellularly, whereas another large group of proteins were identified that are predicted to be retained locally at the tissue of expression and not secreted into the blood. Proteins detected in the human blood by mass spectrometry-based proteomics and antibody-based immunoassays are also presented with estimates of their concentrations in the blood. The results are presented in an updated version 19 of the Human Protein Atlas in which each gene encoding a secretome protein is annotated to provide an open-access knowledge resource of the human secretome, including body-wide expression data, spatial localization data down to the single-cell and subcellular levels, and data about the presence of proteins that are detectable in the blood.

8.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(2_suppl): 33-46, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766917

RESUMO

A cluster of metabolic factors have been merged into an entity named the metabolic syndrome. Although the characteristics of this syndrome have varied over time the presently used definition was established in 2009. The presence of three abnormal findings out of five components qualifies a person for the metabolic syndrome: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting plasma glucose. Cut points have been defined for all components apart from waist circumference, for which national or regional values are used. The metabolic syndrome predicts cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This associated risk does not exceed its components whereof elevated blood pressure is the most frequent. A successful management should, however, address all factors involved. The management is always based on healthy lifestyle choices but has not infrequently to be supported by pharmacological treatment, especially blood pressure lowering drugs. The metabolic syndrome is a useful example of the importance of multiple targets for preventive interventions. To be successful management has to be individualized not the least when it comes to pharmacological therapy. Frail elderly people should not be over-treated. Knowledge transfer of how risk factors act should be accompanied by continuous trust building and motivation. In complex situations with a mix of biological risk factors, adverse social conditions and unhealthy lifestyle, everything cannot be changed at once. It is better to aim for small steps that are lasting than large, unsustainable steps with relapses to unhealthy behaviours. A person with the metabolic syndrome will always be afflicted by its components, which is the reason that management has to be sustained over a very long time. This review summarizes the knowledge on the metabolic syndrome and its management according to present state of the art.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648270

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194084.].

10.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate possible associations between birth weight and adult life carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation pressure index (AIx). DESIGN AND METHOD: This study included 1598 participants, that is, 340 elderly individuals from the Malmö Birth Data Cohort (MBDC) and 1258 young-middle aged individuals from the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) with full data on birth weight and gestational age. Participants underwent cfPWV and AIx measurements with Sphygmocor (AtCor, Australia). Analysis of data was performed with multiple linear regression models including adjustments for age, sex, gestational age and risk factors. Furthermore, comparisons were made between participants born prematurely or at term or born small-for-gestational age (SGA) or appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA). RESULTS: Birth weight was positively associated with cfPWV after full adjustment (ß = 0.057; P < 0.001), a finding that remained significant in the younger age group 18-27 years (ß = 0.138, P = 0.008). Furthermore, birth weight was inversely associated with AIx (ß = -0.058, P = 0.001). Participants born SGA had significantly higher AIx (P = 0.007) and MAP (P = 0.037) compared with AGA born. Preterm-born participants showed significantly higher SBP compared with term-born (P = 0.034). Finally, birth weight was inversely associated with MAP (ß = -0.058, P = 0.017) and SBP (ß = -0.047, P = 0.031), respectively. CONCLUSION: Birth weight is positively associated with cfPWV, shown strongest in the youngest individuals, a finding that could possibly be explained by increasing trends for maternal overweight/obesity in recent decades. Furthermore, birth weight is inversely associated with AIx, a risk marker of cardiovascular disease. This calls for screening of risk factors in subjects with adverse conditions at birth.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912831, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596491

RESUMO

Importance: Aortic stiffness, as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, is an independent predictor of future events in individuals with hypertension. Recent data suggest a predictive role of estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV) calculated by previously published equations using age and blood pressure in future events in individuals with hypertension. Objective: To investigate whether ePWV and its response to treatment predict survival in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Design, Setting, and Participants: This exploratory, hypothesis-generating, post hoc secondary analysis conducted from October 1, 2018, to August 31, 2019, examined data from 9361 participants in SPRINT and calculated ePWV at baseline and at 12 months. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs of ePWV per 1 SD were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 8450 patients were assigned to 4 groups according to their treatment allocation and their response in ePWV after 12 months. Interventions: Participants were assigned a systolic blood pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary composite cardiovascular outcome was myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. Results: In the SPRINT population (3332 women and 6029 men; mean [SD] age, 67.9 [9.4] years), ePWV predicted the primary outcome (HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.17-1.43]; P < .001) and all-cause death (HR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.46-1.86]; P < .001) independent of the Framingham Risk Score. Estimated pulse wave velocity improved the C statistic model for the primary outcome from 0.676 (95% CI, 0.65-0.70) to 0.683 (95% CI, 0.66-0.71; P = .049) and improved the C statistic model for all-cause death from 0.67 (95% CI, 0.64-0.69) to 0.69 (95% CI, 0.66-0.72; P = .03). Net reclassification index indicated improvement in risk discrimination for survival compared with the Framingham Risk Score (categorical net reclassification index = 0.111; P < .001). Regarding response to treatment, intensive treatment was superior to standard treatment only when it was accompanied with a response in ePWV at the first year, while, within the standard treatment group, individuals whose ePWV responded to antihypertensive treatment had improved all-cause mortality, with a 42% lower risk of death compared with nonresponders (HR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.36-0.94]; P = .03); effects were independent of changes in systolic blood pressure. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that, in the SPRINT trial, ePWV predicted outcomes independent of the Framingham Risk Score, indicating an incremental role of markers of aortic stiffness on cardiovascular risk. Better survival of individuals whose ePWV responded to antihypertensive treatment independently of systolic blood pressure reduction suggests a role of markers of aortic stiffness as effective treatment targets in individuals with hypertension.

12.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599600

RESUMO

A steady increase in the incidence of osteoarthritis and other rheumatic diseases has been observed in recent decades, including autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Rheumatic and autoimmune diseases (RADs) are characterized by the inflammation of joints, muscles, or other connective tissues. In addition to often experiencing debilitating mobility and pain, RAD patients are also at a higher risk of suffering comorbidities such as cardiovascular or infectious events. Given the socioeconomic impact of RADs, broad research efforts have been dedicated to these diseases worldwide. In the present work, we applied literature mining platforms to identify "popular" proteins closely related to RADs. The platform is based on publicly available literature. The results not only will enable the systematic prioritization of candidates to perform targeted proteomics studies but also may lead to a greater insight into the key pathogenic processes of these disorders.

13.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647397

RESUMO

There is an established link between birth parameters and risk of adult-onset cancers. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept provides potential underlying mechanisms for such associations, including intrauterine exposure to endogenous hormones (androgens and estrogens), insulin-like growth factors, etc. However, there is conflicting evidence on the association between birth parameters and the cancer mortality risk. Therefore, we aimed to review and analyse the available data on the association linking birth weight and birth length with cancer mortality. Eleven studies were identified, published until April 2019. A significant association between birth weight and the prognosis of cancer (overall) was found (relative risk, RR 1.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01, 1.11), with low heterogeneity (I2 = 27.7%). In addition, higher birth weight was associated with poorer prognosis of prostate cancer (RR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.44). However, the association of birth weight with breast cancer mortality risk in women was not significant (RR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.44), which might be due to high statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 67.9%). Birth length was not associated with cancer mortality risk (RR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.90-1.11). It might be inferred that birth parameters are not associated with cancer mortality as strongly as with the risk of developing cancer. Also, the association between birth parameters and cancer mortality risk is not uniform and varies according to its subtypes, and study characteristics/design. This highlights the need for further prospective studies.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012846, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533499

RESUMO

Background Identification of lifestyle modifiable metabolic pathways related to cardiometabolic disease risk is essential for improvement of primary prevention in susceptible individuals. It was recently shown that plasma dimethylguanidino valerate (DMGV) levels are associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our aims were to investigate whether plasma DMGV is related to risk of future coronary artery disease and with cardiovascular mortality and to replicate the association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and pinpoint candidate lifestyle interventions susceptible to modulate DMGV levels. Methods and Results Plasma DMGV levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in a total of 5768 participants from the MDC (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort), MPP (Malmö Preventive Project), and MOS (Malmö Offspring Study). Dietary intake assessment was performed in the MOS. Baseline levels of DMGV associated with incident coronary artery disease in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.29; CI=1.16-1.43; P<0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.25; CI=1.08-1.44; P=2.4e-3). In the MDC, DMGV was associated with cardiovascular mortality and incident coronary artery disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Furthermore, the association between DMGV and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus was replicated in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.83; CI=1.63-2.05; P<0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.65; CI=1.38-1.98; P<0.001). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased levels of DMGV, whereas intake of vegetables and level of physical activity was associated with lower DMGV. Conclusions We discovered novel independent associations between plasma DMGV and incident coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality, while replicating the previously reported association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, strong associations with sugar-sweetened beverages, vegetable intake, and physical activity suggest the potential to modify DMGV levels using lifestyle interventions.

16.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1985-1993, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2044: 303-318, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432421

RESUMO

Protein profiling enabled through affinity proteomics represents a powerful strategy for analysis of complex samples such as human body fluids. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the proximal fluid of the central nervous system and is commonly analyzed in the context of neurological diseases. Through the presence of brain-derived proteins, this fluid can offer insight into the physiological state of the brain. Here, we describe multiplex and flexible protein and autoantibody profiling approaches using suspension bead arrays. Through minimal sample processing, these methods enable high-throughput analysis of hundreds of samples and proteins in one single assay and thereby provide powerful approaches for discovery of disease-associated proteins and autoantigens.

18.
Vasc Med ; 24(6): 539-546, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441381

RESUMO

Epidemiological data indicate decreased risk for development and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). On the other hand, DM adds to increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. In a nationwide observational cohort study of patients registered in the Swedish Vascular Register and the Swedish National Diabetes Register, we evaluated potential effects of DM on total mortality, CV morbidity, and the need for reintervention after elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for AAA. We compared 748 patients with and 2630 without DM with propensity score-adjusted analysis, during a median 4.22 years of follow-up for patients with DM, and 4.05 years for those without. In adjusted analysis, diabetic patients showed higher rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during follow-up (relative risk (RR) 1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.95; p = 0.02), but lower need for reintervention (RR 0.12, CI 0.02-0.91; p = 0.04). There were no differences in total (RR 0.88, CI 0.74-1.05; p = 0.15) or CV (RR 1.58, CI 0.87-2.86; p = 0.13) mortality, or stroke (RR 0.95, CI 0.68-1.32; p = 0.75) during follow-up. In conclusion, patients with DM had higher rates of AMI and lower need for reintervention after elective EVAR than those without DM, whereas neither total nor CV mortality differed between groups. The putative protective effects of DM towards further AAA enlargement and late sac rupture may help explain the lower need for reintervention and absence of excess mortality.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 16955-16960, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375628

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, likely autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, among which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a strong suspect. We have previously identified increased autoantibody levels toward the chloride-channel protein Anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS. Here, IgG antibody reactivity toward ANO2 and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) was measured using bead-based multiplex serology in plasma samples from 8,746 MS cases and 7,228 controls. We detected increased anti-ANO2 antibody levels in MS (P = 3.5 × 10-36) with 14.6% of cases and 7.8% of controls being ANO2 seropositive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]: 1.5 to 1.8). The MS risk increase in ANO2-seropositive individuals was dramatic when also exposed to 3 known risk factors for MS: HLA-DRB1*15:01 carriage, absence of HLA-A*02:01, and high anti-EBNA1 antibody levels (OR = 24.9; 95%CI: 17.9 to 34.8). Reciprocal blocking experiments with ANO2 and EBNA1 peptides demonstrated antibody cross-reactivity, mapping to ANO2 [aa 140 to 149] and EBNA1 [aa 431 to 440]. HLA gene region was associated with anti-ANO2 antibody levels and HLA-DRB1*04:01 haplotype was negatively associated with ANO2 seropositivity (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5 to 0.7). Anti-ANO2 antibody levels were not increased in patients from 3 other inflammatory disease cohorts. The HLA influence and the fact that specific IgG production usually needs T cell help provides indirect evidence for a T cell ANO2 autoreactivity in MS. We propose a hypothesis where immune reactivity toward EBNA1 through molecular mimicry with ANO2 contributes to the etiopathogenesis of MS.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA