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1.
Bioact Mater ; 9: 411-427, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820580

RESUMO

Many recent studies have shown that joint-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a vital role in articular cartilage (AC) in situ regeneration. Specifically, synovium-derived MSCs (SMSCs), which have strong chondrogenic differentiation potential, may be the main driver of cartilage repair. However, both the insufficient number of MSCs and the lack of an ideal regenerative microenvironment in the defect area will seriously affect the regeneration of AC. Tetrahedral framework nucleic acids (tFNAs), notable novel nanomaterials, are considered prospective biological regulators in biomedical engineering. Here, we aimed to explore whether tFNAs have positive effects on AC in situ regeneration and to investigate the related mechanism. The results of in vitro experiments showed that the proliferation and migration of SMSCs were significantly enhanced by tFNAs. In addition, tFNAs, which were added to chondrogenic induction medium, were shown to promote the chondrogenic capacity of SMSCs by increasing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. In animal models, the injection of tFNAs improved the therapeutic outcome of cartilage defects compared with that of the control treatments without tFNAs. In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that tFNAs can promote the chondrogenic differentiation of SMSCs in vitro and enhance AC regeneration in vivo, indicating that tFNAs may become a promising therapeutic for AC regeneration.

2.
iScience ; 24(11): 103352, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805800

RESUMO

Anthropology began in the late nineteenth century with an emphasis on kinship as a key factor in human evolution. From the 1960s, archaeologists attempted increasingly sophisticated ways of reconstructing prehistoric kinship but ancient DNA analysis has transformed the field, making it possible, to directly examine kin relations from human skeletal remains. Here, we retrieved genomic data from four Late Neolithic individuals in central China associated with the Late Neolithic Longshan culture. We provide direct evidence of consanguineous mating in ancient China, revealing inbreeding among the Longshan populations. By combining ancient genomic data with anthropological and archaeological evidence, we further show that Longshan society household was built based on the extended beyond the nuclear family, coinciding with intensified social complexity during the Longshan period, perhaps showing the transformation of large communities through a new role of genetic kinship-based extended family units.

3.
Front Genet ; 12: 728764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804115

RESUMO

Low-coverage whole genome sequencing is a low-cost genotyping technology. Combined with genotype imputation approaches, it is likely to become a critical component of cost-effective genomic selection programs in agricultural livestock. Here, we used the low-coverage sequence data of 617 Dezhou donkeys to investigate the performance of genotype imputation for low-coverage whole genome sequence data and genomic prediction based on the imputed genotype data. The specific aims were as follows: 1) to measure the accuracy of genotype imputation under different sequencing depths, sample sizes, minor allele frequency (MAF), and imputation pipelines and 2) to assess the accuracy of genomic prediction under different marker densities derived from the imputed sequence data, different strategies for constructing the genomic relationship matrixes, and single-vs. multi-trait models. We found that a high imputation accuracy (>0.95) can be achieved for sequence data with a sequencing depth as low as 1x and the number of sequenced individuals ≥400. For genomic prediction, the best performance was obtained by using a marker density of 410K and a G matrix constructed using expected marker dosages. Multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) performed better than single-trait GBLUP. Our study demonstrates that low-coverage whole genome sequencing would be a cost-effective approach for genomic prediction in Dezhou donkey.

4.
Nature ; 599(7886): 616-621, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759322

RESUMO

The origin and early dispersal of speakers of Transeurasian languages-that is, Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic-is among the most disputed issues of Eurasian population history1-3. A key problem is the relationship between linguistic dispersals, agricultural expansions and population movements4,5. Here we address this question by 'triangulating' genetics, archaeology and linguistics in a unified perspective. We report wide-ranging datasets from these disciplines, including a comprehensive Transeurasian agropastoral and basic vocabulary; an archaeological database of 255 Neolithic-Bronze Age sites from Northeast Asia; and a collection of ancient genomes from Korea, the Ryukyu islands and early cereal farmers in Japan, complementing previously published genomes from East Asia. Challenging the traditional 'pastoralist hypothesis'6-8, we show that the common ancestry and primary dispersals of Transeurasian languages can be traced back to the first farmers moving across Northeast Asia from the Early Neolithic onwards, but that this shared heritage has been masked by extensive cultural interaction since the Bronze Age. As well as marking considerable progress in the three individual disciplines, by combining their converging evidence we show that the early spread of Transeurasian speakers was driven by agriculture.

5.
Nature ; 599(7884): 256-261, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707286

RESUMO

The identity of the earliest inhabitants of Xinjiang, in the heart of Inner Asia, and the languages that they spoke have long been debated and remain contentious1. Here we present genomic data from 5 individuals dating to around 3000-2800 BC from the Dzungarian Basin and 13 individuals dating to around 2100-1700 BC from the Tarim Basin, representing the earliest yet discovered human remains from North and South Xinjiang, respectively. We find that the Early Bronze Age Dzungarian individuals exhibit a predominantly Afanasievo ancestry with an additional local contribution, and the Early-Middle Bronze Age Tarim individuals contain only a local ancestry. The Tarim individuals from the site of Xiaohe further exhibit strong evidence of milk proteins in their dental calculus, indicating a reliance on dairy pastoralism at the site since its founding. Our results do not support previous hypotheses for the origin of the Tarim mummies, who were argued to be Proto-Tocharian-speaking pastoralists descended from the Afanasievo1,2 or to have originated among the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex3 or Inner Asian Mountain Corridor cultures4. Instead, although Tocharian may have been plausibly introduced to the Dzungarian Basin by Afanasievo migrants during the Early Bronze Age, we find that the earliest Tarim Basin cultures appear to have arisen from a genetically isolated local population that adopted neighbouring pastoralist and agriculturalist practices, which allowed them to settle and thrive along the shifting riverine oases of the Taklamakan Desert.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 736, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reference sequences play a vital role in next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting mapping quality during genome analyses. However, reference genomes usually do not represent the full range of genetic diversity of a species as a result of geographical divergence and independent demographic events of different populations. For the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), which occurs in high copy numbers in cells and is strictly maternally inherited, an optimal reference sequence has the potential to make mitogenome alignment both more accurate and more efficient. In this study, we used three different types of reference sequences for mitogenome mapping, i.e., the commonly used reference sequence (CU-ref), the breed-specific reference sequence (BS-ref) and the sample-specific reference sequence (SS-ref), respectively, and compared the accuracy of mitogenome alignment and SNP calling among them, for the purpose of proposing the optimal reference sequence for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses of specific populations RESULTS: Four pigs, representing three different breeds, were high-throughput sequenced, subsequently mapping reads to the reference sequences mentioned above, resulting in a largest mapping ratio and a deepest coverage without increased running time when aligning reads to a BS-ref. Next, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling was carried out by 18 detection strategies with the three tools SAMtools, VarScan and GATK with different parameters, using the bam results mapping to BS-ref. The results showed that all eighteen strategies achieved the same high specificity and sensitivity, which suggested a high accuracy of mitogenome alignment by the BS-ref because of a low requirement for SNP calling tools and parameter choices. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that different reference sequences representing different genetic relationships to sample reads influenced mitogenome alignment, with the breed-specific reference sequences being optimal for mitogenome analyses, which provides a refined processing perspective for NGS data.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos/genética
7.
Front Genet ; 12: 740167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630530

RESUMO

The population prehistory of Xinjiang has been a hot topic among geneticists, linguists, and archaeologists. Current ancient DNA studies in Xinjiang exclusively suggest an admixture model for the populations in Xinjiang since the early Bronze Age. However, almost all of these studies focused on the northern and eastern parts of Xinjiang; the prehistoric demographic processes that occurred in western Xinjiang have been seldomly reported. By analyzing complete mitochondrial sequences from the Xiabandi (XBD) cemetery (3,500-3,300 BP), the up-to-date earliest cemetery excavated in western Xinjiang, we show that all the XBD mitochondrial sequences fall within two different West Eurasian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pools, indicating that the migrants into western Xinjiang from west Eurasians were a consequence of the early expansion of the middle and late Bronze Age steppe pastoralists (Steppe_MLBA), admixed with the indigenous populations from Central Asia. Our study provides genetic links for an early existence of the Indo-Iranian language in southwestern Xinjiang and suggests that the existence of Andronovo culture in western Xinjiang involved not only the dispersal of ideas but also population movement.

8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009886, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547027

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) has infected humans for a long time, but its evolutionary history and geographic spread across Eurasia is still poorly understood. Here, we screened for pathogen DNA in 14 ancient individuals from the Bronze Age Quanergou cemetery (XBQ), Xinjiang, China. In 6 individuals we detected S. enterica. We reconstructed S. enterica genomes from those individuals, which form a previously undetected phylogenetic branch basal to Paratyphi C, Typhisuis and Choleraesuis-the so-called Para C lineage. Based on pseudogene frequency, our analysis suggests that the ancient S. enterica strains were not host adapted. One genome, however, harbors the Salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (SPI-7), which is thought to be involved in (para)typhoid disease in humans. This offers first evidence that SPI-7 was acquired prior to the emergence of human-adapted Paratyphi C around 1,000 years ago. Altogether, our results show that Salmonella enterica infected humans in Eastern Eurasia at least 3,000 years ago, and provide the first ancient DNA evidence for the spread of a pathogen along the Proto-Silk Road.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/história , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Salmonella enterica/genética , China , DNA Antigo , Evolução Molecular , História Antiga , Humanos , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
9.
Biomaterials ; 278: 121131, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543785

RESUMO

Articular cartilage (AC) injury repair has always been a difficult problem for clinicians and researchers. Recently, a promising therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been developed for the regeneration of cartilage defects. As endogenous articular stem cells, synovial MSCs (SMSCs) possess strong chondrogenic differentiation ability and articular specificity. In this study, a cartilage regenerative system was developed based on a chitosan (CS) hydrogel/3D-printed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) hybrid containing SMSCs and recruiting tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (TFNA) injected into the articular cavity. TFNA, which is a promising DNA nanomaterial for improving the regenerative microenvironment, could be taken up into SMSCs and promoted the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of SMSCs. CS, as a cationic polysaccharide, can bind to DNA through electrostatic action and recruit free TFNA after articular cavity injection in vivo. The 3D-printed PCL scaffold provided basic mechanical support, and TFNA provided a good microenvironment for the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the delivered SMSCs and promoted cartilage regeneration, thus greatly improving the repair of cartilage defects. In conclusion, this study confirmed that a CS hydrogel/3D-printed PCL hybrid scaffold containing SMSCs could be a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration based on chitosan-directed TFNA recruitment and TFNA-enhanced cell proliferation and chondrogenesis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Quitosana , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Ácidos Nucleicos , Diferenciação Celular , Condrogênese , Hidrogéis , Poliésteres , Impressão Tridimensional , Regeneração , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469293

RESUMO

To explore a noncontact drive solution for linear piezoelectric actuators, a novel type of noncontact linear piezoelectric actuator modulated by the electromagnetic field is proposed. The proposed actuator employs electromagnetic force to modulate and transfer the locomotion between the stator and runner. The drive scheme reduces the wear and friction between the stator and runner, and can control the coupling force by the electric system. Here, the design pattern and working principles are described. The amplification ratio equation of the flexible amplification mechanism is established, and the calculation method of the dynamic electromagnetic force is illustrated. For assessing the validity and measure the output characteristics of the proposed actuator, a prototype is fabricated to measure the output speeds, the stepping distances, and the output forces. The experimental results show the actuator with the driving frequency of 1Hz, the electromagnetic modulation voltage of 4V, and the piezoelectric driving voltage of 100Vcan continuously output a stall load force of about 0.15N and speed of 0.33mm/s.

11.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110600, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507745

RESUMO

The microbiota of cheese plays a critical role in determining its organoleptic and other physicochemical properties. Thus, assessing the composition of the cheese microbiota community would help promote the growth of desirable taxa and ultimately to optimize flavor, quality and safety. Here we measured microbial diversity, microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids, and free amino acids in two traditional cheese-making strategies, Rushan and Rubing, processed in parallel from Lijiang, Eryuan, and Dengchuan of Yunnan province, China. We found distinct microbiota composition, and microbial diversity and richness in both Rushan and Rubing across all three regions, which were proportional to the scale of the cities where the cheeses were sampled. Furthermore, we found positive associations of Streptococcus and Acinetobacter with butyric acid, Phe and Tyr, which were negatively correlated with Lactococcus. For the first time, we provide evidence that environmental microbial contamination in cheese can be correlated with the manufacturing procedures and geographical regions. This should be paid more attention in upcoming cheese microbiota studies.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbiota , Queijo/análise , China , Lactococcus , Streptococcus
12.
Chem Sci ; 12(26): 9088-9095, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276938

RESUMO

Classical cyclopropylcarbinyl radical clock reactions have been widely applied to conduct mechanistic studies for probing radical processes for a long time; however, alkylidenecyclopropanes, which have a similar molecular structure to methylcyclopropanes, surprisingly have not yet attracted researcher's attention for similar ring opening radical clock processes. In recent years, photocatalytic NHPI ester activation chemistry has witnessed significant blooming developments and provided new synthetic routes for cross-coupling reactions. Herein, we wish to report a non-classical ring opening radical clock reaction using innovative NHPI esters bearing alkylidenecyclopropanes upon photoredox catalysis, providing a brand-new synthetic approach for the direct preparation of a variety of alkynyl derivatives. The potential synthetic utility of this protocol is demonstrated in the diverse transformations and facile synthesis of bioactive molecules or their derivatives and medicinal substances.

13.
J Mol Model ; 27(7): 205, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160692

RESUMO

Benefiting from the new strategy of oxidative azo coupling of the N-NH2 moiety, a series of energetic nitrogen-rich molecules with long catenated nitrogen chains have been successfully synthesized. As one of them, the synthesized 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole shows excellent thermal stability, great explosive performance, and special photochromic properties, which has caused widespread concern. To further characterize its performance, the structural, electronic, vibrational, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole were investigated based on the first-principles density functional theory calculations. The obtained structural parameters are consistent with previous results. We used the band structure, density of states, Mulliken charges, bond populations, and electron density to analyze the electronic properties and chemical bonding. The vibrational frequency regions (396.51-3210.12 cm-1) were assigned to the corresponding vibrational modes. Furthermore, mechanical properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole are also calculated. Finally, the thermodynamic properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole were calculated, including the specific heat at constant volume Cv, temperature*entropy TS, enthalpy H, Gibbs free energy G, and Debye temperature ΘD.

14.
J Bioenerg Biomembr ; 53(4): 393-403, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076840

RESUMO

Inflammation and renal cell apoptosis participate in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Previous research found the upregulation of long non-coding RNA Linc-KIAA1737-2 in hypoxia- or inflammation-challenged human proximal tubular epithelial cells, but its role in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury is underexplored. In this research, we found that Linc-KIAA1737-2 could be upregulated in HK-2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells by LPS treatment, and knock-down of this lncRNA significantly attenuated LPS-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells, while its overexpression showed opposite effect. MiR-27a-3p was confirmed to interact with Linc-KIAA1737-2 in HK-2 cells by RNA pull-down and dual-luciferase assay. MiR-27a-3p mimic transfection significantly attenuated LPS-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis by downregulating the protein levels of TLR4 and NF-κB, which was overturned by overexpression of Linc-KIAA1737-2. Our results suggested that Linc-KIAA1737-2 could promote LPS-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells, and presumably sepsis-induced acute kidney injury, by regulating the miR-27a-3p/TLR4/NF-κB axis.

15.
Tissue Cell ; 72: 101558, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044232

RESUMO

Mitochondria play crucial roles during oocyte development. In this study, we have investigated mitochondrial morphology, mtDNA, Ca2+-ATP enzyme activity, and mitochondrial fission factor (mff) expression levels during oogenesis of the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus. The mtDNA increased with oocyte development, and mitochondrial morphology and distribution were stage-specific. In the perinucleolar oocytes, oval mitochondria were dispersed in the cytoplasm. In previtellogenic oocytes, mitochondria massively increased and aggregated, forming mitochondrial clouds. At the same time, two morphologically different types of mitochondria had been distinguished, one of which was elongated with well-developed cristae, and the other was round with distorted and fused cristae. During vitellogenesis, the increases in mitochondria with well-developed cristae and in Ca2+-ATPase enzymatic activity were accompanied by an accumulation of yolk substance, suggesting the possible participation of mitochondria in the formation of vitellogenesis. Furthermore, we examined the cDNA of mff its transcript levels in relation to oocyte development. The transcript levels of mff were high in the perinucleolar stage, increasing to the highest level at the previtellogenic stage. Immunocytochemistry showed that MFF was detected in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and midvitellogenic oocytes. We speculated that the mff-mediated mitochondrial fission may play a crucial role in oocyte development, especially in vitellogenesis.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631433

RESUMO

A lack of the complete pig proteome has left a gap in our knowledge of the pig genome and has restricted the feasibility of using pigs as a biomedical model. We developed the tissue-based proteome map using 34 major normal pig tissues. A total of 5841 unknown protein isoforms were identified and systematically characterized, including 2225 novel protein isoforms, 669 protein isoforms from 460 genes symbolized beginning with LOC, and 2947 protein isoforms without clear NCBI annotation in current pig reference genome. These newly identified protein isoforms were functionally annotated through profiling the pig transcriptome with high-throughput RNA sequencing of the same pig tissues, further improving the genome annotation of the corresponding protein-coding genes. Combining the well-annotated genes that have parallel expression pattern and subcellular witness, we predicted the tissue-related subcellular components and potential function for these unknown proteins. Finally, we mined 3081 orthologous genes for 52.75% of unknown protein isoforms across multiple species, referring to 68 KEGG pathways as well as 23 disease signaling pathways. These findings provide valuable insights and a rich resource for enhancing studies of pig genomics and biology, as well as biomedical model application to human medicine.

17.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 138(5): 562-573, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620112

RESUMO

Epigenetic modification plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell differentiation, embryo development, tumorigenesis and many complex diseases. However, little is known about the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms for milk production in dairy cattle. Here, we conducted an epigenome-wide study, together with gene expression profiles to identify important epigenetic candidate genes related to the milk production traits in dairy cattle. Whole-genome bisulphite sequencing and RNA sequencing were employed to detect differentially methylated genes (DMG) and differentially expressed genes (DEG) in blood samples in dry period and lactation period between two groups of cows with extremely high and low milk production performance. A total of 10,877 and 6,617 differentially methylated regions were identified between the two groups in the two periods, which corresponded to 3,601 and 2,802 DMGs, respectively. Furthermore, 156 DEGs overlap with DMGs in comparison of the two groups, and 131 DEGs overlap with DMGs in comparison of the two periods. By integrating methylome, transcriptome and GWAS data, some potential candidate genes for milk production traits in dairy cattle were suggested, such as DOCK1, PTK2 and PIK3R1. Our studies may contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic modification on milk production traits of dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Lactação , Transcriptoma , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Leite
18.
Ir J Med Sci ; 190(2): 631-638, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was to investigate the value of 10 serum inflammatory cytokines for predicting clinical response to celecoxib in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. METHODS: Totally, 103 active AS patients who underwent celecoxib treatment for 12 weeks were enrolled. Then, pre-treatment serum TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, IL-32, ICAM-1, and VEGF were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Besides, the ASAS 20 response was assessed at week 2 (W2), week 6 (W6), and week 12 (W12). Based on the ASAS 20 response at W12, patients were divided into responders and non-responders. RESULTS: After celecoxib treatment, 53 (51.3%), 58 (56.3%), and 60 (58.3%) patients achieved ASAS 20 response at W2, W6, and W12, respectively. Furthermore, IL-1ß (P = 0.019), IL-6 (P = 0.004), and IL-17A (P = 0.007) levels were higher, while TNF-α (P = 0.086), IL-8 (P = 0.143), IL-21 (P = 0.687), IL-23 (P = 0.329), IL-32 (P = 0.216), ICAM-1 (P = 0.119), and VEGF (P = 0.732) levels were similar in responders compared with non-responders. Subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that among these inflammatory cytokines, only IL-6 (P = 0.019) independently predicted higher ASAS 20 response to celecoxib at W12, and it had a fair value for predicting ASAS 20 response to celecoxib at W12 (area under the curve: 0.666, 95% confidence interval: 0.561-0.771) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. CONCLUSION: Serum IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-17A serve as indicators for predicting clinical response to celecoxib in AS patients, which may assist with the optimization of personalized treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Celecoxib/sangue , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Espondilite Anquilosante/sangue , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-17/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Espondilite Anquilosante/patologia
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 300: 113645, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058908

RESUMO

Reproductive activity is closely related to the development and function of the brain and liver in teleosts, particularly in seasonal breeding teleosts. This study measured the involvement of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in controlling the reproduction of the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus, a seasonal breeding tropical to temperate commercial fish. We cloned and characterized the cDNAs of igfs (igf2 and igf3) and igfrs (igf1ra, igf1rb, and igf2r) and examined their transcript levels in relation to seasonal reproduction. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that two types of IGFs (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and three types of IGFRs (IGF1RA, IGF1RB, and IGF2R) of the silver pomfret were clustered with those of teleosts; however, IGF-3 was a transmembrane protein different with the IGF-3 of other teleosts. The expression of IGF-3 was gonad-specific in the silver pomfret. The transcript levels of igf1 in the female brain were the highest, and the levels of igfrs in both sexes' brains increased during gametogenesis. Meanwhile, igfs and igfrs maintained high transcript levels in both sexes' liver and gonad during vitellogenesis and spermatogonia proliferation. We concluded that the development and activities of brain, liver, and gonad were related to the IGF system (IGFs and IGFRs). And the IGFs were mainly expressed in the liver. Nevertheless, gonadal development, especially vitellogenesis and spermatogonia proliferation, were related with IGFs in this species.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Gônadas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peso Corporal , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Masculino , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatomedina/genética , Receptores de Somatomedina/metabolismo , Reprodução , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Elife ; 92020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305735

RESUMO

Feeding and oviposition deterrents help phytophagous insects to identify host plants. The taste organs of phytophagous insects contain bitter gustatory receptors (GRs). To explore their function, the GRs in Plutella xylostella were analyzed. Through RNA sequencing and qPCR, we detected abundant PxylGr34 transcripts in the larval head and adult antennae. Functional analyses using the Xenopus oocyte expression system and 24 diverse phytochemicals showed that PxylGr34 is tuned to the canonical plant hormones brassinolide (BL) and 24-epibrassinolide (EBL). Electrophysiological analyses revealed that the medial sensilla styloconica of 4th instar larvae are responsive to BL and EBL. Dual-choice bioassays demonstrated that BL inhibits larval feeding and female oviposition. Knock-down of PxylGr34 by RNAi attenuates the taste responses to BL, and abolishes BL-induced feeding inhibition. These results increase our understanding of how herbivorous insects detect compounds that deter feeding and oviposition, and may be useful for designing plant hormone-based pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Oviposição/fisiologia , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Fitosteróis/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/análise , Folhas de Planta
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