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1.
Hypertension ; 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the thresholds to initiate BP-lowering treatment in this population are unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between BP levels and clinical outcomes and provide evidence on potential thresholds to initiate BP-lowering therapy in people with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study included 12 523 chronic kidney disease participants without antihypertensive therapy in mainland China. Participants were followed up during 2011 to 2016 for cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalized or treated heart failure, and cardiovascular death) and renal events (≥20% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, and renal death). RESULTS: Overall, 652 cardiovascular events and 1268 renal events occurred during 43 970 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive and linear relationship between systolic BP and risks of cardiovascular and renal events down to 90 mm Hg, as well as between diastolic BP and risks of renal events down to 50 mm Hg. A J-shaped trend was noted between diastolic BP and risks of cardiovascular events, but a linear relationship was revealed in participants <60 years (P for interaction <0.001). A significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes was observed at systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg (versus 90-119 mm Hg) and at diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg (versus 50-69 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: In people with chronic kidney disease, a higher systolic BP/diastolic BP level (≥130/90 mm Hg) is significantly associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular and renal events, indicating potential thresholds to initiate BP-lowering treatment.

2.
Liver Int ; 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The causal association of lower birthweight with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the mediating pathways remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the causal, independent association of lower birthweight with NAFLD and identify potential metabolic mediators and their mediation effects in this association. METHODS: We performed two-step, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics for birthweight from Early Growth Genetics consortium of 298,142 Europeans, NAFLD from a GWAS meta-analysis of 8,434 NAFLD cases and 770,180 controls of Europeans, and 25 candidate mediators from corresponding reliable GWASs. RESULTS: Genetically determined each 1-SD lower birthweight was associated with a 45% (95% CI: 1.25-1.69) increased risk of NAFLD, and this causal association persisted after adjusting for childhood obesity or adult adiposity traits in multivariable MR. Two-step MR identified six out of 25 candidate mediators partially mediate the effect of lower birthweight on NAFLD, including fasting insulin (proportion mediated: 22.05%), leucine (17.29%), isoleucine (13.55%), valine (11.37%), alanine (10.01%), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; 7.23%). Bidirectional MR suggested a unidirectional effect of insulin resistance on isoleucine, leucine, and valine, and a unidirectional effect of alanine on insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: This MR study elucidated the causal impact of lower birthweight on subsequent risk of NAFLD, independently of later life adiposity, and identified mediators including insulin resistance, branched-chain amino acids, alanine, and MUFA in this association pathway. Our findings shed light on the pathogenesis of NAFLD and imply additional targets for prevention and intervention of NAFLD attributed to low birthweight.

3.
Diabetes Metab ; 49(2): 101420, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640827

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to examine risks of major cardiovascular events (MACEs), renal outcomes, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with different diabetic kidney disease (DKD) subtypes. METHODS: A total of 36,509 participants with T2DM recruited from 20 community sites across mainland China were followed up during 2011-2016. DKD subtypes were categorized based on albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, UACR ≥ 30 mg/g) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) as Alb-/eGFR-, Alb+/eGFR-, Alb-/eGFR+, and Alb+/eGFR+. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of developing clinical outcomes in DKD subtypes. RESULTS: More than half (53.5%) of participants with diabetes and reduced eGFR had normal UACR levels (Alb-/eGFR+), termed as non-albuminuria DKD. These patients had a modest increase in the risks of MACEs (hazard ratio, HR 1.42 [95% CI 1.08;1.88]) and mortality (HR 1.42 [1.04;1.92]) compared with patients without DKD, whereas CKD progression was not significantly increased (HR 0.97 [0.60;1.57]). Participants with albuminuria (Alb+/eGFR- or Alb+/eGFR+) had higher risks of clinical outcomes. Subgroup analysis revealed that the associations between non-albuminuria DKD and risks of MACEs and mortality were more evident in those aged <65 years. CONCLUSION: Non-albuminuria DKD accounts for more than half of DKD cases with low eGFR in Chinese diabetes patients. Diabetes patients with albuminuria are at higher risks of developing clinical outcomes and warrant early intervention, as well as patients with non-albuminuria DKD with age < 65 years.

4.
J Diabetes ; 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies indicate lower, comparable, and higher cardiovascular risks in women vs men in normal glucose regulation (NGR), prediabetes, and diabetes, respectively. However, this sex difference is uncertain and aging might play a part. We aimed to estimate sex differences in arterial stiffness in NGR, prediabetes, or diabetes and the potential modifications by age. METHODS: We used baseline data of 9618 participants aged ≥40 years in a large community-based cohort study in Shanghai. Glycemic status was determined by history of diabetes, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, and hemoglobin A1c levels. Arterial stiffness was examined by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between sex and ba-PWV levels in glycemic and age categories. RESULTS: Before adjustment for age, women had lower, comparable, and higher ba-PWV vs men in the NGR, prediabetes, and diabetes groups, respectively. In participants aged 40-59 years, women were associated with lower ba-PWV levels in generally all glycemic strata after adjustment for age and other confounders. In participants aged ≥60 years, women were associated with significantly higher ba-PWV levels (ß coefficient = 71.5; 95% confidence interval = 23.4, 119.7) and the sex difference was attenuated in the groups of prediabetes and diabetes with a borderline significant interaction between sex and glycemic status (p for interaction = .068). CONCLUSIONS: The sex difference in cardiovascular risks in adults with NGR, prediabetes, or diabetes was dependent on age. Our findings provide new evidence for prioritizing preventive treatment against atherosclerosis in men vs women with different glycemic status.

5.
Hypertension ; 80(1): 192-203, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Education, intelligence, and cognition are associated with hypertension, but which one plays the most prominent role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and which modifiable risk factors mediate the causal effects remains unknown. METHODS: Using summary statistics of genome-wide association studies of predominantly European ancestry, we conducted 2-sample multivariable Mendelian randomization to estimate the independent effects of education, intelligence, or cognition on hypertension (FinnGen study, 70 651 cases/223 663 controls; UK Biobank, 77 723 cases/330 366 controls) and blood pressure (International Consortium of Blood Pressure, 757 601 participants), and used 2-step Mendelian randomization to evaluate 25 potential mediators of the association and calculate the mediated proportions. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of inverse variance weighted Mendelian randomization results from FinnGen and UK Biobank showed that genetically predicted 1-SD (4.2 years) higher education was associated with 44% (95% CI: 0.40-0.79) decreased hypertension risk and 1.682 mm Hg lower systolic and 0.898 mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure, independently of intelligence and cognition. While the causal effects of intelligence and cognition on hypertension were not independent of education; 6 out of 25 cardiometabolic risk factors were identified as mediators of the association between education and hypertension, ranked by mediated proportions, including body mass index (mediated proportion: 30.1%), waist-to-hip ratio (22.8%), body fat percentage (14.1%), major depression (7.0%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4.7%), and triglycerides (3.4%). These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrated the causal, independent impact of education on hypertension and blood pressure and outlined cardiometabolic mediators as priority targets for prevention of hypertension attributable to low education.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipertensão , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética
6.
J Diabetes ; 15(1): 27-35, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All-cause mortality risk prediction models for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mainland China have not been established. This study aimed to fill this gap. METHODS: Based on the Shanghai Link Healthcare Database, patients diagnosed with T2DM and aged 40-99 years were identified between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016 and followed until December 31, 2021. All the patients were randomly allocated into training and validation sets at a 2:1 ratio. Cox proportional hazards models were used to develop the all-cause mortality risk prediction model. The model performance was evaluated by discrimination (Harrell C-index) and calibration (calibration plots). RESULTS: A total of 399 784 patients with T2DM were eventually enrolled, with 68 318 deaths over a median follow-up of 6.93 years. The final prediction model included age, sex, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, moderate or severe kidney disease, moderate or severe liver disease, cancer, insulin use, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The model showed good discrimination and calibration in the validation sets: the mean C-index value was 0.8113 (range 0.8110-0.8115) and the predicted risks closely matched the observed risks in the calibration plots. CONCLUSIONS: This study constructed the first 5-year all-cause mortality risk prediction model for patients with T2DM in south China, with good predictive performance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , China , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies indicated obesity and glutamatergic dysfunction as potential risk factors of depression, and reported disturbance of glutamine metabolism in obese state. However, it remains unclear whether the inter-relationships between obesity, glutamine and depression are causal. METHODS: We conducted two-sample bidirectional Mendelian Randomization (MR) analyses to explore the causalities between circulating glutamine levels, specific depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder (MDD) and body mass index (BMI). Univariable MR, multivariable MR (MVMR) and linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) analyses were performed. RESULTS: Genetic downregulation of glutamine was causally associated with MDD, anhedonia, tiredness, and depressed mood at the false discovery rate (FDR)-controlled significance level (estimate, -0·036∼ -0·013, P = 0·005 to P = 0·050). Elevated BMI was causally linked to lower glutamine level (estimate = -0·103, P = 0·037), as well as more severe depressed mood, tiredness, and anhedonia (estimate, 0·017∼0·050, P < 0·001 to P = 0·040). In MVMR analysis, BMI was causally related to depressed mood dependently of glutamine levels. Reversely, it showed limited evidence supporting causal effects of depression on glutamine levels or BMI, except a causal association of tiredness with elevated BMI (estimate = 0·309, P = 0·003). LDSR estimates were directionally consistent with MR results. CONCLUSION: The present study reported that higher BMI was causally associated with lower glutamine levels. Both obesity and down-regulation of glutamine were causally linked to depression.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 2022 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir has been authorized for emergency use by many countries for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). However, the supply falls short of the global demand, which creates a need for more options. VV116 is an oral antiviral agent with potent activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, noninferiority, observer-blinded, randomized trial during the outbreak caused by the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatic adults with mild-to-moderate Covid-19 with a high risk of progression were assigned to receive a 5-day course of either VV116 or nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. The primary end point was the time to sustained clinical recovery through day 28. Sustained clinical recovery was defined as the alleviation of all Covid-19-related target symptoms to a total score of 0 or 1 for the sum of each symptom (on a scale from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating greater severity; total scores on the 11-item scale range from 0 to 33) for 2 consecutive days. A lower boundary of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio of more than 0.8 was considered to indicate noninferiority (with a hazard ratio of >1 indicating a shorter time to sustained clinical recovery with VV116 than with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir). RESULTS: A total of 822 participants underwent randomization, and 771 received VV116 (384 participants) or nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (387 participants). The noninferiority of VV116 to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir with respect to the time to sustained clinical recovery was established in the primary analysis (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.35) and was maintained in the final analysis (median, 4 days with VV116 and 5 days with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir; hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.36). In the final analysis, the time to sustained symptom resolution (score of 0 for each of the 11 Covid-19-related target symptoms for 2 consecutive days) and to a first negative SARS-CoV-2 test did not differ substantially between the two groups. No participants in either group had died or had had progression to severe Covid-19 by day 28. The incidence of adverse events was lower in the VV116 group than in the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group (67.4% vs. 77.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with mild-to-moderate Covid-19 who were at risk for progression, VV116 was noninferior to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir with respect to the time to sustained clinical recovery, with fewer safety concerns. (Funded by Vigonvita Life Sciences and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05341609; Chinese Clinical Trial Registry number, ChiCTR2200057856.).

9.
Hypertens Res ; 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513744

RESUMO

Prediabetes with hypertension or prehypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is a powerful marker of visceral obesity. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between LAP and hypertension and prehypertension among prediabetic individuals. A total of 12,388 prediabetic participants from the REACTION study were recruited. LAP was calculated from waist circumference and fasting triglyceride levels. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted to assess the relationship between LAP and hypertension and prehypertension. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that elevated LAP was associated with hypertension (Q2: odds ratio (OR): 1.263, P < 0.001; Q3: OR: 1.613, P < 0.001; Q4: OR: 1.754, P < 0.001) and prehypertension (Q2: OR: 1.255, P = 0.005; Q3: OR: 1.340, P = 0.002; Q4: OR: 1.765, P < 0.001). The results of the stratified analysis showed that prediabetic people with higher LAP levels and characterized by overweight, normal weight and a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were more likely to have hypertension, and prediabetic people with higher LAP levels and characterized by overweight, normal weight, a high WHR, age <65, and low and high levels of physical activity were more likely to have prehypertension. In conclusion, visceral obesity assessed by LAP is significantly associated with hypertension and prehypertension in the Chinese prediabetic population.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373429

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Whether diabetes diagnosed at different age groups is causally associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We conducted two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the causal associations of diabetes by age at diagnosis with five type-specific CVDs and 11 cardiometabolic traits. METHODS: We selected 208 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for diabetes and 3, 21, 57, and 14 SNPs for diabetes diagnosed at <50, 50-60, 60-70, and >70 years, respectively, based on the GWAS (24,986 cases/187,130 controls) in the UK Biobank, and extracted genetic associations with stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and CVD mortality, as well as blood pressures, adiposity measurements, and lipids and apolipoproteins from corresponding European-descent GWASs. The inverse-variance weighted method was used as main analysis with several sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Diabetes diagnosed at all four age groups was causally associated with increased risks of stroke (5%-8%) and myocardial infarction (8%-10%), higher systolic blood pressure (0.56-0.94 mmHg) and waist-to-hip ratio (0.003-0.004), and lower body mass index (0.31-0.42 kg/m2), waist circumference (0.68-0.99 cm), and hip circumference (0.57-0.80 cm). Diabetes diagnosed at specific age groups was causally associated with increased risks of heart failure (4%) and CVD mortality (8%), higher diastolic blood pressure (0.20 mmHg) and triglycerides (0.06 SD), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.02 mmol/L). The effect sizes of genetically determined diabetes on CVD subtypes and cardiometabolic traits were comparable and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals largely overlapped across the four age groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide novel evidence that genetically determined diabetes subgroups by age at diagnosis have similar causal effects on CVD and cardiometabolic risks.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 947762, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407315

RESUMO

Background: Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH) is a rare and severe disorder that is caused by mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Non-classic LCAH is defined as late-onset glucocorticoid deficiency and even complete male external genitalia in 46,XY individuals. However, to date, few cases of non-classic LCAH have been reported. Methods: It was attempted to describe the clinical characteristics of a male child with complete male external genitalia in terms of age of onset, adrenal function, and biochemical indicators. Previously reported cases were also reviewed to investigate the relationship of age of onset with enzymatic activity in non-classic LCAH. Results: The patient with complete male external genitalia was diagnosed with non-classic LCAH, in which the reason for his referral to a local hospital at the of age 1.25 years was progressive skin hyperpigmentation, and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level was elevated to higher than 1,250 pg/ml. The compound heterozygous mutations c.772C>T/c.562C>T in STAR gene were identified via genetic testing. The literature review resulted in identification of 47 patients with non-classic LCAH from 36 families. The mutational analysis showed that c.562C>T mutation was prevalent in patients with non-classic LCAH, accounting for 37.2% of the total mutant alleles, which could reflect the founder effect on the non-classic LCAH population. In total, 28 46,XY patients were reported, including 22 (78.5%) cases with complete male external genitalia and six (21.5%) cases with different degrees of hypospadias. Conclusion: The clinical phenotypes of non-classic LCAH are highly variable. Routine physical examination, laboratory measurement, genetic testing, and, importantly, enzymatic activity assay may facilitate the early diagnosis of non-classic LCAH. The age of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) onset may not be a diagnostic basis for non-classic LCAH, and enzymatic activity assay determination may be more effective.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1018657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387870

RESUMO

Objectives: Recent studies found that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-like protein 1 (Sparcl1) could inhibit lipid droplets accumulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) signal pathway. However, the associations of serum Sparcl1 level with lipids profiles and other metabolic phenotypes remain unknown in human population study. Methods: We determined serum Sparcl1 using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays among 1750 adults aged 40 years and older from a community in Shanghai, China. Generalized linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between Sparcl1 and metabolic measures. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship of serum Sparcl1 with prevalent dyslipidemia. Results: With the increment of serum Sparcl1, participants tended to have lower level of triglycerides, and higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P for trend < 0.01). No significant associations between serum Sparcl1 and glucose, blood pressure, or body size were observed. The generalized linear regression models suggested that per standard deviation (SD) increment of serum Sparcl1 was significantly inversely associated with triglycerides (ß= -0.06, P=0.02). The prevalence of dyslipidemia decreased across the sparcl1 quartiles (P for trend <0.01). After controlling the potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of sparcl1 concentration had the lowest prevalence of dyslipidemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.91), compared with the lowest quartile. Per SD increment of Sparcl1 was associated with 20% (OR, 0.80; 95%CI, 0.69-0.94) lower prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and 12% (OR, 0.88; 95%CI, 0.79-0.97) lower prevalence of dyslipidemia. The association between serum Sparcl1 and dyslipidemia were generally consistent across subgroups (all P for interaction > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum Sparcl1 was significantly associated with decreased risk of prevalent dyslipidemia in Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to confirm this association.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Dislipidemias , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , China/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue
13.
Diabetologia ; 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372821

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) disrupts the circadian timing system and might be a risk factor for diabetes. Our aim was to estimate the associations of chronic exposure to outdoor LAN with glucose homoeostasis markers and diabetes prevalence based on a national and cross-sectional survey of the general population in China. METHODS: The China Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance Study was a nationally representative study of 98,658 participants aged ≥18 years who had been living in their current residence for at least 6 months recruited from 162 study sites across mainland China in 2010. Diabetes was defined according to ADA criteria. Outdoor LAN exposure in 2010 was estimated from satellite data and the participants attending each study site were assigned the same mean radiance of the outdoor LAN at the study site. The linear regression incorporating a restricted cubic spline function was used to explore the relationships between LAN exposure and markers of glucose homoeostasis. Cox regression with a constant for the time variable assigned to all individuals and with robust variance estimates was used to assess the associations between the levels of outdoor LAN exposure and the presence of diabetes by calculating the prevalence ratios (PRs) with adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, family history of diabetes, household income, urban/rural areas, taking antihypertensive medications, taking lipid-lowering medications, and BMI. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 42.7 years and 53,515 (weighted proportion 49.2%) participants were women. Outdoor LAN exposure levels were positively associated with HbA1c, fasting and 2 h glucose concentrations and HOMA-IR and negatively associated with HOMA-B. Diabetes prevalence was significantly associated with per-quintile LAN exposure (PR 1.07 [95% CI 1.02, 1.12]). The highest quintile of LAN exposure (median 69.1 nW cm-2 sr-1) was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes (PR 1.28 [95% CI 1.03, 1.60]) compared with the lowest quintile of exposure (median 1.0 nW cm-2 sr-1). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: There were significant associations between chronic exposure to higher intensity of outdoor LAN with increased risk of impaired glucose homoeostasis and diabetes prevalence. Our findings contribute to the growing evidence that LAN is detrimental to health and point to outdoor LAN as a potential novel risk factor for diabetes.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2078, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age has substantial influence on metabolic diseases patterns. Ethnic disparities of metabolic characteristics between Chinese and other populations also exist. Large-scale investigations of age-specific prevalence, subtypes and modifiable risk factors of metabolic disorders are essential to promote individualized strategies for the control and prevention of metabolic diseases in multi-ethnic populations. The study aims to address the age-specific prevalence, subtype characteristics and risk factor profiles of metabolic diseases among different races/ethnicities. METHODS: We analyzed data from the China Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance 2010 and the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). We examined the prevalence and subtypes of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia across age groups in four ethnic populations. We also investigated the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic diseases associated with 11 classical risk factors in the young and the elder Mainland Chinese. RESULTS: The sex and BMI standardized prevalence of hypertension in Chinese aged 18-40 years was 18.5% and was the highest among the four populations. The main pathophysiologic subtype of diabetes was characterized by insulin resistance, instead of ß-cell dysfunction in Mainland Chinese, and this pattern was more evident in obese subjects. The major subtype of hyperlipidemia in Mainland Chinese was hypertriglyceridemia, while Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks were more prone to high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For risk of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia, young Chinese adults were more prone to general and central obesity than older ones. The other factors showed similar effects on the young and the old. CONCLUSIONS: The age-specific prevalence, subtypes and risk factors of metabolic diseases were substantially different in Chinese and other ethnic/racial populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Prevalência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Fatores Etários
15.
J Diabetes ; 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between the Chinese Visceral Adiposity Index (CVAI) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) has not been illustrated. The current study aimed to investigate the association between CVAI and UACR and to compare the discriminative power of CVAI, triglyceride, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with UACR in the Chinese community population. METHODS: This study included 34 732 participants from the REACTION (Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals) study. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to detect the association between CVAI, triglyceride, BMI, WC, WHR and UACR. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, in women, CVAI (odds ratio [OR]:1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.34) and triglyceride (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04-1.33) were associated with UACR, whereas BMI, WC, and WHR were not associated with UACR; in men, CVAI (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02-1.50), WC (OR: 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.48), and triglycerides (OR: 1.18, 95% CI 0.97-1.44) were associated with UACR, whereas BMI and WHR were not associated with UACR. Stratified analysis showed that the correlation between CVAI and UACR was stronger in the population with 5.6 ≤ fasting blood glucose (FBG) <7.0 or 7.8 ≤ post-load blood glucose (PBG) <11.1 mmol/L, FBG ≥7.0 or PBG ≥11.1, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: In the Chinese general population, CVAI and UACR were significantly associated in both genders. At higher CVAI levels, the population with prediabetes, diabetes, and hypertension has a more significant association between CVAI and UACR.

16.
Clin Immunol ; 245: 109160, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270470

RESUMO

Three different subsets of circulating human monocytes, CD14++CD16- (classical), CD14++CD16+ (intermediate), and CD14+CD16+ (non-classical) monocytes, have been recently identified. New evidence suggests that levels of intermediate monocytes or CD16+ (intermediate and non-classical) monocytes are increased in autoimmune diseases. However, studies regarding the role of each monocyte subset in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD) are lacking. We aimed to investigate the clinical implications of these subsets and their potential role in GD pathogenesis. CD14++CD16+ monocytes showed a more activated state in GD patients than other monocyte subpopulations. An increased proportion of circulating CD14++CD16+ monocytes and a decreased proportion of circulating CD14++CD16- monocytes in GD patients were detected, and CD14++CD16+ monocyte frequencies were positively correlated with GD clinical parameters. Additionally, a follow-up analysis indicated that the CD14++CD16- monocyte percentage increased and the CD14++CD16+ monocyte percentage decreased post-treatment. We found that CD14++CD16+ GD monocytes promoted the expansion of IFN-γ+CD4+ cells. The Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12, secreted after direct contact with patient CD14++CD16+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells, was responsible for IFN-γ+CD4+ cell development. Our results suggest that CD14++CD16+ monocytes are involved in GD pathogenesis and the critical role of CD14++CD16+ monocytes in the generation of potentially pathogenic Th responses in GD.


Assuntos
Doença de Graves , Monócitos , Humanos , Células Th1 , Receptores de IgG , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos , Diferenciação Celular
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fruit intake is beneficial to several chronic diseases, but controversial in diabetes. We aimed to investigate prospectively the associations of whole fresh fruit intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in subjects with different glucose regulation capacities. METHODS: The present study included 79,922 non-diabetic participants aged ≥ 40 years from an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort in China. Baseline fruit intake information was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Plasma HbA1c, fasting and 2 h post-loading glucose levels were measured at both baseline and follow-up examinations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident diabetes among participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and prediabetes, after adjusted for multiple confounders. Restricted cubic spline analysis was applied for dose-response relation. RESULTS: During a median 3.8-year follow-up, 5886 (7.36%) participants developed diabetes. Overall, we identified a linear and dose-dependent inverse association between dietary whole fresh fruit intake and risk of incident T2D. Each 100 g/d higher fruit intake was associated with 2.8% lower risk of diabetes (HR 0.972, 95%CI [0.949-0.996], P = 0.0217), majorly benefiting NGT subjects with 15.2% lower risk (HR 0.848, 95%CI [0.766-0.940], P = 0.0017), while not significant in prediabetes (HR 0.981, 95%CI 0.957-4.005, P = 0.1268). Similarly, the inverse association was present in normoglycemia individuals with a 48.6% lower risk of diabetes when consuming fruits > 7 times/week comparing to those < 1 time/week (HR 0.514, 95% CI [0.368-0.948]), but not in prediabetes (HR 0.883, 95% CI [0.762-1.023]). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that higher frequency and amount of fresh fruit intake may protect against incident T2D, especially in NGT, but not in prediabetes, highlighting the dietary recommendation of higher fresh fruit consumption to prevent T2D in normoglycemia population.

19.
Artif Intell Med ; 132: 102374, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The accurate classification of mass lesions in the adrenal glands ('adrenal masses'), detected with computed tomography (CT), is important for diagnosis and patient management. Adrenal masses can be benign or malignant and benign masses have varying prevalence. Classification methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art in maximizing inter-class differences in large medical imaging training datasets. The application of CNNs, to adrenal masses is challenging due to large intra-class variations, large inter-class similarities and imbalanced training data due to the size of the mass lesions. METHODS: We developed a deep multi-scale resemblance network (DMRN) to overcome these limitations and leveraged paired CNNs to evaluate the intra-class similarities. We used multi-scale feature embedding to improve the inter-class separability by iteratively combining complementary information produced at different scales of the input to create structured feature descriptors. We augmented the training data with randomly sampled paired adrenal masses to reduce the influence of imbalanced training data. RESULTS: We used 229 CT scans of patients with adrenal masses for evaluation. In a five-fold cross-validation, our method had the best results (89.52 % in accuracy) when compared to the state-of-the-art methods (p < 0.05). We conducted a generalizability analysis of our method on the ImageCLEF 2016 competition dataset for medical subfigure classification, which consists of a training set of 6776 images and a test set of 4166 images across 30 classes. Our method achieved better classification performance (85.90 % in accuracy) when compared to the existing methods and was competitive when compared with methods that require additional training data (1.47 % lower in accuracy). CONCLUSION: Our DMRN sub-classified adrenal masses on CT and was superior to state-of-the-art approaches.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
20.
J Diabetes ; 14(11): 739-748, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the impact of education on diabetes risk is scarce in developing countries. We aimed to explore the association between education and diabetes within a large population in China and to identify the possible mediators between them. METHODS: Information on educational level and lifestyle factors was collected through questionnaires. Diabetes was diagnosed from self-report and biochemical measurements. A structural equation model was constructed to quantify the mediation effect of each mediator. RESULTS: Compared with their least educated counterparts, men with college education had a higher risk of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.27), while college-educated women were less likely to have diabetes (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.82). Obesity was the strongest mediator in both genders (proportion of mediation: 11.6% in men and 23.9% in women), and its association with education was positive in men (ß[SE] 0.0387 [0.0037]) and negative in women (ß[SE] -0.0824 [0.0030]). Taken together, all behavioral factors explained 12.4% of the excess risk of diabetes in men and 33.3% in women. CONCLUSIONS: In a general Chinese population, the association between education level and diabetes was positive in men but negative in women. Obesity was the major mediator underlying the education disparities of diabetes risk, with a stronger mediation effect among women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Escolaridade , Obesidade/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia
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