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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700521

RESUMO

Low-temperature solution-processed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) crystalline films have shown outstanding performance in optoelectronic devices. However, their high dark current and high noise equivalent power prevent their application in broad-band photodetectors. Here, we applied a facile solution-based antisolvent strategy to fabricate a hybrid structure of CuInSe2 quantum dots (CISe QDs) embedded into a MAPbI3 matrix, which not only enhances the photodetector responsivity, showing a large on/off ratio of 104 at 2 V bias compared with the bare perovskite films, but also significantly (for over 7 days) improves the device stability, with hydrophobic ligands on the CuInSe2 QDs acting as a barrier against the uptake of environmental moisture. MAPbI3/CISe QD-based lateral photodetectors exhibit high responsivities of >0.5 A/W and 10.4 mA/W in the visible and near-infrared regions, respectively, partly because of the formation of a type II interface between the respective semiconductors but most significantly because of the efficient trap-state passivation of the perovskite grain surfaces, and the reduction in the twinning-induced trap density, which stems from both CISe QDs and their organic ligands. A large specific detectivity of 2.2 × 1012 Jones at 525 nm illumination (1 µW/cm2), a fast fall time of 236 µs, and an extremely low noise equivalent power of 45 fW/Hz1/2 have been achieved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960576

RESUMO

Compared with the well-explored cadmium-based one-dimensional nanorods (NRs), it is still a challenge to produce heavy-metal-free II-VI semiconductor analogues with a controlled size, shape, and crystal structure. Herein, a synthetic strategy towards ZnSe NRs with a zinc blende crystal structure is presented, where use of the anisotropic nuclei produced via a high-temperature selenium injection favors anisotropic growth. Elongated ZnSe NRs were produced from anisotropic ZnSe nuclei, while spherical ZnSe nanocrystals were obtained starting from isotropic nuclei. The different free energy at (111) and (220) planes in anisotropic ZnSe nuclei induces the anisotropic growth of (111) plane for ZnSe NRs. Proper choice of the capping ligand (1-dodecanethiol) has an important implication for the formation of anisotropic ZnSe nuclei and also allows the control of the diameter of the final ZnSe NRs by limiting the growth of the (220) crystal plane of anisotropic ZnSe nuclei.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(51): 20516-20524, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833362

RESUMO

We report a synthetic method to produce heavy-metal-free heterophase core/shell CuInS2 nanocrystals, which comprise differently sized cores with a cubic chalcopyrite (CP) structure overgrown with hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) shells. For a given core size, CP/WZ core/shell CuInS2 nanocrystals experience shifts in both absorption and photoluminescence spectra toward the near-infrared with increasing shell thickness. Studies of the photoluminescence dynamics of these heterophase CuInS2 nanocrystals reveals behavior similar to that of the typical type II nanostructures constructed from different semiconductor materials of the same crystal structure. The interface between the CP core and the WZ shell has an important effect on the photoluminescence quantum yield.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6720-6726, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549508

RESUMO

Colloidal InP quantum dots (QDs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for display and biolabeling applications because they are intrinsically toxicity-free and exhibit high photoluminescence. On account of the uncontrollable nucleation and growth during the synthesis of InP, obtaining high-quality blue-emitting InP QDs with uniform size distribution remains a challenge. Herein, we employ a novel synthetic approach for producing blue-emitting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with the assistance of copper cations. The studies reveal that the copper ions could combine with phosphorus precursor to form hexagonal Cu3-xP nanocrystals, which competed with the nucleation process of InP QDs, resulting in the smaller sized InP QDs with blue photoluminescence emission. After the passivation of InP QDs with the ZnS shell, the synthesized InP/ZnS core/shell QDs present bright blue emission (∼425 nm) with a photoluminescence quantum yield of ∼25%, which is the shortest wavelength emission for InP QDs to date. This research provides a new way to synthesize ultrasmall semiconductor nanocrystals.

5.
Adv Mater ; 31(25): e1900781, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063615

RESUMO

Quasi-1D colloidal semiconductor nanorods (NRs) are at the forefront of nanoparticle (NP) research owing to their intriguing size-dependent and shape-dependent optical and electronic properties. The past decade has witnessed significant advances in both fundamental understanding of the growth mechanisms and applications of these stimulating materials. Herein, the state-of-the-art of colloidal semiconductor NRs is reviewed, with special emphasis on heavy-metal-free materials. The main growth mechanisms of heavy-metal-free colloidal semiconductor NRs are first elaborated, including anisotropic-controlled growth, oriented attachment, solution-liquid-solid method, and cation exchange. Then, structural engineering and properties of semiconductor NRs are discussed, with a comprehensive overview of core/shell structures, alloying, and doping, as well as semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures, followed by highlighted practical applications in terms of photocatalysis, photodetectors, solar cells, and biomedicine. Finally, challenges and future opportunities in this fascinating research area are proposed.

6.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 30(1): 118-125, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671658

RESUMO

Ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) are small bivalved crustaceans, contributing over 200 described species to the marine zooplankton community. They are widely distributed and are relatively abundant components of the mesozooplankton, playing an important role in the transport of organic matter to deep layers. However, identification of ostracods based on micro-morphological characters is extremely difficult and time-consuming. Previous fragmentary taxonomic studies of ostracods in the South China Sea (SCA), were based solely on morphology. Here, by analysing the mitochondrial COI gene, we explore the taxa across the SCA using molecular tools for the first time. Our results show that sequence divergence among species varies within a large range, from 12.93% to 35.82%. Sixteen of the taxonomic units recovered by DNA taxonomy agree well with morphology, but Paraconchoecia oblonga, Conchoecia magna and Halocypris brevirostris split into two clades each, each of which contains cryptic species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Crustáceos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Filogenia , Zooplâncton/genética , Animais , Crustáceos/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Zooplâncton/classificação
7.
Water Res ; 146: 88-97, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236468

RESUMO

Fish manipulation has been used to restore lakes in the temperate zone. Often strong short-term cascading effects have been obtained, but the long term-perspectives are less clear. Fish manipulation methods are far less advanced for warm lakes, and it is debatable whether it is, in fact, possible to create a trophic cascade in warm lakes due to the dominance and high densities of fast-reproducing omnivorous fish. However, removal of benthic feeding fish also reduce disturbance of the sediment, which not only affects the nutrient level but also the concentration of suspended organic and inorganic matter with enhanced water clarity and potentially better growth conditions for submerged macrophytes. We conducted a biomanipulation experiment in one of the basins in Chinese Huizhou West Lake that have remained highly turbid after extensive nutrient loading reduction. Another basin was used as control (control-treatment pairing design). Removal of a substantial amount of plankti-benthivorous fish was followed by planting of submerged macrophytes and stocking of piscivorous fish. We found strong and relatively long-lasting effects of the restoration initiative in the form of substantial improvements in water clarity and major reductions in nutrient concentrations, particularly total phosphorus, phytoplankton and turbidity, while only minor effects were detected for crustacean zooplankton grazers occurring in low densities before as well as after the restoration. Our results add importantly to the existing knowledge of restoration of warm lakes and are strongly relevant, not least in Asia where natural lakes frequently are used extensively for fish production, often involving massive stocking of benthivorous fish. With a growing economy and development of more efficient fish production systems, the interest in restoring lakes is increasing world-wide. We found convincing evidence that fish removal and piscivores stocking combined with transplantation of submerged macrophytes may have significant effects on water clarity in warm shallow lakes even if the zooplankton grazing potential remains low, the latter most likely as a result of high predation on the zooplankton.


Assuntos
Lagos , Zooplâncton , Animais , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton , Comportamento Predatório
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(44): 14627-14637, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160101

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as outstanding model systems for studying quantum confined size and shape effects. Shape control is an important knob for controlling their properties but so far it has been well developed mainly for heavy-metal containing semiconductor nanocrystals, limiting their further widespread utilization. Herein, we report a synthesis of heavy-metal free ZnSe nanocrystals with shape and size control through utilization of well-defined molecular clusters. In this approach, ZnSe nanowires are synthesized and their length and shape control is achieved by introduction of controlled amounts of molecular clusters. As a result of [Zn4(SPh)10](Me4N)2 clusters (Zn4 clusters) addition, short ZnSe nanorods or ZnSe nanodots can be obtained through tuning the ratio of Zn4 clusters to ZnSe. A study using transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a hybrid inorganic-organic nanowire, whereby the ligands form a template for self-assembly of ZnSe magic size clusters. The hybrid nanowire template becomes shorter and eventually disappears upon increasing amount of Zn4 clusters in the reaction. The generality of the method is demonstrated by using isostructural [Cu4(SPh)6](Me4N)2 clusters, which presented a new approach to Cu doped ZnSe nanocrystals and provided also a unique opportunity to employ X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy for deciphering the changes in the local atomic-scale environment of the clusters and explaining their role in the process of the nanorods formation. Overall, the introduction of molecular clusters presented here opens a path for growth of colloidal semiconductor nanorods, expanding the palette of materials selection with obvious implications for optoelectronic and biomedical applications.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 163: 551-557, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077152

RESUMO

This study investigated the total concentrations and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in edible tissues and trophic levels of 12 marine organism species in the South China Sea. The results were used to estimate health risks to humans. Of the heavy metals detected, nickel (Ni) was present at the highest concentrations, followed in descending, order by iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Cd had the highest percentage bioaccessibility (61.91%). There were no correlations between log-transformed total metal concentrations and trophic level values, nor between log-transformed bioaccessibility metal concentrations and trophic level values. This indicates there is no biomagnification among these trace metals. The carcinogenic risk probabilities for Pb and Cr to urban and rural residents were below the acceptable level (< 1â€¯× 10-4). The target hazard quotient (THQ) value for each metal and the total THQ values for all metals studied indicated no significant risk of non-carcinogenic effects to urban and rural residents from consuming marine organisms from the South China Sea.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , China , Cromo/análise , Cromo/metabolismo , Cromo/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/toxicidade , Manganês/análise , Manganês/metabolismo , Manganês/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Níquel/análise , Níquel/metabolismo , Níquel/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/toxicidade
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 120(1-2): 286-291, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527743

RESUMO

China is the world's largest mariculture producer. However, there is limited detailed information on organic matter distribution generated by mariculture in China. This study assessed the total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) in surface sediments from Zhelin Bay in South China. TOC, TN, δ13C and δ15N ranged from 0.46-1.23%, 0.08-0.20%, -22.07 to -21.13‰ and 5.28-7.14‰, respectively, and followed similar spatial patterns. The C/N ratio coupled with isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N), indicates that the TOC originated from both terrestrial and marine sources. In general, surface sediments of Zhelin Bay were dominated by marine derived organic carbon; this form of carbon was separately calculated based on δ13C-based two end-member mixing and C/N ratio models.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Carbono , China , Sedimentos Geológicos , Isótopos , Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(17): 2626-2629, 2017 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28195285

RESUMO

Magic size III-V semiconductor nanoclusters were synthesized. Non-continuous transition of the absorption spectra upon mild heating of the reaction solution is observed, indicating transformation between differently sized clusters. Further manipulation of the clusters is demonstrated for an InP MSC by growing a ZnS and ZnSe shell aiming at blue fluorescence. The quantum yield is limited due to formation of interfacial defects for thick ZnS shells.

12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 114(2): 1125-1129, 2017 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765407

RESUMO

The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in four commercially valuable fish species (Thunnus obesus, Decapterus lajang, Cubiceps squamiceps and Priacanthus macracanthus), collected in the western continental shelf of the South China Sea. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in fish muscles were 0.006-0.050, 0.13-0.68, 0.18-0.85, 0.11-0.25, 0.12-0.77, and 2.41-4.73µg/g, wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in all species were below their acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of these wild fish species may be safe, with health risk assessment based on the target hazard quotients (THQ) and total THQ, indicating no significant adverse health effects with consumption. The average concentrations of Zn were higher in gills than in stomach contents, backbones or muscle, while conversely, the other heavy metals had higher concentrations in stomach contents than in other tissues.


Assuntos
Peixes , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Brânquias/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Músculos/química , Oceanos e Mares , Medição de Risco , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 126: 38-44, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26707187

RESUMO

The fuzzy comprehensive assessment was undertaken to evaluate the marine sediment quality in Daya Bay, China based on the monitoring data of 2015 and China National Standard for Marine Sediment Quality (GB 18668-2002). The results demonstrated that the average metal concentrations (mg/kg) were 0.08 (Cd), 51.30 (Pb), 91.30 (Cr), 29.63 (Cu), 143.42 (Zn), 0.03 (Hg), and 7.31 (As), which were clearly higher with respect to their corresponding background values. Cr was the major pollutant based weight matrices calculated. Taken as whole, the membership degree of class I was a range from 0.65 to 1, suggesting that the marine sediment quality in Daya Bay belongs to class I. Pb stable isotopic analysis coupled with geographic information system (GIS) approach showed the sedimentary Pb mainly originated from petrochemical industry at northwest coast of Daya Bay.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baías , China , Lógica Fuzzy , Chumbo/análise , Água do Mar/química
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 101(2): 852-9, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26578296

RESUMO

We investigated the total concentrations of heavy metals in surface sediments and nekton, along with sediment metal chemical partitioning in Qinzhou Bay of the Beibu Gulf. Cd was preferentially associated with the acid-soluble fraction and Pb mainly with the reducible fraction, whereas a major portion of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was strongly associated with the residual fractions. A principal component analysis (PCA) in sediment metal speciation revealed three groupings (Cd; Pb; Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn) that mainly resulted from different distributions of the metals in the various fractions. The Cr concentrations in nekton species were higher than maximum Cr concentrations permitted by the Chinese National Standard (GB 2762-2012). Taking as a whole, surface sediments of Qinzhou Bay had a 21% incidence calculation of adverse biological effects, based on the mean probable-effects-levels quotient. A human health risk assessment indicated no significant adverse health effects from consumption of nekton.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Small ; 9(5): 793-9, 2013 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23161794

RESUMO

This paper develops a facile solution-based method to synthesize hollow Cu2-x Te nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable interior volume based on the Kirkendall effect. Transmission electron microscopy images and time-dependent absorption spectra reveal the temporal growth process from solid copper nanoparticles to hollow Cu2-x Te NCs. Furthermore, the as-prepared hollow Cu2-x Te NCs show enhanced sensitivity for the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), which is often referred to as the "silent killer". The response and recovery time of the as-prepared sensor for the detection of 100 ppm CO gas are estimated to be about 21 and 100 s, respectively, which are sufficient to render it a promising candidate for effective CO gas-sensing applications. Such enhanced performance is achieved owing to the small grain size and large specific area of the hollow nanostructures. Therefore, the obtained hollow NCs based on the Kirkendall effect may have the potential as new functional blocks for high-performance gas sensors.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 211-212: 62-7, 2012 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22138176

RESUMO

In the present work, we demonstrated a simple and green synthesis route for shape-controlled ZnS nanocrystals, where only environmentally benign chemicals, namely sulfur, zinc oxide and olive oil, were employed. By controlling the experimental conditions, we were able to tune the band edge and trap state photoluminescences of ZnS nanocrystals and obtain pure excitonic photoluminescence that was rarely observed in literature. The trap state emission was derived from sulfur vacancies and would be eliminated when an excess of sulfur was used during the synthesis. Additionally, the morphology of ZnS nanocrystals could be tuned to appear like flowers, where the formation mechanism was systematically discussed.


Assuntos
Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Sulfetos/química , Compostos de Zinco/química , Luminescência , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Óxido de Zinco/química
17.
Nanoscale ; 3(2): 741-5, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21109892

RESUMO

Magnetic metal (Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) oxides nanocrystals with small size and uniform size distribution are synthesized via a cation-exchange reaction. Two experimental stages are included in the synthesis of metal oxides nanocrystals. Firstly, Cu(OH)2 decomposes to CuO nanocrystals, induced by free metal cations. Compared to CuO nanocrystals produced without any free metal cation, the free metal cation has an important influence on the shape and size of CuO. Secondly, free metal cations exchange with the Cu2+ cation in the CuO nanocrystals to get Mn3O4, Fe2O3, CoO and NiO nanocrystals by cation-exchange reactions. The magnetic properties of these metal oxides nanocrystals have been investigated, all the nanocrystals are superparamagnetic at room temperature.


Assuntos
Cátions/química , Magnetismo , Metais/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química , Cobalto/química , Ferro/química , Manganês/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Níquel/química , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Temperatura
18.
Nanoscale ; 2(9): 1699-703, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20820700

RESUMO

SnS nanocrystals have been synthesized in a simple and facile way. Sn(6)O(4)(OH)(4) is introduced to synthesize tin sulfide, which is used as tin precursor. By changing the reaction conditions (reaction temperature and Sn/S molar ratio), SnS nanocrystals with different shape and size can be produced. SnS nanoparticles and nanoflowers with orthorhombic crystal structure have uniform size distribution. The SnS nanoflowers firstly transform to polycrystalline nanoflowers, and then become amorphous nanosheets. The drive force of amorphization reduces the high free-energy of nanocrystals. The layered crystal structure of SnS is the main reason for the shape evolution and amorphization processes. The optical properties of nanoparticles are investigated by optical absorption spectra. The optical direct band gap and optical indirect band gap in SnS nanoparticles are 3.6 eV and 1.6 eV, respectively. Compared to direct band gap (1.3 eV) and indirect band gap (1.09 eV) in bulk SnS, both direct transition and indirect transition in nanoparticles show an obvious quantum-size effect.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Sulfetos/química , Compostos de Estanho/química , Cristalização , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Sulfetos/síntese química , Temperatura , Compostos de Estanho/síntese química , Difração de Raios X
19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 347(2): 172-6, 2010 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20399446

RESUMO

Cubic beta-In(2)S(3) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by a simple and facile way, which is 6 nm in size. Absorption and emission spectra of In(2)S(3) NPs show obvious blue peak shift compared to band gap of bulk In(2)S(3), indicating the strong quantum size confinement effect. The fluorescence quantum yield of In(2)S(3) NPs is found to be 10%. During the synthesis process, the absorption spectra have no peak shift, which is responding to transition from valence band to the conduction band levels. This absorption spectra show that the nucleation and growth process of In(2)S(3) NPs is very quick. The PL lifetime spectra and time resolved spectra give two emission processes in In(2)S(3) NPs, which would be excitonic recombination and electron-hole recombination via defects levels. The blue shift of emission peaks show the emission process in In(2)S(3) NPs is from mainly electron-holes recombination via defects levels to excitonic recombination. The Stokes shift becomes smaller which is mainly contributed by blue shift of emission and smaller contribution from the UV-Vis absorption. The absorption and emission spectra show the size and crystallinity of In(2)S(3) NPs have no changes (HRTEM images provide enough proofs); however the surface-related defects changed greatly in the reaction process.

20.
Langmuir ; 25(3): 1818-21, 2009 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19105789

RESUMO

A facile and reproducible approach was reported to synthesize nanoparticle-attached SnO nanoflowers via decomposition of an intermediate product Sn6O4(OH)4. Sn6O4(OH)4 formed after introducing water into the traditional nonaqueous reaction, and then decomposed to SnO nanoflowers with the help of free metal cations, such as Sn2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+. This free cation-induced formation process was found independent of the nature of the surface ligand. It was demonstrated further that the as-prepared SnO nanoflowers could be utilized as good anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries with a high capacity of around 800 mA h g(-1), close to the theoretical value (875 mA h g(-1)).

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