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1.
Toxicol Sci ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735003

RESUMO

The association between ambient airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and respiratory diseases has been investigated in epidemiological studies. To explore the potential mechanism of PM2.5-induced pulmonary fibrosis, sixty mice were divided into 3 groups to expose to different levels of PM2.5 for 8 and 16 weeks: filtered air (FA), unfiltered air (UA) and concentrated PM2.5 air (CA), respectively. BEAS-2B cells were treated with 0, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml PM2.5 for 24 h. The biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification and metabolism of mRNAs were detected to characterize the effect of PM2.5 exposure. The results illustrated that PM2.5 exposure induced pathological alteration and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. The expression of E-cadherin (E-cad) was decreased whereas vimentin and N-cadherin (N-cad) expression were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after PM2.5 exposure. Mechanistically, PM2.5 exposure increased the levels of METTL3-mediated m6A modification of CDH1 mRNA. As a target gene of miR-494-3p, YTHDF2 was up-regulated by miR-494-3p down-regulation and then recognized m6A-modified CDH1 mRNA to inhibit the E-cad expression, consequently induced the EMT progression after PM2.5 exposure. Our study indicated that PM2.5 exposure triggered EMT progression to promote the pulmonary fibrosis via miR-494-3p/YTHDF2 recognized and METTL3 mediated m6A modification.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 2): 1638-1651, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749138

RESUMO

Sacrifiers-promoted photocatalysis is a useful way to achieve high efficiency photoreduction and photocatalytic hydrogen production for photocatalysts of weak reductive power such as TiO2. Herein we report a new method to fabricate a unique dyadic hybrid consisting of closely compacted crystalline (anatase) and titanium glycerolate (TiG)-derived organic group-retained amorphous nanoparticles to validate adsorption-stored sacrifiers-promoted photocatalysis instead of using sacrifiers in bulk solution. It was found that ascorbic acid (AA)-modified TiG prepared at a small fraction of glycerol, characterized by peculiar cocoon/open nanocontainer-type morphologies, varieties of oxygen containing groups, and remarkably high specific surface area, is suitable for precursing such hybrids. AA can change crystallization processes and particle morphologies by terminating chain linkages in TiG structure, which increases porosity and brings about visible light responsive photocatalysis for the dyadic hybrid. Benefiting from good adsorption affinity to organic sacrifiers, the sacrifier-prestored hybrid can catalyze significantly enhanced photoreduction with good reproducibility toward dye molecules via the synergy of sacrifier enrichment and photocatalysis. AA modified TiG also exhibits good self-reducibility enabling pre-loading of highly dispersed and localized platinum nanoparticles, and the resulted dyadic hybrid facilitates photocatalytic hydrogen production of extremely higher turn-off frequency and better impurities interference-resistivity compared to the P25-based commercial catalyst.

3.
Geospat Health ; 16(2)2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730320

RESUMO

An accurate assessment of current healthcare resource allocations is essential to address existing inequities in the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system introduced in China. The data come from statistical reports of local governments and the developer platform of Amap, a Chinese mobile map. The data were analysed using the hierarchical two-step floating catchment area method. By spatial accessibility analysis, the distribution of accessibility to hierarchical healthcare facilities in Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province was found to be uneven, with clustered high accessibility in the central, north-western and southern parts of the city. To enhance the capacity of healthcare services, the government should allocate healthcare resources rationally to better associate with population densities.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Área Programática de Saúde , China/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27362, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual randomized trials are not powered to assess the relationship between use of sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors and risk of stroke. We sought to explore this issue by a meta-analysis incorporating relevant trials including several latest trials. METHODS: Cardiovascular outcome trials of gliflozins were included. Primary outcome was stroke, while secondary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which was a composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death. Meta-analysis was conducted stratified by with/without chronic kidney disease (CKD), with/without heart failure (HF), and with/without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and stratified by different gliflozins. RESULTS: We included 9 trials in this meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, gliflozins significantly lowered stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.84) and MACE (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.86) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with CKD, but did not significantly affect stroke (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86-1.16) and MACE (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.86-1.02) in T2D patients without CKD. Gliflozins had no significant effects on the stroke risk (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82-1.07) in T2D patients regardless of HF status (Psubgroup = .684) and ASCVD status (Psubgroup = .915), but significantly lowered MACE (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.96) in T2D patients regardless of HF status (Psubgroup = .428) and ASCVD status (Psubgroup = .423). Canagliflozin (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.69-1.01) showed the trend of a reduction in the stroke risk versus placebo, and sotagliflozin (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.98) significantly lowered the stroke risk; whereas the other 3 gliflozins did not significantly affect that risk. Ertugliflozin (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.11) had no significant effects on the MACE risk, whereas the other 4 gliflozins significantly lowered that risk. CONCLUSIONS: Gliflozins, especially canagliflozin and sotagliflozin, should be recommended in T2D patients with CKD to prevent stroke. Most gliflozins lower the risk of MACE in T2D patients regardless of HF status and ASCVD status, whereas ertugliflozin is not observed to lower that risk.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
5.
Environ Res ; : 112161, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies (CAs) are the leading causes for children's disabilities and mortalities worldwide. The associations between air pollution and CAs are not fully characterized in fetuses born by in vitro fertilization (IVF) who are at high risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 16,971 IVF cycles from three hospitals in Hebei Province, China, 2014-2019. Air quality data was obtained from 149 air monitoring stations. Individual average daily concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 were estimated by spatiotemporal kriging method. Exposure windows were divided into 5: preantral follicle period, antral follicle period, germinal period, embryonic period and early fetal period. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the associations between air pollutants and overall or organ-system specific congenital anomalies. Negative control exposure method was used to detect and reduce bias of estimation. RESULTS: We found increasing levels of PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher risk of overall congenital anomalies during early fetal period, equating gestation 10-12 weeks (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.013 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5; OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.021 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10). Cleft lip and cleft palate were associated with PM10 in germinal period and early fetal period. The CAs of eye, ear, face and neck were related to CO in preantral follicle stage. We did not find an association between chromosome abnormalities and air pollution exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that ambient air pollution was a risk factor for congenital anomalies in the fetuses conceived through IVF, especially exposure in early fetal period.

6.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 272, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the addition of taxanes to platinum and fluoropyrimidines in adjuvant chemotherapy would result in longer survival than platinum plus fluoropyrimidines in gastric cancer patients who received D2 gastrectomy. METHODS: Data of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who received D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with platinum plus fluoropyrimidines or taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines was retrospectively collected and analyzed. 1:1 Propensity score matching analysis was used to balance baseline characteristics between two groups. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-five patients in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group and 177 patients in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group were included into analysis. No statistical differences in disease-free survival and overall survival were observed between two groups. After propensity score matching, 172 couples of patients were matched, the baseline characteristics were balanced. The median disease-free survival were 15.8 months (95% CI, 9.3~22.4) in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group and 22.6 months (95% CI, 15.9~29.4) in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (HR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48~0.85; P = 0.002). The median overall survival was 25.4 months for patients in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (95% CI, 19.4~31.3) and 33.8 months (95% CI, 23.5~44.2) for those in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.87; log-rank test, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: For gastric adenocarcinoma patients, the adjuvant triplet combination of taxanes, platinum, and fluoropyrimidines regimen after D2 gastrectomy was superior to platinum plus fluoropyrimidines regimen in disease-free survival as well as overall survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This project has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1800019978 ).


Assuntos
Platina , Neoplasias Gástricas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112659, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418850

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy could be induced by ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. Since cardiac hypertrophy represents an early event leading to heart dysfunction, it is necessary to explore the molecular mechanisms, which are largely unknown. In the present study, an ambient particulate matter exposure mice model was established to explore its adverse effects related to the heart and the potential mechanisms. Forty-eight male C57BL/6 mice were randomly subjected to three groups: filtered air group, unfiltered air group and concentrated air group, and were exposed for 8 and 16 weeks, 6 h/day, respectively. In vitro experiments, the cardiac muscle cell line (HL-1) was treated with PM2.5 (0, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL) for 24 h. In the present study, cardiac hypertrophy was occurred in vivo and vitro after exposure to PM2.5. Mechanistically, circ_0001859 could sponge miR-29b-3p, which could interact with 3'UTRs of Ctnnb1 (gene name of ß-catenin). And Ctnnb1 expression was transcriptionally inhibited by si-circ_0001859 or miR-29b-3p mimic in HL-1 cells. Additionally, miR-29b-3p inhibitor could also make a reversion about the inhibition effect of circ_0001859 silencing on Ctnnb1 mRNA level in HL-1 cells. Functionally, knockout of circ_0001859 or overexpression of miR-29b-3p could inhibit LEF1/IGF-2R pathway and alleviate the progress of hypertrophy induced by PM2.5 in HL-1 cells. And miR-29b-3p inhibitor could reverse the inhibition effect of circ_0001859 silencing on hypertrophic response induced by PM2.5 in HL-1 cells. Consequently, the data demonstrated that circRNA_0001859 promoted the process of cardiac hypertrophy through suppressing miR-29b-3p leading to enhance Ctnnb1 level, and activated downstream pathway molecules LEF1/IGF-2R.

8.
Helicobacter ; 26(5): e12827, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important mediator in lots of diseases, interleukin-9 (IL-9) can be a protector or pro-inflammatory cytokine depending on the complicated inflammatory milieu. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced a series of immunology cells and cytokines change, and however, the role of IL-9 in H. pylori infection remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild-type and IL-9 deficient mice were infected with H. pylori by means of intragastric administration. The colonization of H. pylori bacteria was measured by detecting specific 16s rDNA, and the intensity of inflammation was observed by H&E stain. The expression level of inflammation cytokines was determined by ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: IL-9 was increased due to the attack of H. pylori, besides deletion of Il9 aggravated the bacterial colonization and inflammation intensity. In addition, treatment of rmIL-9 reduced colonized H. pylori and inflammation level, indicated that IL-9 was a protector for the host against this bacterium. Followed by the H. pylori infection, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A were up-regulated as expected, and nevertheless, the expression of IL-17A shared a positive relationship with IL-9 while IFN-γ negative associated with IL-9. Moreover, we also proved that Treg cells were not involved in the protective effect of IL-9, and meanwhile, CD4+ CD25- T cells secreted more IFN-γ and less IL-17A in vitro due to the deletion of Il9. CONCLUSIONS: IL-9 plays a protective role against H. pylori and the protection associated with cytokines change including IFN-γ and IL-17A.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica , Imunidade , Interleucina-9 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267345

RESUMO

Almonertinib is a novel third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It is mainly metabolized by CYP3A in vitro, and N-desmethylated almonertinib (HAS-719) is the major active metabolite in human plasma. In this study, we investigated the effects of CYP3A inhibitor itraconazole and CYP3A inducer rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of almonertinib and HAS-719 in 64 healthy volunteers. We found that when co-administered with itraconazole, the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and the plasma exposure (AUC0-t) of almonertinib were increased by 56.3% and 2.38-fold, respectively, whereas the Cmax and AUC0-t of HAS-719 were reduced by 86.8% and 71.8%, respectively. Co-administration with rifampicin reduced the Cmax and AUC0-t of almonertinib by 79.3% and 92.6%, but the AUC0-t of HAS-719 was unexpectedly decreased by 72.5%. In vitro assays showed that both almonertinib and HAS-719 were substrates of CYP3A and P-gp. Co-administration of rifampicin in Beagle dogs reduced the fecal recovery of almonertinib and HAS-719, and markedly increased the levels of metabolites derived from further metabolism of HAS-719, which was consistent with human plasma data, suggesting that although rifampicin was also a potent inducer of P-gp, the pharmacokinetic alternation of HAS-719 was mainly due to its further metabolism but not excretion changes. Moreover, we revealed that almonertinib was a moderately sensitive substrate of CYP3A in vivo. Special attention should be paid to the interaction between almonertinib and drugs or food affecting CYP3A activity in the clinical application of almonertinib.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(25): 6968-6980, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137594

RESUMO

It is important to discover new pesticides with new modes of action because of the increasing evolution of pesticide resistance. In this study, a series of novel pyrimidin-4-amine derivatives containing a 5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Bioassays indicated that the 29 compounds synthesized possessed excellent insecticidal activity against Mythimna separata, Aphis medicagini, and Tetranychus cinnabarinus and fungicidal activity against Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Among these pyrimidin-4-amine compounds, 5-chloro-N-(2-fluoro-4-(5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzyl)-6-(1-fluoroethyl)pyrimidin-4-amine (U7) and 5-bromo-N-(2-fluoro-4-(5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzyl)-6-(1-fluoroethyl) pyrimidin-4-amine(U8) had broad-spectrum insecticidal and fungicidal activity. The LC50 values were 3.57 ± 0.42, 4.22 ± 0.47, and 3.14 ± 0.73 mg/L for U7, U8, and flufenerim against M. separata, respectively. The EC50 values were 24.94 ± 2.13, 30.79 ± 2.21, and 3.18 ± 0.21 mg/L for U7, U8, and azoxystrobin against P. cubensis, respectively. The AChE enzymatic activity testing revealed that the enzyme activities of compounds U7, U8, and flufenerim are 0.215, 0.184, and 0.184 U/mg prot, respectively. The molecular docking results of compounds U7, U8, and flufenerim with the AChE model demonstrated the opposite docking mode between compound U7 or U8 and positive control flufenerim in the active site of AChE. The structure-activity relationships are also discussed. This work provided excellent pesticide for further optimization. Density functional theory analysis can potentially be used to design more active compounds.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Aminas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 145, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modification of the gut microbiota has been reported to reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We hypothesized that the gut microbiota shifts might also have an effect on cognitive functions in T1D. Herein we used a non-absorbable antibiotic vancomycin to modify the gut microbiota in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D mice and studied the impact of microbial changes on cognitive performances in T1D mice and its potential gut-brain neural mechanism. RESULTS: We found that vancomycin exposure disrupted the gut microbiome, altered host metabolic phenotypes, and facilitated cognitive impairment in T1D mice. Long-term acetate deficiency due to depletion of acetate-producing bacteria resulted in the reduction of synaptophysin (SYP) in the hippocampus as well as learning and memory impairments. Exogenous acetate supplement or fecal microbiota transplant recovered hippocampal SYP level in vancomycin-treated T1D mice, and this effect was attenuated by vagal inhibition or vagotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the protective role of microbiota metabolite acetate in cognitive functions and suggest long-term acetate deficiency as a risk factor of cognitive decline. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Encéfalo , Camundongos
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 673976, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135862

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a kind of common microvascular complication of diabetes. This study aims to explore the possible links between blood sugar level and albuminuria, providing the exact cut point of the "risk threshold" for blood glucose with DKD. Methods: The relationship between blood glucose and albuminuria was modeled using linear and logistic regression in the REACTION study cohorts (N= 8932). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression model. Two-slope linear regression was used to simulate associations between blood glucose and ACR. Results: We found that the increase in ACR was accompanied by increased HbA1c, with a turning point at 5.5%. The positive correlation remained highly significant (P<0.001) when adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, smoking status, drinking status, BMI, waistline, SBP and DBP. In subgroup analyses including gender, obesity, hypertension, and smoking habits, the relationship was significant and stable. Conclusions: We determined a risk threshold for HbA1c associated with albuminuria in a Chinese population over the age of 40. HbA1c ≥ 5.5% was positively and independently associated with ACR. These results suggest the necessity of early blood glucose control and renal function screening for DKD in at-risk populations.

14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 659733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140929

RESUMO

The dynamic cycling of N-acetylglucosamine, termed as O-GlcNAcylation, is a post-translational modification of proteins and is involved in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes. It is controlled by two essential enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. O-GlcNAcylation serves as a modulator in placental tissue; furthermore, increased levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation have been observed in women with hyperglycemia during pregnancy, which may affect the short-and long-term development of offspring. In this review, we focus on the impact of O-GlcNAcylation on placental functions in hyperglycemia-associated pregnancies. We discuss the following topics: effect of O-GlcNAcylation on placental development and its association with hyperglycemia; maternal-fetal nutrition transport, particularly glucose transport, via the mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways; and the two-sided regulatory effect of O-GlcNAcylation on inflammation. As O-GlcNAcylation in the placental tissues of pregnant women with hyperglycemia influences near- and long-term development of offspring, research in this field has significant therapeutic relevance.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 276: 114143, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932509

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae) has been widely used for heat clearance and detoxification, anti-inflammatory diuretic, and anti-microbes for two thousand years in national minorities, especially among the Dai people. It was known as "Zhuyelan" (Chinese: ), "Wenshanghai" (Chinese: ) and "Baiyangjie" (Chinese: ) in the Dai nationality, and mainly used as antidote, which is characterized by "relieving the poison before getting sick and treating illness". Therefore, it has been typically applied in the treatment of food poisoning, snake bites, rheumatism, stomachache and traumatic injuries. It is also used to treat bronchitis, tuberculosis and pneumonia in the Bulang and the Wa ethnic people. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information about the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of A. graminifolia, and the related importantly medicinal plants (e.g. Bletilla striata, Cremastra appendiculata, and Dendrobium officinale) of the same Orchidaceae family. Our work aims to further promote scientific cognition, basic research and in-depth discovery of potential drug candidates for Minority Medicine of our nation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information was obtained via piles of resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and worldwide accepted scientific databases including Web of Science, Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Elsevier, Springer, NCBI, ACS Publications, CNKI and Wanfang data. RESULTS: Phytochemical investigations have been intensively performed for these two decades, over 134 compounds, mainly include stilbenoids, phenanthrenes, quinones, ketones, phenolic acids, and glycosides, have been isolated and identified from A. graminifolia. The literature surveys exhibited that the ethnomedicinal uses of A. graminifolia, such as detoxification, anti-inflammation and the ability to cure trauma and pain associated with infections, are correlated with its modern pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidation. Stilbenoids and phenanthrenes have been regarded as the main active substances, among which stilbenoids with open ring style have superior antitumor activity. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations, biological activities, as well as the main molecular mechanism involved the coexisted stilbenoids and phenanthrenes from other most common used medicinal plants of the same Orchidaceae family were presented, compared and discussed together. CONCLUSIONS: This review presents the current research findings of A. graminifolia and three other related medicinal plants of the same family. Some of the traditional uses of A. graminifolia have been assessed by pharmacological studies. Despite A. graminifolia is used as an antidote and anti-aging dote, a few unsolved problems including the molecular mechanism underlying biological activities, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo detoxification tests still need to be settled extensively. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey and collect investigation information on A. graminifolia.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Orchidaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Estilbenos/análise , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia
16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 235, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044792

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: Recently, we found that maximal medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection in patients with complete lateral rectus paralysis resulted in a partial restoration of abduction. In an attempt to understand some of the mechanisms involved with this effect we examined gene expression profiles of lateral recti from these patients, with our focus being directed to genes related to myogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lateral recti resected from patients with complete lateral rectus paralysis and those from concomitant esotropia (controls) were collected. Differences in gene expression profiles between these two groups were examined using microarray analysis and quantitative Reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: A total of 3056 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between these two groups. Within the paralytic esotropia group, 2081 genes were up-regulated and 975 down-regulated. The results of RT-PCR revealed that PAX7, MYOG, PITX1, SIX1 and SIX4 showed higher levels of expression, while that of MYOD a lower level of expression within the paralytic esotropia group as compared with that in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The decreased expression of MYOD in the paralytic esotropia group suggested that extraocular muscle satellite cell (EOMSCs) differentiation processes were inhibited. Whereas the high expression levels of PAX7, SIX1/4 and MYOG, suggested that the EOMSCs were showing an effective potential for differentiation. The stimulation resulting from muscle surgery may induce EOMSCs to differentiate and thus restore abduction function.


Assuntos
Doenças do Nervo Abducente , Esotropia , Diferenciação Celular , Esotropia/cirurgia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 780: 146662, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030296

RESUMO

Soluble microbial products (SMP), a type of polymers released from microbial metabolism and decay, show great potential for wastewater treatment as bioflocculants; however, biogenic flocculant utilization is currently limited to bacterial SMP. In this study, SMP produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKMF-1767 (SMP-P) was investigated to determine the application potential of fungal SMP. SMP-P exhibited high flocculation activity in kaolin suspension at a dosage range of 0.67-0.84 mg/L with Ca2+ assistance, comparable to that of commercial polyacrylamide. The high molecular weight polysaccharides (2.0 × 106-4.7 × 107 Da) in SMP-P, which enabled flocculation via the bridging mechanism and served as the dominant active constituent, were composed of glucose and arabinose at a molar ratio of 1: 0.03, with (1 â†’ 4, 6)-linked glucose as the main backbone and a small proportion of branched structures. They contained hydroxyl and carboxyl, effective functional groups for the flocculation process, and displayed parallel self-orientation behavior in water. Efficient chemical oxygen demand removal was achieved during municipal wastewater treatment using SMP-P as the bioflocculant. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing fugal SMP as bioflocculants and provides guidance for their practical application.


Assuntos
Phanerochaete , Purificação da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Floculação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Águas Residuárias
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 661357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828565

RESUMO

In chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy, the role and mechanism of indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in enhancing antitumor immunity require further study. IDO1 is one of the most important immunosuppressive proteins in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the IDO1 inhibitor, epacadostat, has failed in phase III clinical trials; its limited capacity to inhibit IDO1 expression at tumor sites was regarded as a key reason for clinical failure. In this study, we innovatively loaded the IDO1 inhibitor into hyaluronic acid-modified nanomaterial graphene oxide (HA-GO) and explored its potential efficacy in combination with CAR-T cell therapy. We found that inhibition of the antitumor effect of CAR-T cells in ESCC was dependent on the IDO1 metabolite kynurenine. Kynurenine could suppress CAR-T cell cytokine secretion and cytotoxic activity. Inhibiting IDO1 activity significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of CAR-T cells in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggested that IDO1 inhibitor-loaded nanosheets could enhance the antitumor effect of CAR-T cells compared with free IDO1 inhibitor. Nanosheet-loading therefore provides a promising approach for improving CAR-T cell therapeutic efficacy in solid tumors.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oximas/farmacologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Nanoestruturas/química , Oximas/química , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(4): 1308-1325, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The county-level traditional Chinese medicine hospitals have significantly expanded in recent decades. This study aims to assess the changes in the efficiency and productivity of the county-level traditional Chinese medicine hospitals and explore the possible causes of such changes. METHODS: Sixty one hospitals spanning from 2001 to 2017 were selected as samples in this study. And a slacks-based measure of super-efficiency in Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist index were used to respectively measure the changes in the efficiency and productivity. RESULTS: The scale of sample hospitals in Hubei continuously expanded from 2001 to 2017. The mean values of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in 2017 were 0.686, 0.74 and 0.933, respectively. The technical efficiency changes in 2017 was 1.97 times that of 2001, and the technological changes in 2017 was 1.45 times that of 2001. CONCLUSIONS: The medical environment and resources have been greatly improved due to the expansion of the sample hospitals, but the technical efficiency value indicates that the operation efficiency of sample hospitals still needs to be significantly improved. Decision-makers are advised to attach importance to the efficiency of operation management and consider the impact of multiple factors on the change in productivity.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Hospitais de Condado , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(2): 209-220, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842215

RESUMO

Background: Due to the lack of donor hearts, many studies have assessed the prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients treated with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD). However, previous results have not been consistent and minimal data is available regarding long-term outcomes. There is no consensus on whether CF-LVAD as a bridge or destination therapy (DT) can equal orthotopic heart transplantation (HTx). The purpose of our study is to compare clinical outcomes between CF-LVAD and HTx in adults. Methods: We searched controlled trials from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases until July 1, 2020. The mortality at different time points and adverse events were analyzed among 12 included studies. Results: No significant differences were found in mortality at one-year [odds ratio (OR) =1.08; 95% CI: 0.97-1.21], two-year (OR =1.01; 95% CI: 0.91-1.12), three-year (OR =1.02; 95% CI: 0.69-1.51), and five-year (OR =1.02; 95% CI: 0.93-1.11), as well as the comparison of stroke, bleeding, and infection between CF-LVAD as a bridge versus HTx. The pooled analysis of one-year mortality (OR =2.76; 95% CI: 0.38-20.18) and two-year mortality (OR =1.64; 95% CI: 0.22-12.23) revealed no significant difference between CF-LVAD DT and HTx. Comparisons of adverse events showed no differences in bleeding or infection, but a higher risk of stroke (OR =5.09; 95% CI: 1.74-14.84) for patients treated with CF-LVAD DT than with HTx. Conclusions: CF-LVAD as a bridge results in similar outcomes as HTx within five years. CF-LVAD as a DT is associated with similar one-year and two-year mortality, but carries a higher risk of stroke, as compared with HTx.

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