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1.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 4, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Re-irradiation (re-RT) is a technically challenging task for which few standardized approaches exist. This is in part due to the lack of a common platform to assess dose tolerance in relation to toxicity in the re-RT setting. To better address this knowledge gap and provide new tools for studying and developing thresholds for re-RT, we developed a novel algorithm that allows for anatomically accurate three-dimensional mapping of composite biological effective dose (BED) distributions from nominal doses (Gy). METHODS: The algorithm was designed to automatically convert nominal dose from prior treatment plans to corresponding BED value maps (voxel size 2.5 mm3 and α/ß of 3 for normal tissue, BED3). Following the conversion of each plan to a BED3 dose distribution, deformable registration was used to create a summed composite re-irradiation BED3 plan for each patient who received two treatments. A proof-of-principle analysis was performed on 38 re-irradiation cases of initial stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) followed by either re-SABR or chemoradiation for isolated locoregional recurrence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. RESULTS: Evaluation of the algorithm-generated maps revealed appropriate conversion of physical dose to BED at each voxel. Of 14 patients receiving repeat SABR, there was one case each of grade 3 chest wall pain (7%), pneumonitis (7%), and dyspnea (7%). Of 24 patients undergoing repeat fractionated radiotherapy, grade 3 events were limited to two cases each of pneumonitis and dyspnea (8%). Composite BED3 dosimetry for each patient who experienced grade 2-3 events is provided and may help guide development of precise cumulative dose thresholds for organs at risk in the re-RT setting. CONCLUSIONS: This novel algorithm successfully created a voxel-by-voxel composite treatment plan using BED values. This approach may be used to more precisely examine dosimetric predictors of toxicities and to establish more accurate normal tissue constraints for re-irradiation.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The historical standard of care for brain metastases (BMs) from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, there is growing interest in upfront stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for select SCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited United State-based Radiation Oncologists (ROs) via email to answer an anonymous survey using a branching logic system addressing their use of SRS and WBRT for SCLC BMs. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare differences in continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were fitted for outcome variables including covariates with P < .10 obtained on univariable analysis. RESULTS: In total, 309 ROs completed the survey and 290 (95.7%) reported that they would consider SRS for SCLC BMs under certain clinical circumstances. Across patient characteristics, the number of BMs was the most heavily weighted factor (mean 4.3/5 in importance), followed by performance status, cognitive function, and response to prior therapy. Fewer BMs were correlated with increased SRS use (55.8% offered SRS "very frequently" [>75% of cases] or "often" [51%-75% of cases] for 1 BM vs. 1.1% for >10 BM, P < .001). In situations where WBRT was preferred, concern for rapid intracranial progression (45.3%) and lack of high-level data (36.9%) were the most important factors. The majority (60.6%) were aware of a large recent international retrospective analysis (the FIRE-SCLC study) reporting similar OS between upfront SRS and WBRT; awareness of this study was the only respondent variable predictive of SRS use for limited BMs (19.2% of those aware of the study preferring SRS for limited [≤4] BMs before vs. 61% preferring SRS after the publication, P < .001). The majority of respondents (88.2%) expressed a willingness to enroll patients on a recently opened recently opened randomized trial, NRG-CC009, comparing SRS versus hippocampal-avoidance WBRT. CONCLUSIONS: In the first survey of SRS for SCLC BMs, we observed a high level of physician openness to upfront SRS in SCLC, particularly for patients with limited numbers of BMs, as well as significant interest in generating prospective randomized data to clarify the role of SRS in this population.

4.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(9): 1220-1227, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa and is also a leading cause of cancer related deaths among these women. The benefit of chemoradiation in comparison with radiation alone for patients with stage IIIB disease has not been evaluated prospectively in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We assessed the survival of chemoradiation versus radiation alone among stage IIIB cervical cancer patients based on HIV status. METHODS: Between February 2013 and June 2018, patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage IIIB cervical cancer with or without HIV and treated with chemoradiation or radiation alone, were prospectively enrolled in an observational cohort study. Overall survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to analyze associations with survival. RESULTS: Among 187 patients, 63% (n=118) of women had co-infection with HIV, and 48% (n=69) received chemoradiation. Regardless of HIV status, patients who received chemoradiation had improved 2 year overall survival compared with those receiving radiation alone (59% vs 41%, p<0.01), even among women living with HIV (60% vs 38%, p=0.02). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, including all patients regardless of HIV status, 2 year overall survival was associated with receipt of chemoradiation (hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, p=0.04) and total radiation dose ≥80 Gy (HR 0.57, p=0.02). Among patients who received an adequate radiation dose of ≥80 Gy, adjusted overall survival rates were similar between chemoradiation versus radiation alone groups (HR 1.07; p=0.90). However, patients who received an inadequate radiation dose of <80 Gy, adjusted survival was significantly higher in chemoradiation versus radiation alone group (HR 0.45, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of chemotherapy to standard radiation improved overall survival, regardless of HIV status, and is even more essential in women who cannot receive full doses of radiation.

5.
Radiother Oncol ; 162: 60-67, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237343

RESUMO

AIM: To report early findings from a phase II trial of high-dose radiotherapy (HD-RT) with or without low-dose RT (LD-RT) for metastatic cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients had metastatic disease that progressed on immunotherapy within 6 months. Patients were given either HD-RT (20-70 Gy total; 3-12.5 Gy/f), or HD-RT + LD-RT (0.5-2 Gy/f up to 1-10 Gy total) to separate lesions, with continued immunotherapy. Radiographic response was assessed per RECIST 1.1 and Immune-Related Response Criteria (irRC). Primary endpoints: (1) 4-month disease control (DCR, complete/partial response [CR/PR] or stable disease [SD]) or an overall response (ORR, CR/PR) at any point in ≥10% of patients, per RECIST 1.1; (2) dose-limiting toxicity within 3 months not exceeding 30%. Secondary endpoint was lesion-specific response. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (NSCLC, n = 38; melanoma n = 21) were analyzed (39 HD-RT and 35 HD-RT + LD-RT). The median follow-up time was 13.6 months. The primary endpoint was met for 72 evaluable patients, with a 4-month DCR of 42% (47% [16/34] vs. 37% [14/38] in HD-RT + LD-RT vs. HD-RT, P = 0.38), and 19% ORR at any time (26% [9/34] vs. 13% [5/38] in HD-RT + LD-RT vs. HD-RT, P = 0.27). Three patients had toxicity ≥grade 3. LD-RT lesion response (53%) was improved compared to nonirradiated lesions in HD-RT + LD-RT (23%, P = 0.002) and HD-RT (11%, P < 0.001). T- and NK cell infiltration was enhanced in lesions treated with LD-RT. CONCLUSIONS: HD-RT plus LD-RT safely improved lesion-specific response in patients with immune resistant solid tumors by promoting infiltration of effector immune cells into the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Int J Part Ther ; 8(1): 319-327, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285958

RESUMO

Purpose: We compared work outcomes in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), randomized to intensity-modulated proton (IMPT) versus intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) for chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: In 147 patients with stage II-IVB squamous cell OPC participating in patient-reported outcomes assessments, a prespecified secondary aim of a randomized phase II/III trial of IMPT (n = 69) versus IMRT (n = 78), we compared absenteeism, presenteeism (i.e., the extent to which an employee is not fully functional at work), and work productivity losses. We used the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire at baseline (pre-CRT), at the end of CRT, and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. A one-sided Cochran-Armitage test was used to analyze within-arm temporal trends, and a χ2 test was used to compare between-arm differences. Among working patients, at each follow-up point, a 1-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare work-productivity scores. Results: Patient characteristics in IMPT versus IMRT arms were similar. In the IMPT arm, within-arm analysis demonstrated that an increasing proportion of patients resumed working after IMPT, from 60% (40 of 67) pre-CRT and 71% (30 of 42) at 1 year to 78% (18 of 23) at 2 years (P = 0.025). In the IMRT arm, the proportion remained stable, with 57% (43 of 76) pre-CRT, 54% (21 of 39) at 1 year, and 52% (13 of 25) working at 2 years (P = 0.47). By 2 years after CRT, the between-arm difference between patients who had IMPT and those who had IMRT trended toward significance (P = 0.06). Regardless of treatment arm, among working patients, the most severe work impairments occurred from treatment initiation to the end of CRT, with significant recovery from absenteeism, presenteeism, and productivity impairments by the 2-year follow-up (P < 0.001 for all). Higher magnitudes of recovery from absenteeism (at 1 year, P = 0.05; and at 2 years, P = 0.04) and composite work impairment scores (at 1 year, P = 0.04; and at 2 years, P = 0.04) were seen in patients treated with IMPT versus those treated with IMRT. Conclusion: In patients with OPC receiving curative CRT, patients randomized to IMPT demonstrated increasing work and productivity recovery trends. Studies are needed to identify mechanisms underlying head and neck CRT treatment causing work disability and impairment.

7.
Int J Part Ther ; 8(1): 339-353, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285960

RESUMO

Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is associated with less toxicity relative to conventional photon radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Upfront delivery costs are greater, but PBT can provide superior long-term value by minimizing treatment-related complications. Cost-effectiveness models (CEMs) estimate the relative value of novel technologies (such as PBT) as compared with the established standard of care. However, the uncertainties of CEMs can limit interpretation and applicability. This review serves to (1) assess the methodology and quality of pertinent CEMs in the existing literature, (2) evaluate their suitability for guiding clinical and economic strategies, and (3) discuss areas for improvement among future analyses. Materials and Methods: PubMed was queried for CEMs specific to PBT for HNC. General characteristics, modeling information, and methodological approaches were extracted for each identified study. Reporting quality was assessed via the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards 24-item checklist, whereas methodologic quality was evaluated via the Philips checklist. The Cooper evidence hierarchy scale was employed to analyze parameter inputs referenced within each model. Results: At the time of study, only 4 formal CEMs specific to PBT for HNC had been published (2005, 2013, 2018, 2020). The parameter inputs among these various Markov cohort models generally referenced older literature, excluding many clinically relevant complications and applying numerous hypothetical assumptions for toxicity states, incorporating inputs from theoretical complication-probability models because of limited availability of direct clinical evidence. Case numbers among study cohorts were low, and the structural design of some models inadequately reflected the natural history of HNC. Furthermore, cost inputs were incomplete and referenced historic figures. Conclusion: Contemporary CEMs are needed to incorporate modern estimates for toxicity risks and costs associated with PBT delivery, to provide a more accurate estimate of value, and to improve their clinical applicability with respect to PBT for HNC.

8.
Int J Part Ther ; 8(1): 374-382, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285963

RESUMO

Purpose: In value-based health care delivery, radiation oncologists need to compare empiric costs of care delivery with advanced technologies, such as intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We used time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to compare the costs of delivering IMPT and IMRT in a case-matched pilot study of patients with newly diagnosed oropharyngeal (OPC) cancer. Materials and Methods: We used clinicopathologic factors to match 25 patients with OPC who received IMPT in 2011-12 with 25 patients with OPC treated with IMRT in 2000-09. Process maps were created for each multidisciplinary clinical activity (including chemotherapy and ancillary services) from initial consultation through 1 month of follow-up. Resource costs and times were determined for each activity. Each patient-specific activity was linked with a process map and TDABC over the full cycle of care. All calculated costs were normalized to the lowest-cost IMRT patient. Results: TDABC costs for IMRT were 1.00 to 3.33 times that of the lowest-cost IMRT patient (mean ± SD: 1.65 ± 0.56), while costs for IMPT were 1.88 to 4.32 times that of the lowest-cost IMRT patient (2.58 ± 0.39) (P < .05). Although single-fraction costs were 2.79 times higher for IMPT than for IMRT (owing to higher equipment costs), average full cycle cost of IMPT was 1.53 times higher than IMRT, suggesting that the initial cost increase is partly mitigated by reductions in costs for other, non-RT supportive health care services. Conclusions: In this matched sample, although IMPT was on average more costly than IMRT primarily owing to higher equipment costs, a subset of IMRT patients had similar costs to IMPT patients, owing to greater use of supportive care resources. Multidimensional patient outcomes and TDABC provide vital methodology for defining the value of radiation therapy modalities.

9.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 31(3): 217-226, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090648

RESUMO

Metastatic cancer is inherently heterogeneous, and patients with metastatic disease can experience vastly different oncologic outcomes depending on several patient- and disease-specific characteristics. Designing trials for such a diverse population is challenging yet necessary to improve treatment outcomes for metastatic-previously thought to be incurable-disease. Here we review core considerations for designing and conducting clinical trials involving radiation therapy and immunotherapy for patients with metastatic cancer.

11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(7): 805-813, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is effective, but some patients die during treatment or too soon afterward to experience benefit. This study investigates end-of-life RT patterns to inform shared decision-making and facilitate treatment consistent with palliative goals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who died ≤6 months after initiating palliative RT at an academic cancer center between 2015 and 2018 were identified. Associations with time-to-death, early mortality (≤30 days), and midtreatment mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 1,620 patients died ≤6 months from palliative RT initiation, including 574 (34%) deaths at ≤30 days and 222 (14%) midtreatment. Median survival was 43 days from RT start (95% CI, 41-45) and varied by site (P<.001), ranging from 36 (head and neck) to 53 days (dermal/soft tissue). On multivariable analysis, earlier time-to-death was associated with osseous (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; P<.001) and head and neck (HR, 1.45; P<.001) sites, multiple RT courses ≤6 months (HR, 1.65; P<.001), and multisite treatments (HR, 1.40; P=.008), whereas stereotactic technique (HR, 0.77; P<.001) and more recent treatment year (HR, 0.82; P<.001) were associated with longer survival. No difference in time to death was noted among patients prescribed conventional RT in 1 to 10 versus >10 fractions (median, 40 vs 47 days; P=.272), although the latter entailed longer courses. The 30-day mortality group included 335 (58%) inpatients, who were 27% more likely to die midtreatment (P=.031). On multivariable analysis, midtreatment mortality among these inpatients was associated with thoracic (odds ratio [OR], 2.95; P=.002) and central nervous system (CNS; OR, 2.44; P=.002) indications, >5-fraction courses (OR, 3.27; P<.001), and performance status of 3 to 4 (OR, 1.63; P=.050). Conversely, palliative/supportive care consultation was associated with decreased midtreatment mortality (OR, 0.60; P=.045). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier referrals and hypofractionated courses (≤5-10 treatments) should be routinely considered for palliative RT indications, given the short life expectancies of patients at this stage in their disease course. Providers should exercise caution for emergent thoracic and CNS indications among inpatients with poor prognoses due to high midtreatment mortality.

12.
Laryngoscope ; 131(5): E1558-E1566, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the fifth most common malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa, a region with hyperendemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection. HIV patients have higher rates of HNC, yet the effect of HIV-infection on oncologic outcomes and treatment toxicity is poorly characterized. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. METHODS: HNC patients attending a government-funded oncology clinic in Botswana were prospectively enrolled in an observational cohort registry from 2015 to 2019. Clinical characteristics were analyzed via Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression followed by secondary analysis by HIV-status. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated via Kaplan-Meier. RESULTS: The study enrolled 149 patients with a median follow-up of 23 months. Patients presented with advanced disease (60% with T4-primaries), received limited treatment (19% chemotherapy, 8% surgery, 29% definitive radiation [RT]), and had delayed care (median time from diagnosis to RT of 2.5 months). Median OS was 36.2 months. Anemia was associated with worse survival (HR 2.74, P = .001). Grade ≥ 3 toxicity rate with RT was 30% and associated with mucosal subsite (OR 4.04, P = .03) and BMI < 20 kg/m2 (OR 6.04, P = .012). Forty percent of patients (n = 59) were HIV-infected; most (85%) were on antiretroviral therapy, had suppressed viral loads (90% with ≤400 copies/mL), and had immunocompetent CD4 counts (median 400 cells/mm3 ). HIV-status was not associated with decreased receipt or delays of definitive RT, worse survival, or increased toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite access to government-funded care, HNC patients in Botswana present late and have delays in care, which likely contributes to suboptimal survival outcomes. While a disproportionate number has comorbid HIV infection, HIV-status does not adversely affect outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2c Laryngoscope, 131:E1558-E1566, 2021.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 109(2): 352-364, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798606

RESUMO

Metastatic cancer is a heterogeneous entity, some of which could benefit from local consolidative radiation therapy (RT). Although randomized evidence is growing in support of using RT for oligometastatic disease, a highly active area of investigation relates to whether RT could benefit patients with polymetastatic disease. This article highlights the preclinical and clinical rationale for using RT for polymetastatic disease, proposes an exploratory framework for selecting patients best suited for these types of treatments, and briefly reviews potential challenges. The goal of this hypothesis-generating review is to address personalized multimodality systemic treatment for patients with metastatic cancer. The rationale for using high-dose RT is primarily for local control and immune activation in either oligometastatic or polymetastatic disease. However, the primary application of low-dose RT is to activate distinct antitumor immune pathways and modulate the tumor stroma in efforts to better facilitate T cell infiltration. We explore clinical cases involving high- and low-dose RT to demonstrate the potential efficacy of such treatment. We then group patients by extent of disease burden to implement high- and/or low-dose RT. Patients with low-volume disease may receive high-dose RT to all sites as part of an oligometastatic paradigm. Subjects with high-volume disease (for whom standard of care remains palliative RT only) could be treated with a combination of high-dose RT to a few sites for immune activation, while receiving low-dose RT to several remaining lesions to enhance systemic responses from high-dose RT and immunotherapy. We further discuss how emerging but speculative concepts such as immune function may be integrated into this approach and examine therapies currently under investigation that may help address immune deficiencies. The review concludes by addressing challenges in using RT for polymetastatic disease, such as concerns about treatment planning workflows, treatment times, dose constraints for multiple-isocenter treatments, and economic considerations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Medicina de Precisão
14.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(3): 225-233.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of radiotherapy field size on survival outcomes and patterns of recurrence in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 216 patients with T1-4 N1-2 NSCLC following surgery and PORT using whole mediastinum (WM) or high-risk (HR) nodal fields from 1998 to 2015. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards modeling for outcomes and logistic regression analysis for treatment toxicities. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 28 months (interquartile range [IQR] 13-75 months) and 38 months (IQR 19-73 months) for WM (n = 131) and HR (n = 84) groups, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between groups (median OS: HR 49 vs. WM 32 months; P = .08). There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS), freedom from locoregional recurrence (LRR), or freedom from distant metastasis (P > .2 for all). Field size was not associated with OS, PFS, or LRR (P > .40 for all). LRR rates were 20% for HR and 26% for WM groups (P = .30). There was no significant difference in patterns of initial site of LRR between groups (P > .1). WM fields (OR 3.73, P = .001) and concurrent chemotherapy (odds ratio 3.62, P = .001) were associated with grade ≥2 toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Locoregional control and survival rates were similar between PORT groups; an improved toxicity profile was observed in the HR group. Results from an ongoing prospective randomized clinical trial will provide further insight into the consequences of HR PORT fields.

17.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(4): 567-572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775771

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, minimizing exposure risk for patients with cancer and health care personnel was of utmost importance. Here, we present steps taken to date to flatten the curve at the radiation oncology division of a tertiary cancer center with the goal of mitigating risk of exposure among patients and staff, and optimizing resource utilization. Response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in this large tertiary referral center included volume reduction, personal protective equipment recommendations, flexible clinic visit interaction types dictated by need and risk reduction, and numerous social distancing strategies. We hope these outlined considerations can assist the wider radiation oncology community as we collectively face this ongoing challenge.

18.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(4): 761-773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775790

RESUMO

Purpose: Owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, radiation oncology departments have adopted various strategies to deliver radiation therapy safely and efficiently while minimizing the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 transmission among patients and health care providers. One practical strategy is to deliver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a single fraction, which has been well established for treating bone metastases, although it has been infrequently used for other extracranial sites. Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of published articles in English related to single-fraction SBRT was performed. A critical review was performed of the articles that described clinical outcomes of single-fraction SBRT for treatment of primary extracranial cancers and oligometastatic extraspinal disease. Results: Single-fraction SBRT for peripheral early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is supported by randomized data and is strongly endorsed during the COVID-19 pandemic by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology-American Society for Radiation Oncology practice guidelines. Prospective and retrospective studies supporting a single-fraction regimen are limited, although outcomes are promising for renal cell carcinoma, liver metastases, and adrenal metastases. Data are immature for primary prostate cancer and demonstrate excess late toxicity in primary pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Single-fraction SBRT should be strongly considered for peripheral early-stage non-small cell lung cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate the potentially severe consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 transmission. Although single-fraction SBRT is promising for the definitive treatment of other primary or oligometastatic cancers, multi-fraction SBRT should be the preferred regimen owing to the need for additional prospective evaluation to determine long-term efficacy and safety.

19.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(8): 1151-1156, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We characterized the cervical 16S rDNA microbiome of patients in Botswana with high-grade cervical dysplasia and locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: This prospective study included 31 patients: 21 with dysplasia and 10 with cancer. The Shannon diversity index was used to evaluate alpha (intra-sample) diversity, while the UniFrac (weighted and unweighted) and Bray-Curtis distances were employed to evaluate beta (inter-sample) diversity. The relative abundance of microbial taxa was compared among samples using linear discriminant analysis effect size. RESULTS: Alpha diversity was significantly higher in patients with cervical cancer than in patients with cervical dysplasia (P<0.05). Beta diversity also differed significantly (weighted UniFrac Bray-Curtis, P<0.01). Neither alpha diversity (P=0.8) nor beta diversity (P=0.19) varied by HIV status. The results of linear discriminant analysis effect size demonstrated that multiple taxa differed significantly between patients with cervical dysplasia vs cancer. Lachnospira bacteria (in the Clostridia class) were particularly enriched among cervical dysplasia patients, while Proteobacteria (members of the Firmicutes phyla and the Comamonadaceae family) were enriched in patients with cervical cancer. DISCUSSION: The results of our study suggest that differences exist in the diversity and composition of the cervical microbiota between patients with cervical dysplasia and patients with cervical cancer in Botswana. Additional studies are warranted to validate these findings and elucidate their clinical significance among women living in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as other regions of the world.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/microbiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Adulto , Botsuana , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Clostridiales , Comamonadaceae , Feminino , Gardnerella , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteobactérias , Displasia do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
20.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(10): e1067-e1077, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior authorization (PA) can be a resource-intensive barrier to oncologic care. To improve patient access and reduce delays at our large, academic proton therapy center, we implemented a novel payor-focused strategy to efficiently navigate the PA process while eliminating physician burden and reducing inappropriate denials. METHODS: In 2017, business operations were redesigned to better reflect the insurance process: (1) certified medical dosimetrists (CMDs), with their unique treatment expertise, replaced our historical PA team to function as an effective interface among physicians, patients, and payors; (2) a structured, tiered timeline was implemented to hold payors accountable to PA deadlines; and (3) our PA team provided administrative leadership with requisite insurance knowledge. PA outcomes were compared 6 months before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After implementation of this multifaceted strategy, the median time to successful appeal (after initial denial of coverage) decreased from 30 to 18 days (P < .001), and the total number of overturned denials increased by 56%. Because of the efficiency of the CMDs, full-time equivalents on the PA team actually decreased by 44%, translating to a 34% reduction in team personnel expenses. Internal referrals increased by 29%, attributable to optimized communication and diminished administrative burden for providers. New treatment starts also increased, resulting in a 37% larger patient census on treatment. CONCLUSION: Incorporating payor-focused strategies can improve patient access in a cost-effective manner while decreasing time and administrative burden associated with the PA process. These operational concepts can be adapted for other oncologic practice settings facing analogous PA-related obstacles.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Autorização Prévia , Terapia com Prótons , Humanos , Oncologia , Médicos
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