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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 202: 1-6, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077732

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite distributed worldwide. Although a positive association between the presence of birds and abortions in cattle associated to N. caninum has been reported, the role of the birds in the epidemiologic cycle of the parasite is unknown. To the best knowledge, no experimental studies have evaluated N. caninum in the eared dove, Zenaida auriculata. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Z. auriculat can act as intermediate host for N. caninum. Eighteen birds were divided into four groups, G1, G2, G3, and G4 (control); G1, G2 and G3 received 2 × 106 tachyzoites of NC-1 strain via different routes: subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intraperitoneal, respectively. G4 composed of three birds. Serum samples were collected weekly, and one bird each from G1, G2 and G3 was euthanized on the 7th and 14th day post-inoculation (dpi). The remaining birds were euthanized after the 28th dpi. Tissues from the doves were evaluated using histopathological analysis, PCR and dog bioassay to detect the parasite. Dogs were fed with tissues from the birds and monitored for 30 days. Serum samples were collected weekly from the dogs for serological analysis, and feces samples were collected daily until the end of the experiment for coproparasitological examinations. No dove showed clinical signs of the infection; however, all of them seroconverted after the inoculation, with stronger immunological response in the G3 birds. The lung tissue of one G3 bird showed positive PCR results; it was euthanized on the 7th dpi, and an inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the lung and kidney from this dove. The dogs did not shed oocysts or seroconverted. Our results indicate that the intraperitoneal route induced infection in the doves; however, the parasite may have been eliminated by the host, and the doves may be resistant to chronic infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae/parasitologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Bioensaio/métodos , Bioensaio/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 154: 47-53, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685444

RESUMO

Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses
4.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(4): 267-70, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25193073

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and the vertical transmission rate in naturally infected pregnant zebu beef cows (Bos indicus) reared on pasture. The present study began with 200 cows from four farms (50 cows from each farm), and these animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI). After ultrasonography, 76 pregnant cows were selected, 22, 15, 22, and 17, respectively, from farms 1, 2, 3, and 4. Blood samples were taken from cows thrice during the first, second, and third trimester of gestation, and a blood sample was collected from 31 calves before colostrum milking. From 76 cows 23 (30.3%) had anti-N. caninum antibodies detected by indirect ELISA (Idexx), and 53 (69.7%) did not. Sixty-four cows that initiated the experiment were negative to N. caninum and 11 became positive either during the second or third trimester of gestation, this mean an infection incidence of 17.2% (11/64). OD for ELISA was higher (OD=2.08) during the second and third (OD=2.10) trimesters of pregnancy when compared with the first (OD=1.81), however, there were no statistical differences (P=0.45). The vertical transmission was calculated to be 29.0% (9/31), and the risk of vertical transmission of N. caninum in seropositive dams was 26.25 times higher than seronegative animals (OR=26.25, 2.38

Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Neospora/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Incidência , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 22(1): 58-63, 2013 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23538498

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in Brazil. We collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six Brazilian states. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT cut-off titre ≥ 1:64), and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. Among the 398 horses, positivity for T. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6%) by IFAT and in 14 (3.5%) by mouse bioassay. In 12 of those 14 bioassays, mice were positive only by IFAT (cut-off titre ≥ 1:16), T. gondii being isolated in the remaining two. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 18S rDNA to differentiate among T. gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis neurona, we found that two of the 14 brains were positive for T. gondii only. For genotyping of the two isolates and the PCR-positive brain, we performed PCR-RFLP based on 13 markers, and SAG2 all samples were Toxoplasma gondii type I. Collectively, IFAT of horse sera and mouse bioassay identified positivity in 60 (15%) of the samples. Our results show that some horses sent to slaughter in Brazil have been exposed to T. gondii.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 58-63, jan-mar/2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-671602

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in Brazil. We collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six Brazilian states. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT cut-off titre ≥ 1:64), and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. Among the 398 horses, positivity for T. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6%) by IFAT and in 14 (3.5%) by mouse bioassay. In 12 of those 14 bioassays, mice were positive only by IFAT (cut-off titre ≥ 1:16), T. gondii being isolated in the remaining two. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 18S rDNA to differentiate among T. gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis neurona, we found that two of the 14 brains were positive for T. gondii only. For genotyping of the two isolates and the PCR-positive brain, we performed PCR-RFLP based on 13 markers, and SAG2 all samples were Toxoplasma gondii type I. Collectively, IFAT of horse sera and mouse bioassay identified positivity in 60 (15%) of the samples. Our results show that some horses sent to slaughter in Brazil have been exposed to T. gondii.


O objetivo do estudo foi investigar anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e isolar o parasita do cérebro de equídeos abatidos em matadouros-frigoríficos no Brasil. Colheram-se amostras de 398 cérebros e sangue de equídeos machos e fêmeas de idades variadas, provenientes de seis estados brasileiros. As amostras de soro foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) para T. gondii (ponto de corte ≥ 64), e os fragmentos de cérebros foram submetidos ao bioensaio em camundongos. Por meio da IFI, 46 (11,6%) equídeos foram soropositivos. Pelo bioensaio em camundongos, 14 (3,5%) cérebros de equídeos testados foram positivos. Em doze dos bioensaios, os camundongos foram positivos somente pela IFI (ponto de corte ≥ 16) e T. gondii foi isolado nos outros dois bioensaios. A PCR-RFLP com base em 18S rDNA para diferenciar entre T. gondii, Neospora caninum, e Sarcocystis neurona foram feitas em todos os 14 cérebros e dois foram positivos apenas para T. gondii. De dois isolados positivos para T. gondii e do cérebro positivo à PCR em que realizou-se a PCR-RFLP, com base em 13 marcadores e SAG2, a genotipagem mostrou ser o T. gondii tipo I para todas as amostras. A IFI de soros de equídeos e do bioensaio em camundongos identificaram positividade em 60 (15%) amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram que alguns cavalos enviados para abate foram expostos ao T. gondii.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Matadouros , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Cavalos , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
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