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1.
Zebrafish ; 17(1): 38-47, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994993

RESUMO

Neotropical cichlids include hundreds of species whose taxonomy has benefited of molecular phylogeny and whose karyotype evolution has been related to the amount and distribution of different classes of repetitive sequences. This study provides the first integrative molecular (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 16S sequences) and cytogenetic analyses of wild samples of the green terror Andinoacara rivulatus, a cichlid naturally distributed in Ecuador and spread throughout the world as an aquarium pet. Molecular data revealed that sequences of green terror constitute a single monophyletic clade within the genus and allowed species attribution of uncertain samples previously cytogenetically analyzed. Chromosome number (2n = 48) conforms to the general trend observed within neotropical cichlids. However, mapping of different classes of repeated sequences (18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, U1 snDNA and telomeric) revealed the presence of features uncommon among representatives of these fishes, like multiple major rDNA sites, and suggested a recent occurrence of rearrangements (fusion/inversion) in two chromosome pairs.

2.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.5, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716044

RESUMO

Mugil setosus Gilbert 1892 was originally described by Gilbert based on specimens from Clarion Island, in the western and most remote of the Revillagigedo Islands, about 1,000 km off the western Pacific coast of Mexico. Examination of the type of material and recently collected specimens from Ecuador and Peru, resulted in the redescription provided herein. Diagnostic characters of the species were mainly: tip of the pelvic fin reaching beyond the vertical through the base of the third dorsal-fin spine, the pectoral-fin rays with ii+13-14 rays, the anterodorsal tip of second (soft) dorsal fin uniformly dark, and an external row of larger teeth, and more internally a patch of scattered smaller teeth, visible mainly in adults 150 mm SL. The expansion of geographic distribution of Mugil setosus and occurrence of Mugil curema Valenciennes 1836 in the Pacific Ocean are discussed.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Equador , Ilhas , México , Oceano Pacífico , Peru
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208145

RESUMO

We present the first cytogenetic data for Lebiasina bimaculata and L. melanoguttata with the aim of (1) investigating evolutionary events within Lebiasina and their relationships with other Lebiasinidae genera and (2) checking the evolutionary relationships between Lebiasinidae and Ctenoluciidae. Both species have a diploid number 2n = 36 with similar karyotypes and microsatellite distribution patterns but present contrasting C-positive heterochromatin and CMA3+ banding patterns. The remarkable interstitial series of C-positive heterochromatin occurring in L. melanoguttata is absent in L. bimaculata. Accordingly, L. bimaculata shows the ribosomal DNA sites as the only GC-rich (CMA3+) regions, while L. melanoguttata shows evidence of a clear intercalated CMA3+ banding pattern. In addition, the multiple 5S and 18S rDNA sites in L. melanogutatta contrast with single sites present in L. bimaculata. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) experiments also revealed a high level of genomic differentiation between both species. A polymorphic state of a conspicuous C-positive, CMA3+, and (CGG)n band was found only to occur in L. bimaculata females, and its possible relationship with a nascent sex chromosome system is discussed. Whole chromosome painting (WCP) and CGH experiments indicate that the Lebiasina species examined and Boulengerella maculata share similar chromosomal sequences, thus supporting the relatedness between them and the evolutionary relationships between the Lebiasinidae and Ctenoluciidae families.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Coloração Cromossômica , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariótipo , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , América do Sul
4.
Genetica ; 147(1): 47-56, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673915

RESUMO

The pearly razorfish Xyrichtys novacula (Linnaeus, 1758) is a sedentary benthic species distributed in both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea. Previous cytogenetic analysis reported different diploid numbers in samples from Italy, Venezuela and Brazil. This research aims to test the hypothesis that samples from American Atlantic coast and Mediterranean Sea belong to the same single evolutionary lineage, characterized by intra-specific chromosome polymorphism. To this purpose a cytogenetic and molecular (mitochondrial COI sequences) survey was undertaken. Results revealed the existence of three different pearly razorfish molecular lineages: one present in Mediterranean Sea and two in the central and south American area, which are characterized by different karyotypes. One of these lineages shows substantial intra-population chromosomal polymorphism (2n = 45-48) determined by Robertsonian fusions that produce large metacentric chromosomes. On the whole data suggest that specimens morphologically identified as X. novacula correspond to three cryptic species.


Assuntos
Peixes/genética , Cariótipo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/classificação , Filogeografia
5.
Front Genet ; 9: 17, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459882

RESUMO

Mullets are very common fishes included in the family Mugilidae, (Mugiliformes), which are characterized by both a remarkably uniform external morphology and internal anatomy. Recently, within this family, different species complexes were molecularly identified within Mugil, a genus which is characterized by lineages that sometimes show very different karyotypes. Here we report the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses conducted on Mugil hospes, commonly known as the hospe mullet, from Ecuador. The study aims to verify whether the original described species from the Pacific Ocean corresponds to that identified in the Atlantic Ocean, and to identify species-specific chromosome markers that can add new comparative data about Mugilidae karyotype evolution. The karyotype of M. hospes from Ecuador is composed of 48 acrocentric chromosomes and shows two active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). In situ hybridization, using different types of repetitive sequences (rDNAs, U1 snDNA, telomeric repeats) as probes, identified species-specific chromosome markers that have been compared with those of other species of the genus Mugil. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence analysis shows only 92-93% similarity with sequences previously deposited under this species name in GenBank, all of which were from the Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate the presence of three well-supported hospe mullet lineages whose molecular divergence is compatible with the presence of distinct species. Indeed, the first lineage includes samples from Ecuador, whereas the other two lineages include the Atlantic samples and correspond to M. brevirostris from Brazil and Mugil sp. R from Belize/Venezuela. Results here provided reiterate the pivotal importance of an integrative molecular and cytogenetic approach in the reconstruction of the relationships within Mugilidae.

6.
Comp Cytogenet ; 11(2): 225-237, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919961

RESUMO

Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that the Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 species complex includes M. incilis Hancock, 1830, M. thoburni (Jordan & Starks, 1896) and at least four "M. curema" mitochondrial lineages, considered as cryptic species. The cytogenetic data on some representatives of the species complex have shown a high cytogenetic diversity. This research reports the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses of white mullet collected in Ecuador. The analyzed specimens were molecularly assigned to the Mugil sp. O, the putative cryptic species present in the Pacific Ocean and showed a 2n = 46 karyotype, which is composed of 2 metacentric and 44 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes. This karyotype is different from the one described for M. incilis (2n = 48) and from those of the two western Atlantic lineages Mugil curema (2n = 28), and Mugil margaritae (2n = 24). Data suggest the need for a morphological analysis to assign a species name to this Pacific lineage.

7.
Comp Cytogenet ; 9(2): 271-80, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26140168

RESUMO

Karyotypic features of Rhoadsiaaltipinna Fowler, 1911 from Ecuador were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes through Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. The species exhibit a karyotype with 2n = 50, composed of 10 metacentric, 26 submetacentric and 14 subtelocentric elements, with a fundamental number FN=86 and is characterized by the presence of a larger metacentric pair (number 1), which is about 2/3 longer than the average length of the rest of the metacentric series. Sex chromosomes were not observed. Heterochromatin is identifiable on 44 chromosomes, distributed in paracentromeric position near the centromere. The first metacentric pair presents two well-defined heterochromatic blocks in paracentromeric position, near the centromere. Impregnation with silver nitrate showed a single pair of Ag-positive NORs localized at terminal regions of the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair number 12. FISH assay confirmed these localization of NORs and revealed that minor rDNA clusters occur interstitially on the larger metacentric pair number 1. Comparison of results here reported with those available on other Characidae permit to hypothesize that the presence of a very large metacentric pair might represent a unique and derived condition that characterize one of four major lineages molecularly identified in this family.

9.
Zootaxa ; 3918(1): 1-38, 2015 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781080

RESUMO

Analysis of morphological, molecular and cytological data helped to define and more precisely characterize the species of Mugil from the Atlantic coasts of South Caribbean and South America, allowing a correction of prior misidentifications and distributional ranges. A new species from Venezuela is described and all the species from the area are redescribed. It is demonstrated that the apparent similarity in morphological traits, which contradicted the results from recent molecular studies, is the result of the misuse of traditional morphological characters, and thus both the molecular and cytological data instead are congruent with the morphological differences that are found among mullet species. The presence of Mugil hospes Jordan & Culver in the western south Atlantic is refuted based on the comparison of type material of this species with specimens from this area that also indicated a very significant morphological difference, what on the other hand justifies the recognition of these specimens as Mugil brevirostris (Ribeiro). The distribution of Mugil incilis Hancock is restricted and the similarities among the species formerly depicted in a prior dendrogram is modified following the inclusion of recently obtained molecular data for Mugil curvidens Valenciennes.


Assuntos
Perciformes/classificação , Perciformes/genética , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Região do Caribe , Citogenética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , América do Sul
10.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(4): 761-770, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-732619

RESUMO

We present a database containing cytogenetic data of Neotropical actinopterygian fishes from Venezuela obtained in a single laboratory for the first time. The results of this study include 103 species belonging to 74 genera assigned to 45 families and 17 out of the 40 teleost orders. In the group of marine fishes, the modal diploid number was 2n=48 represented in 60% of the studied species, while in the freshwater fish group the modal diploid complement was 2n=54, represented in 21.21 % of the studied species. The average number of chromosomes and the mean FN were statistically higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish. The degree of diversification and karyotype variation was also higher in freshwater fish in contrast to a more conserved cytogenetic pattern in marine fish. In contrast to the assumption according to which 48 acrocentric chromosomes was basal chromosome number in fish, data here presented show that there is an obvious trend towards the reduction of the diploid number of chromosomes from values near 2n=60 with high number of biarmed chromosomes in more basal species to 2n=48 acrocentric elements in more derived Actinopterygii.


Se presenta una base de datos que contiene los datos citogenéticos de peces Actinopterigios Neotropicales de Venezuela obtenidos por primera vez en un solo laboratorio. Los resultados de este estudio incluyen 103 especies pertenecientes a 74 géneros de 45 familias contenidas en 17 de los 40 órdenes de teleósteos. En el grupo de peces marinos, el número diploide modal fue 2n=48 representado en 60% de las especies estudiadas, mientras que en el grupo de peces de agua dulce el complemento diploide modal fue 2n=54, representado en el 21,21% de las especies estudiadas. El número de cromosomas y FN promedio fueron estadísticamente superiores en peces dulceacuícolas. El grado de diversificación y variación en el cariotipo también fue mayor en peces de agua dulce en contraste con un patrón citogenético más conservado en peces marinos. En contraposición a la suposición según la cual 48 cromosomas acrocentricos era el número cromosómico basal en los peces, los datos aquí presentados muestran que existe una evidente tendencia hacia la reducción del número de cromosomas desde valores cercanos a 2n=60 con alto número de cromosomas birrámeos en las especies más basales a 2n=48 elementos acrocéntricos en los actinopterigios más derivados.


Assuntos
Animais , Cariotipagem/veterinária , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Peixes/genética , Evolução Biológica
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1365-1373, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753696

RESUMO

The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n=48 (2m+10sm+36a) with FN=60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH assay revealed that 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA genes are co-located on this chromosome pair. The co-localization of 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA is discussed. Both constitutive heterochromatin and NOR location detected in samples examined in this study, differ from those reported for P. volitans in previous analysis of specimens collected in Indian Ocean (Java), suggesting the occurrence of chromosome microrearrangements involving heterochromatin during the spread of P. volitans.Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1365-1373. Epub 2014 December 01.


El género Pterois contiene nueve especies válidas, nativas del Mar Rojo y el Océano Índico en el Pacífico occidental. P. volitans y P. miles son nativas del Indo-Pacífico, y fueron introducidas en las aguas de Florida como resultado de la liberación de peces confinados en acuario y han sido reconocidas recientemente como invasoras en el Atlántico Occidental y Mar Caribe (Costa Rica hasta Venezuela). Los estudios citogenéticos realizados hasta ahora en el género Pterois cubren solamente aspectos básicos de tres especies que incluyen a P. volitans del océano Indo-Pacífico. Debido a la ausencia de información detallada sobre las características cromosómicas de esta especie invasora, el objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar las características citogenéticas en ejemplares de Venezuela mediante técnicas convencionales y moleculares y comparar los resultados con los reportados para el área de distribución original. Para ello, se investigaron las características cariotípicas mediante tinción con Giemsa, bandeo-C, impregnación con Nitrato de Plata (Ag-NOR) e hibridación fluorescente in situ (FISH) dual para localizar los genes ribosomales 18S rDNA y 5S rDNA en cuatro ejemplares de pez león capturados en la Isla Margarita, Venezuela. La comparación de secuencias del gen 16S de los especímenes analizados con secuencias ya incluidas en el Genbank permitieron corroborar la identificación de P. volitans excluyendo así la posibilidad de una identificación errónea de P. miles. El número diploide fue 2n=48 (2m+10sm+36a) con un FN=60. Los cromosomas presentaron tamaños que disminuyen de manera uniforme dificultando la identificación de homólogos, excepto el único par metacéntrico y el par cromosómico número 2. El bandeo-C reveló tres pares de cromosomas bandas-C negativos, mientras que los restantes presentaron bloques bandas-C positivos en posición telomérica y, en algunos casos, intersticial. Sólo dos cromosomas mostraron bandas-C pericentroméricas. La tinción secuencial reveló las Ag-NOR localizadas en los extremos de los brazos cortos del par número dos y el ensayo FISH demostró que los genes 18S rDNA y 5S rDNA se localizan en ese mismo par. Se discute la co-localización de los genes 5S rDNA y 18S rDNA. La distribución de la heterocromatina constitutiva y localización de las NORs en los peces examinados difirió de la reportada para ejemplares de P. volitans del Océano Índico (Java), sugiriendo que durante la propagación de P. volitans han ocurrido reorganizaciones cromosómicas que involucran la heterocromatina.


Assuntos
Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Perciformes/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Perciformes/classificação , Venezuela
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(3): 198-205, sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-752699

RESUMO

La textura es la característica más valorada en los cefalópodos. Los factores que principalmente afectan la textura del pulpo son congelación, escaldado y cocción. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la congelación, escaldado y diferentes tiempos de cocción sobre la textura y perfil electroforético de las proteínas de brazos de pulpo (Octopus vulgaris). Los ejemplares fueron capturados con nasa en las cercanías de la Isla de Margarita y transportados al laboratorio, donde fueron empacados y sometidos a: a) congelación a -27°C ó a -20 °C b) escaldado o no escaldado c) cocción por 25, 35 ó 45 min. Se determinó la fuerza de corte sobre tiras de brazo de pulpo mediante celda de Kramer. Extractos de proteínas fueron sometidos a electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida-dodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE) al 12 % según método Laemmli. Fue realizada evaluación sensorial de la preferencia de la textura empleando escala hedónica de 7 puntos y panel no entrenado. La textura del pulpo no resultó afectada ni por la temperatura de congelación ni el escaldado. El pulpo congelado, al cocerlo, fue más blando que el fresco. En la medida que aumentó el tiempo de cocción, el pulpo se ablandó más. La cocción no afectó significativamente la cadena pesada de miosina (MHC) (205 kD); sin embargo, causó aparición de agregados proteínicos más pesados, nuevas bandas y pérdida de definición de bandas. Las fracciones de miosina y de paramiosina resultaron más afectadas cuando el pulpo fue congelado previo a la cocción.


Texture is the most valuable feature in cephalopods. Factors that mainly affect the texture of octopus are: freezing, scalding and cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of freezing, scalding and length of cooking time on the texture and electrophoretic pattern of proteins of octopus arms. Octopuses were trapped near Margarita Island and carried with ice to the laboratory where they were packed and subjected to: a) freezing at -27°C or at -20 °C b) scalding c) cooking for 25 min, 35 min or 45 min. Shear force was determined by Kramer cell on strips of octopus arms. SDS-PAGE was done according to the Laemmli method with 12% polyacrilamide gels. A sensory evaluation of the preference of texture was carried out using a hedonic scale of 7-points and a non-trained panel. Octopus texture was not affected by freezing temperature or scalding. Frozen octopus was softer after cooking than fresh. The longer the cooking time was, the softer the octopus was. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not significantly affected by scalding or cooking; however large aggregates heavier than MHC, new bands and loss of resolution of the bands appeared. Myosin and paramyosin bands were more affected by freezing prior to cooking.


Assuntos
Animais , Culinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Congelamento , Carne/análise , Octopodiformes/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Armazenamento de Alimentos
13.
Rev Biol Trop ; 62(4): 1365-73, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25720173

RESUMO

The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n = 48 (2m + 10sm + 36a) with FN = 60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH assay revealed that 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA genes are co-located on this chromosome pair. The co-localization of 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA is discussed. Both constitutive heterochromatin and NOR location detected in samples examined in this study, differ from those reported for P. volitans in previous analysis of specimens collected in Indian Ocean (Java), suggesting the occurrence of chromosome microrearrangements involving heterochromatin during the spread of P. volitans.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Perciformes/genética , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Perciformes/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S , RNA Ribossômico 5S , Venezuela
14.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 64(3): 198-205, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26137796

RESUMO

Texture is the most valuable feature in cephalopods. Factors that mainly affect the texture of octopus are: freezing, scalding and cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of freezing, scalding and length of cooking time on the texture and electrophoretic pattern of proteins of octopus arms. Octopuses were trapped near Margarita Island and carried with ice to the laboratory where they were packed and subjected to: a) freezing at -27 degrees C or at -20 degrees C b) scalding c) cooking for 25 min, 35 min or 45 min. Shear force was determined by Kramer cell on strips of octopus arms. SDS-PAGE was done according to the Laemmli method with 12% polyacrilamide gels. A sensory evaluation of the preference of texture was carried out using a hedonic scale of 7-points and a non-trained panel. Octopus texture was not affected by freezing temperature or scalding. Frozen octopus was softer after cooking than fresh. The longer the cooking time was, the softer the octopus was. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not significantly affected by scalding or cooking; however large aggregates heavier than MHC, new bands and loss of resolution of the bands appeared. Myosin and paramyosin bands were more affected by freezing prior to cooking.


Assuntos
Culinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Congelamento , Carne/análise , Octopodiformes/química , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Armazenamento de Alimentos
16.
Comp Cytogenet ; 6(3): 315-21, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24260671

RESUMO

The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world's largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919), Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758). All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.

17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 9(1): 107-112, Mar. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-583960

RESUMO

This study reports the description of the karyotype of Mugil incilis from Venezuela. The chromosome complement is composed of 48 acrocentric chromosomes, which uniformly decrease in size. Therefore, the homologues can not be clearly identified, with the exception of one of the largest chromosome pairs, classified as number 1, whose homologues may show a subcentromeric secondary constriction, and of chromosome pair number 24, which is considerably smaller than the others. C-banding showed heterochromatic blocks at the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes, which were more conspicuous on chromosomes 1, given the C-positive signals include the secondary constrictions. AgNO3 and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S rDNA demonstrated that the nucleolus organizer regions are indeed located on the secondary constrictions of chromosome pair number 1. FISH with 5S rDNA revealed that the minor ribosomal genes are located on this same chromosome pair, near the NORs, though signals are closer to the centromeres and of smaller size, compared to those of the major ribosomal gene clusters. This is the first description of co-localization of major and minor ribosomal genes in the family. Data are discussed from a cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic perspective.


Se presenta la primera descripción del cariotipo de Mugil incilis de Venezuela. El complemento cromosómico está compuesto por 48 cromosomas acrocéntricos uniformemente decrecientes en tamaño. Por lo tanto, los homólogos no pueden ser claramente identificados, con excepción de uno de los pares de mayor tamaño, clasificado como número 1, cuyos homólogos poseen una constricción secundaria subcentromérica, y el par de cromosomas número 24, considerablemente más pequeño que los otros. El bandeo-C reveló bloques heterocromáticos en las regiones centroméricas/pericentroméricas de todos los cromosomas, más conspicuas en el cromosoma 1 en el que las señales C-positivas se encuentra localizada precisamente en la constricción secundaria. La tinción con AgNO3 y la Hibridación Fluorescente in situ (FISH) con sonda 45S rDNA revelaron que las regiones organizadoras del nucléolo están ciertamente localizadas sobre la constricción secundaria del cromosoma número 1. FISH con 5S rDNA reveló que los genes ribosomales menores están ubicados en este mismo par cromosómico, en posición proximal a las NORs, aunque cercanas al centrómero y de menor tamaño en comparación con los clúster de genes ribosomales mayores. Ésta es la primera descripción de co-localización de genes ribosomales mayores y menores en la familia Mugilidae. Los datos se discuten bajo perspectivas citotaxonómicas y filogenéticas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Peixes/classificação , Genes/genética , Ribossomos/genética
18.
BMC Genet ; 11: 50, 2010 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20550671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed. RESULTS: Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes), the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six. CONCLUSIONS: The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African) and Cichlinae (American). The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine) were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in the reference genome sequences currently being obtained.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Ciclídeos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cariotipagem , RNA/genética
19.
Genet Mol Biol ; 33(2): 262-5, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21637480

RESUMO

Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family.

20.
Genet. mol. biol ; 33(2): 262-265, 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-548806

RESUMO

Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family.

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