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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729383

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Assuntos
Chuva , Roedores , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Simbiose
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 77-82, Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153328

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to explore morphometric variations of Pteropus medius (the Indian flying fox) and the roosting trees in Lower Dir, Pakistan. The bats were captured from Morus alba, Morus nigra, Brousonetia papyrifera, Pinus raxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populous nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Grevillea robusta through sling shot and mess net methods. A total of 12 bats were studied for the differential morphological features based on age and sex. Male bats were recorded higher in weight than females. The variations were found in body mass (821.1±34.65gm), circumference of body with wings (25.43±0.39cm), wingspan (112.58±1.90cm), Body length (20.73±0.68cm), Snout length (3.42±0.04cm), Eye length (1.45±0.033cm), Length of ear (3.56±0.05cm), Width of ear (2.46±0.04cm), Length b/w ear (5.51±0.11cm), Circumference of neck (12.23±0.24cm), Circumference of body without wings (18.68±0.31cm), Arm wing length (23.2±1.03cm), Length of thumb (5.43±0.1cm), Length of nail (1.89±0.05cm), Hand wing length (29.1±0.51cm), Maximum width of wing (21.03±0.68cm), Length b/w tip of wing to 5th digit (29.39±0.30cm), Length b/w 5th digit to foot (22.97±1.09cm), Length b/w feet (18.31±0.74cm) and Length of foot claw (4.23±0.05cm). This study was designed for analysis of external morphological variations for P. medius (the Indian flying fox) that may help in identification of these bats and their roosting sites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido com o intuito de explorar variações morfométricas de Pteropus medius (raposa-voadora indiana) e árvores de repouso em Lower Dir, Paquistão. Os morcegos foram capturados de Morus alba, Morus nigra, Broussonetia papyrifera, Pinus roxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populus nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis e Grevillea robusta por meio de estilingues e redes. Doze morcegos foram estudados quanto às características morfológicas diferenciais com base na idade e no sexo. Os morcegos machos apresentaram maior peso do que as fêmeas. As variações foram encontradas em massa corporal (821,1 ± 34,65 g), circunferência do corpo com asas (25,43 ± 0,39 cm), envergadura (112,58 ± 1,90 cm), comprimento do corpo (20,73 ± 0,68 cm), comprimento do focinho (3,42 ± 0,04 cm), comprimento do olho (1,45 ± 0,033 cm), comprimento da orelha (3,56 ± 0,05 cm), largura da orelha (2,46 ± 0,04 cm), comprimento entre as orelhas (5,51 ± 0,11 cm), circunferência do pescoço (12,23 ± 0,24 cm), circunferência do corpo sem asas (18,68 ± 0,31 cm), comprimento da asa da pata dianteira (23,2 ± 1,03 cm), comprimento do polegar (5,43 ± 0,1 cm), comprimento da unha (1,89 ± 0,05 cm), comprimento da asa até a ponta do dedo (29,1 ± 0,51 cm), largura máxima da asa (21,03 ± 0,68 cm), comprimento entre a ponta da asa e o quinto dedo (29,39 ± 0,30 cm), comprimento entre o quinto dedo e a pata (22,97 ± 1,09 cm), comprimento entre as patas (18,31 ± 0,74 cm) e comprimento da garra da pata (4,23 ± 0,05 cm). Este estudo foi desenvolvido para análise de variações morfológicas externas de P. medius (raposa-voadora indiana) e pode auxiliar na identificação desses morcegos e seus locais de nidificação.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 523-528, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132408

RESUMO

Abstract Three districts viz. Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, were surveyed for the collection of Pteropus vampyrus (the Indian flying fox) in Malakand division, the north western region of Pakistan from February to November 2018. A total of 35 specimens were captured. Out of the examined specimens 22 were found to be infected with ectoparasites. Three types of ectoparasites were observed including flies 20% (n=7/35), mites 28.5% (n=10/35) and bugs 14.2% (n=5/35). Male bats were more infected 57.1% (n=20/35) as compared to females 42.8% (n=15/35), however, no significant difference (p>0.05) was noted. Flies were recovered from wings membrane and head region, mites were found on wings, ears and around eyes while bugs were found attached on body surface and neck region. Body weight, circumference and wing span of male bats were greater as compared to female bats and were considered a key factor in clear cut identification of male and female Pteropus vampyrus (the Indian flyingfox). It was concluded that Pteropus vampyrus from north western part of Pakistan were parasitized by a varied parasite fauna with high infestation rates. We assume that in male bats the number of parasites is generally higher than in females. Our results revealed new insights into parasite fauna of Pteropus vampyrus.


Resumo Três distritos, Lower Dir, Swat e Shangla, em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, foram pesquisados para a recolha de Pteropus vampyrus (raposa voadora indiana) na divisão de Malakand, região noroeste do Paquistão, de fevereiro a novembro de 2018. Foram capturados 35 espécimes, dos quais 22 foram infectados com ectoparasitas. Três tipos de ectoparasitas foram observados: moscas (20%; n = 7/35), ácaros (28,5%; n = 10/35) e insetos (14,2%; n = 5/35). Os morcegos machos foram mais infectados (57,1%; n = 20/35) do que as fêmeas (42,8%; n = 15/35); porém, nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada (p > 0,05). As moscas foram recuperadas da membrana das asas e da região da cabeça; já os ácaros foram encontrados nas asas, nas orelhas e ao redor dos olhos; por sua vez, os insetos foram encontrados na superfície do corpo e na região do pescoço. O peso corporal, a circunferência e a envergadura dos morcegos machos foram maiores em comparação aos morcegos fêmeas e foram considerados um fator-chave na identificação dos machos e das fêmeas Pteropus vampyrus (raposa voadora indiana). Conclui-se que os Pteropus vampyrus da parte noroeste do Paquistão foram parasitados por uma fauna variada de parasitas com altas taxas de infestação. Assume-se que, em morcegos machos, o número de parasitas é geralmente maior que em fêmeas. Os resultados deste estudo revelaram novos insights sobre a fauna parasita de Pteropus vampyrus.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 511-517, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132417

RESUMO

Abstract Data on environmental contamination of the parasites of zoonotic importance is scarce in Pakistan. Soil contamination with feces of dogs hide infective stages of the parasite represents a health-risk to humans. This study was aimed to assess the eggs of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs and household dogs in lower Dir district, Pakistan with special consideration to those that can be spread to humans. One hundred and fifty two stool specimens from (stray dogs=90 and household dogs=62) were collected. The helminth eggs were processed by direct smear method and centrifugation techniques and identified by microscopic examination. Of the total examined dogs 26.8% (n=41 /152) were found to be infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The intestinal helminths detected were Dipylidium caninum (n =18, 11.8%), followed by Toxocara canis (n =16, 10.5%), Taenia spp., (n=10, 6.57%) Ancylostoma caninum (n=6, 3.94), Toxascaris spp., Capillaria spp., and Trichuris vulpis (n=2, 1.31% each) in order of their prevalence. Pattern of infection revealed that 27 (65.8%) dogs have single, 13(31.7%) double and 1(2.43%) triple infection. The stray dogs were highly infected 34.4% (n=31) than house hold dogs 16.1% (n=10). The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites was significantly different among these two groups (p = 0.0097). This study highlight a severe environmental contamination by frequent parasitic stages infectious to humans. There is a higher risk of zoonotic transmission from dogs which indicate an immediate need for the controlling of these parasites and educating the public to take wise action relating to the parasites and pets.


Resumo Dados sobre a contaminação ambiental dos parasitas de importância zoonótica são escassos no Paquistão. A contaminação do solo com fezes de cães, as quais escondem as fases infecciosas do parasita, representa um risco à saúde dos seres humanos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os ovos de parasitas gastrointestinais de cães de rua e domésticos no distrito de Lower Dir, no Paquistão, com especial atenção para aqueles que podem ser transmitidos aos seres humanos. Foram recolhidos 152 espécimes de fezes de cães, dos quais 90 eram de rua e 62 eram domésticos. Os ovos de helmintos foram processados ​​por método de esfregaço direto e técnicas de centrifugação e identificados por exame microscópico. Do total de cães examinados, verificou-se que 26,8% (n = 41/152) estavam infectados com um ou mais parasitas intestinais. Os helmintos intestinais detectados foram Dipylidium caninum (n = 18; 11,8%), seguido por Toxocara canis (n = 16; 10,5%), Taenia spp. (n = 10; 6,57%), Ancylostoma caninum (n = 6; 3,94%), Toxascaris spp., Capillaria spp. e Trichuris vulpis (n = 2; 1,31% cada) em ordem de prevalência. O padrão de infecção revelou que 27 (65,8%) cães tinham infecção simples, 13 (31,7%), duplas, e 1 (2,43%), tripla. Os cães de rua estavam altamente infectados (34,4%; n = 31) do que os cães domésticos (16,1%; n = 10). A prevalência de infecção por parasitas intestinais foi significativamente diferente entre esses dois grupos (p = 0,0097). Este estudo destaca uma grave contaminação ambiental por frequentes fases parasitárias infecciosas para humanos. Existe um risco maior de transmissão zoonótica de cães, o que indica uma necessidade imediata do controle desses parasitas, além de educar o público quanto à tomada de medidas relativas aos parasitas e aos animais de estimação.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401851

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to explore morphometric variations of Pteropus medius (the Indian flying fox) and the roosting trees in Lower Dir, Pakistan. The bats were captured from Morus alba, Morus nigra, Brousonetia papyrifera, Pinus raxburghii, Hevea brasiliensis, Platanus orientalis, Populous nigra, Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Grevillea robusta through sling shot and mess net methods. A total of 12 bats were studied for the differential morphological features based on age and sex. Male bats were recorded higher in weight than females. The variations were found in body mass (821.1±34.65gm), circumference of body with wings (25.43±0.39cm), wingspan (112.58±1.90cm), Body length (20.73±0.68cm), Snout length (3.42±0.04cm), Eye length (1.45±0.033cm), Length of ear (3.56±0.05cm), Width of ear (2.46±0.04cm), Length b/w ear (5.51±0.11cm), Circumference of neck (12.23±0.24cm), Circumference of body without wings (18.68±0.31cm), Arm wing length (23.2±1.03cm), Length of thumb (5.43±0.1cm), Length of nail (1.89±0.05cm), Hand wing length (29.1±0.51cm), Maximum width of wing (21.03±0.68cm), Length b/w tip of wing to 5th digit (29.39±0.30cm), Length b/w 5th digit to foot (22.97±1.09cm), Length b/w feet (18.31±0.74cm) and Length of foot claw (4.23±0.05cm). This study was designed for analysis of external morphological variations for P. medius (the Indian flying fox) that may help in identification of these bats and their roosting sites.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 511-517, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644646

RESUMO

Data on environmental contamination of the parasites of zoonotic importance is scarce in Pakistan. Soil contamination with feces of dogs hide infective stages of the parasite represents a health-risk to humans. This study was aimed to assess the eggs of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs and household dogs in lower Dir district, Pakistan with special consideration to those that can be spread to humans. One hundred and fifty two stool specimens from (stray dogs=90 and household dogs=62) were collected. The helminth eggs were processed by direct smear method and centrifugation techniques and identified by microscopic examination. Of the total examined dogs 26.8% (n=41 /152) were found to be infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The intestinal helminths detected were Dipylidium caninum (n =18, 11.8%), followed by Toxocara canis (n =16, 10.5%), Taenia spp., (n=10, 6.57%) Ancylostoma caninum (n=6, 3.94), Toxascaris spp., Capillaria spp., and Trichuris vulpis (n=2, 1.31% each) in order of their prevalence. Pattern of infection revealed that 27 (65.8%) dogs have single, 13(31.7%) double and 1(2.43%) triple infection. The stray dogs were highly infected 34.4% (n=31) than house hold dogs 16.1% (n=10). The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites was significantly different among these two groups (p = 0.0097). This study highlight a severe environmental contamination by frequent parasitic stages infectious to humans. There is a higher risk of zoonotic transmission from dogs which indicate an immediate need for the controlling of these parasites and educating the public to take wise action relating to the parasites and pets.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Helmintos , Animais , Cães , Fezes , Humanos , Paquistão , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
8.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 523-528, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644647

RESUMO

Three districts viz. Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, were surveyed for the collection of Pteropus vampyrus (the Indian flying fox) in Malakand division, the north western region of Pakistan from February to November 2018. A total of 35 specimens were captured. Out of the examined specimens 22 were found to be infected with ectoparasites. Three types of ectoparasites were observed including flies 20% (n=7/35), mites 28.5% (n=10/35) and bugs 14.2% (n=5/35). Male bats were more infected 57.1% (n=20/35) as compared to females 42.8% (n=15/35), however, no significant difference (p>0.05) was noted. Flies were recovered from wings membrane and head region, mites were found on wings, ears and around eyes while bugs were found attached on body surface and neck region. Body weight, circumference and wing span of male bats were greater as compared to female bats and were considered a key factor in clear cut identification of male and female Pteropus vampyrus (the Indian flyingfox). It was concluded that Pteropus vampyrus from north western part of Pakistan were parasitized by a varied parasite fauna with high infestation rates. We assume that in male bats the number of parasites is generally higher than in females. Our results revealed new insights into parasite fauna of Pteropus vampyrus.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Dípteros , Parasitos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Asas de Animais
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