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1.
Ophthalmology ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present phenotypic features of 22 patients with S-antigen (SAG) mutations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one Japanese patients from 16 families with a homozygous c.924delA mutation and 1 patient with a homozygous c.636delT mutation in the SAG gene. METHODS: Clinical records on symptoms; best-corrected visual acuity; and Goldmann perimetry, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), OCT, and electroretinography results were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann perimetry results, imaging findings, and electroretinography results. RESULTS: Ten patients had Oguchi disease and 12 had retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with mean follow-up periods of 13.8 and 10.2 years, respectively. Retinitis pigmentosa patients were older (mean age, 56.0 years) than those with Oguchi disease (mean age, 22.1 years; P < 0.001) at the initial visit. Night blindness noted in childhood was the most common initial symptom for both Oguchi disease (80.0%) and RP (91.7%) patients. Best-corrected visual acuity in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) was well preserved in Oguchi disease patients (mean, 0.02 logMAR in both eyes) but reduced in most RP patients (mean, 1.32 logMAR [right eye] and 1.35 logMAR [left eye]). Similarly, the visual field in the retinal area was preserved in Oguchi disease patients (mean, 677 mm2 right eye and 667 mm2 left eye) and reduced in RP patients (mean, 369 mm2 right eye and 294 mm2 left eye). Fundus images revealed a characteristic golden sheen with no retinal degeneration in Oguchi disease patients, excluding 2 with macular degeneration detected by FAF, OCT, or both and 1 with mild retinal degeneration confirmed by OCT and fluorescein angiography. Pigmentary retinal degeneration most evident posteriorly was observed in RP patients, accompanied by a characteristic golden sheen in 12 of 14 patients undergoing ultra-widefield fundus imaging. OCT showed disrupted macular structure, and FAF revealed variable hypofluorescence. Electroretinography identified absent rod responses in both diseases, along with relative preservation of cone responses in Oguchi disease patients. Three patients showed progressive loss of the golden sheen based on fundus images, including 1 who demonstrated RP 26 years after the initial diagnosis of Oguchi disease. CONCLUSIONS: Retinitis pigmentosa with SAG mutations often shows a characteristic golden sheen surrounding posterior pigmentary retinal degeneration. Oguchi disease can show progressive degeneration in adulthood, rarely resulting in RP.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2884, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253780

RESUMO

Hereditary retinal degenerations (HRDs) are Mendelian diseases characterized by progressive blindness and caused by ultra-rare mutations. In a genomic screen of 331 unrelated Japanese patients, we identify a disruptive Alu insertion and a nonsense variant (p.Arg1933*) in the ciliary gene RP1, neither of which are rare alleles in Japan. p.Arg1933* is almost polymorphic (frequency = 0.6%, amongst 12,000 individuals), does not cause disease in homozygosis or heterozygosis, and yet is significantly enriched in HRD patients (frequency = 2.1%, i.e., a 3.5-fold enrichment; p-value = 9.2 × 10-5). Familial co-segregation and association analyses show that p.Arg1933* can act as a Mendelian mutation in trans with the Alu insertion, but might also associate with disease in combination with two alleles in the EYS gene in a non-Mendelian pattern of heredity. Our results suggest that rare conditions such as HRDs can be paradoxically determined by relatively common variants, following a quasi-Mendelian model linking monogenic and complex inheritance.


Assuntos
Ciliopatias/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Elementos Alu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Japão , Mutação , Linhagem
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8875, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221998

RESUMO

This study evaluated age-related changes in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus (SCP and DCP, respectively) and in the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). SCP and DCP perfusion density (PD) were measured in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) macular scans of 145 eyes of 145 healthy Japanese subjects, and findings were compared with SCP FAZ and clinical data. We found that age was negatively correlated with SCP and DCP PD (r = -0.17, P = 0.04 and r = -0.20, P = 0.02, respectively) and positively correlated with FAZ area (r = 0.18, P = 0.03). SCP and DCP PD were correlated with each other (r = 0.67, P < 0.001). FAZ area was negatively correlated with SCP PD, DCP PD and central macular thickness (CMT) (r = -0.18, P = 0.03; r = -0.25, P < 0.01; and r = -0.39, P < 0.001, respectively). FAZ was larger and CMT was lower (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) in women than men. SCP and DCP PD were positively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.17, P = 0.03 and r = 0.24, P < 0.01, respectively). Multiple regression analysis confirmed that age independently affected DCP PD and FAZ (P = 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively) and that CMT independently affected FAZ area (P < 0.001). Thus, normal subjects showed age-related decreases in macular PD and renal function. FAZ and CMT were related, suggesting that age-related changes in macular thickness also affect capillary vasculature.

4.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic profile of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in East Asian populations has not been well characterised. Therefore, we conducted a large-scale sequencing study to investigate the genes and variants causing RP in a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 1209 Japanese patients diagnosed with typical RP were enrolled. We performed deep resequencing of 83 known causative genes of RP using next-generation sequencing. We defined pathogenic variants as those that were putatively deleterious or registered as pathogenic in the Human Gene Mutation Database or ClinVar database and had a minor allele frequency in any ethnic population of ≤0.5% for recessive genes or ≤0.01% for dominant genes as determined using population-based databases. RESULTS: We successfully sequenced 1204 patients with RP and determined 200 pathogenic variants in 38 genes as the cause of RP in 356 patients (29.6%). Variants in six genes (EYS, USH2A, RP1L1, RHO, RP1 and RPGR) caused RP in 65.4% (233/356) of those patients. Among autosomal recessive genes, two known founder variants in EYS [p.(Ser1653fs) and p.(Tyr2935*)] and four East Asian-specific variants [p.(Gly2752Arg) in USH2A, p.(Arg658*) in RP1L1, p.(Gly2186Glu) in EYS and p.(Ile535Asn) in PDE6B] and p.(Cys934Trp) in USH2A were found in ≥10 patients. Among autosomal dominant genes, four pathogenic variants [p.(Pro347Leu) in RHO, p.(Arg872fs) in RP1, p.(Arg41Trp) in CRX and p.(Gly381fs) in PRPF31] were found in ≥4 patients, while these variants were unreported or extremely rare in both East Asian and non-East Asian population-based databases. CONCLUSIONS: East Asian-specific variants in causative genes were the major causes of RP in the Japanese population.

5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(4): 1192-1203, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913292

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the clinical and genetic spectrum of RP1-associated retinal dystrophies. Methods: In this multicenter case series, we included 22 patients with RP1-associated retinal dystrophies from 19 families from The Netherlands and Japan. Data on clinical characteristics, visual acuity, visual field, ERG, and retinal imaging were extracted from medical records over a mean follow-up of 8.1 years. Results: Eleven patients were diagnosed with autosomal recessive macular dystrophy (arMD) or autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (arCRD), five with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP), and six with autosomal dominant RP (adRP). The mean age of onset was 40.3 years (range 14-56) in the patients with arMD/arCRD, 26.2 years (range 18-40) in adRP, and 8.8 years (range 5-12) in arRP patients. All patients with arMD/arCRD carried either the hypomorphic p.Arg1933* variant positioned close to the C-terminus (8 of 11 patients) or a missense variant in exon 2 (3 of 11 patients), compound heterozygous with a likely deleterious frameshift or nonsense mutation, or the p.Gln1916* variant. In contrast, all mutations identified in adRP and arRP patients were frameshift and/or nonsense variants located far from the C-terminus. Conclusions: Mutations in the RP1 gene are associated with a broad spectrum of progressive retinal dystrophies. In addition to adRP and arRP, our study provides further evidence that arCRD and arMD are RP1-associated phenotypes as well. The macular involvement in patients with the hypomorphic RP1 variant suggests that macular function may remain compromised if expression levels of RP1 do not reach adequate levels after gene augmentation therapy.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Degeneração Macular/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/diagnóstico , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/fisiopatologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrorretinografia , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(1): 49-53, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) caused by pathogenic CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN1 is characterized by loss of vision with little fundus abnormalities in some patients. Recently, macular degeneration has been reported to account for the visual symptoms in sporadic cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five consecutive patients diagnosed as SCA1 with supporting genetical evidence were newly referred to ophthalmology department from neurology unit. They underwent ocular examination to assess visual acuity and the structural integrity of the macula using optical coherent tomography (OCT). Full-field and multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) were recorded in some patients. Genetic testing was done by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. RESULTS: Fundus examinations revealed normal optic disc and macula appearance. However, four out of five patients had foveal thinning by OCT. This included three patients who showed reduced visual acuity. Among the three, multifocal ERG was performed in two, which showed reduced amplitudes in the localized foveal area. Full-field ERG showed normal responses in all five patients assessed. Only one patient had normal visual function and normal macular structure. CONCLUSIONS: Macular degeneration with subtle funduscopic alterations, sometimes mimicking occult macular dystrophy, is an important cause of visual loss in SCA1 patients, which could be reliably detected with OCT and multifocal ERGs.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15948, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374137

RESUMO

Measuring the optokinetic response (OKR) to rotating sinusoidal gratings is becoming an increasingly common method to determine visual function thresholds in mice. This is possible also through direct electrophysiological recording of the response of the neurons in the visual cortex to the presentation of reversing patterned stimuli, i.e. the pattern visually evoked potential (pVEP). Herein, we optimized the conditions for recording pVEPs in wild-type mice: we investigated the optimal depth (1, 2, or 3 mm) of the inserted electrode and the optimal stimulus pattern (vertical, horizontal, or oblique black and white stripes, or a checkerboard pattern). Visual acuity was higher when measured with the optimal pVEP recording conditions, i.e., with the electrode at 2 mm and a vertical-stripe stimulus (0.530 ± 0.021 cycle/degree), than with OKR (0.455 ± 0.006 cycle/degree). Moreover, in murine eyes with optic nerve crush-induced low vision, OKR could not measure any visual acuity, while pVEPs allowed the reliable quantification of residual vision (0.064 ± 0.004 cycle/degree). Our results show that pVEPs allow more sensitive measurement of visual function than the OKR-based method. This technique should be particularly useful in mouse models of ocular disease and low vision.

8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(10): 3943-3951, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073365

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the therapeutic potential of endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (Ecel1) in a mouse model of optic nerve crush. Methods: Ecel1 expression was evaluated with real time quantitative (qRT)-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry in mouse retinas after optic nerve crush. Vinblastine administration to the optic nerve and the intravitreal injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) were used to assess Ecel1 gene expression. Ecel1 was deleted with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival was investigated with retrograde labeling, qRT-PCR, and visual evoked potential. Results: Optic nerve crush induced Ecel1 expression specifically in the RGCs, peaking on day 4 after optic nerve crush. Ecel1 gene expression was induced by the vinblastine-induced inhibition of axonal flow, but not by NMDA-induced excitotoxicity, even though both are triggers of RGC death. Knockdown of Ecel1 promoted the loss of RGCs after optic nerve crush. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Ecel1 induction is part of the retinal neuroprotective response to axonal injury in mice. These findings might provide insight into novel therapeutic targets for the attenuation of RGC damage, such as occurs in traumatic optic neuropathy.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11930, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093719

RESUMO

In glaucoma, although axonal injury drives retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, little is known about the underlying pathomechanisms. To provide new mechanistic insights and identify new biomarkers, we combined latest non-targeting metabolomics analyses to profile altered metabolites in the mouse whole retina 2, 4, and 7 days after optic nerve crush (NC). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry covering wide spectrum of metabolites in combination highlighted 30 metabolites that changed its concentration after NC. The analysis displayed similar changes for purine nucleotide and glutathione as reported previously in another animal model of axonal injury and detected multiple metabolites that increased after the injury. After studying the specificity of the identified metabolites to RGCs in histological sections using imaging mass spectrometry, two metabolites, i.e., L-acetylcarnitine and phosphatidylcholine were increased not only preceding the peak of RGC death in the whole retina but also at the RGC layer (2.3-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively). These phospholipids propose novel mechanisms of RGC death and may serve as early biomarkers of axonal injury. The combinatory metabolomics analyses promise to illuminate pathomechanisms, reveal biomarkers, and allow the discovery of new therapeutic targets of glaucoma.

10.
Mol Ther ; 26(10): 2397-2406, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064895

RESUMO

In patients born blind with retinal dystrophies, understanding the critical periods of cortical plasticity is important for successful visual restoration. In this study, we sought to model childhood blindness and investigate the plasticity of visual pathways. To this end, we generated double-mutant (Pde6ccpfl1/cpfl1Gnat1IRD2/IRD2) mice with absent rod and cone photoreceptor function, and we evaluated their response for restoring rod (GNAT1) function through gene therapy. Despite the limited effectiveness of gene therapy in restoring visual acuity in patients with retinal dystrophy, visual acuity was, unexpectedly, successfully restored in the mice at the level of the primary visual cortex in this study. This success in visual restoration, defined by changes in the quantified optokinetic response and pattern visually evoked potential, was achieved regardless of the age at treatment (up to 16 months). In the contralateral visual cortex, cortical plasticity, tagged with light-triggered transcription of Arc, was also restored after the treatment in blind mice carrying an Arc promoter-driven reporter gene, dVenus. Our results demonstrate the remarkable plasticity of visual circuits for one of the two photoreceptor mechanisms in older as well as younger mice with congenital blindness due to retinal dystrophies.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0197027, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to investigate glaucomatous morphological changes quantitatively in the visual cortex of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a normalizing MRI technique, and to clarify the relationship between glaucomatous damage and regional changes in the visual cortex of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS: Thirty-one patients with OAG (age: 55.9 ± 10.7, male: female = 9: 22) and 20 age-matched controls (age: 54.9 ± 9.8, male: female = 10: 10) were included in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the optic nerve was manually measured with T2-weighed MRI. Images of the visual cortex were acquired with T1-weighed 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequencing, and the normalized regional visual cortex volume, i.e., gray matter density (GMD), in Brodmann areas (BA) 17, 18, and 19, was calculated with a normalizing technique based on statistic parametric mapping 8 (SPM8) analysis. We compared the regional GMD of the visual cortex in the control subjects and OAG patients. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between optic nerve CSA and GMD in BA 17, 18, and 19. RESULTS: We found that the normal and OAG patients differed significantly in optic nerve CSA (p < 0.001) and visual cortex GMD in BA 17 (p = 0.030), BA 18 (p = 0.003), and BA 19 (p = 0.005). In addition, we found a significant correlation between optic nerve CSA and visual cortex GMD in BA 19 (r = 0.33, p = 0.023), but not in BA 17 (r = 0.17, p = 0.237) or BA 18 (r = 0.24, p = 0.099). CONCLUSION: Quantitative MRI parametric evaluation of GMD can detect glaucoma-associated anatomical atrophy of the visual cortex in BA 17, 18, and 19. Furthermore, GMD in BA 19 was significantly correlated to the damage level of the optic nerve, as well as the retina, in patients with OAG. This is the first demonstration of an association between the cortex of the brain responsible for higher-order visual function and glaucoma severity. Evaluation of the visual cortex with MRI is thus a very promising potential method for objective examination in OAG.

13.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the relationship between aqueous flare, visual function and macular structures in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Clinical data from 123 patients with RP (227 eyes), 35 patients with macular dystrophy (68 eyes) and 148 controls (148 eyes) were analysed. The differences in aqueous flare between clinical entities and the correlation between aqueous flare (measured with a laser flare cell meter) versus visual acuity, visual field area (Goldmann perimetry) and macular thickness (optical coherence tomography) in patients with RP were determined. Influence of selected clinical data on flare was assessed using linear mixed-effects model. RESULTS: Aqueous flare was higher in patients with RP than patients with macular dystrophy or controls (p=7.49×E-13). Aqueous flare was correlated with visual field area (R=-0.379, p=3.72×E-9), but not with visual acuity (R=0.083, p=0.215). Macular thickness (R=0.234, p=3.74×E-4), but not foveal thickness (R=0.122, p=0.067), was positively correlated with flare. Flare was not affected by the presence of macular complications. All these associations were maintained when the right and the left eyes were assessed separately. Analysis by linear mixed-effects model revealed that age (p=8.58×E-5), visual field area (p=8.01×E-7) and average macular thickness (p=0.037) were correlated with flare. CONCLUSION: Aqueous flare and visual field area were correlated in patients with RP. Aqueous flare may reflect the degree of overall retinal degeneration more closely than the local foveal impairment.

15.
Curr Eye Res ; 43(6): 804-809, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547015

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to investigate the correlation between intraocular anti-retinal antibodies and clinical measurements in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aqueous humor and vitreous samples were collected from patients with RRD, PVR, and from control subjects with macular hole. The levels of total protein (TP), IgG, and anti-retinal antibodies were determined with a bicinchoninic acid assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot, respectively. Correlations between these measurements were assessed using Pearson's correlation test. Analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test or the Student t-test was used to compare differences between groups. RESULTS: The levels of anti-retinal antibodies and IgG were correlated with each other (P < 0.010). The IgG concentration was higher in patients with PVR than in controls in both the aqueous humor (P < 0.001) and the vitreous (P < 0.001), but not in patients with RRD. Conversely, TP levels and anti-retinal antibodies in both ocular fluids from RRD and PVR patients did not significantly differ from the controls. In a subgroup analysis, vitreal anti-retinal antibody levels were correlated with average macular thickness in the re-attached macula following surgery for macula-off RRD/PVR (P = 0.012). Furthermore, patients with post-operative cystoid macular edema had a higher level of vitreal anti-retinal antibodies than those without (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal anti-retinal antibodies were increased in the eyes with maculopathy after surgical intervention for RRD/PVR.

16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(2): 826-830, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411010

RESUMO

Purpose: To accelerate the development of new therapies, an inherited retinal degeneration model in a nonhuman primate would be useful to confirm the efficacy in preclinical studies. In this study, we describe the discovery of retinitis pigmentosa in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree. Methods: First, screening with fundus photography was performed on 1443 monkeys at the Tsukuba Primate Research Center. Ophthalmic examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, ERGs using RETeval, and optic coherent tomography (OCT) measurement, were then performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: Retinal degeneration with cystoid macular edema was observed in both eyes of one 14-year-old female monkey. In her examinations, the full-field ERGs were nonrecordable and the outer layer of the retina in the parafoveal area was not visible on OCT imaging. Moreover, less frequent pigmentary retinal anomalies also were observed in her 3-year-old nephew. His full-field ERGs were almost nonrecordable and the outer layer was not visible in the peripheral retina. His father was her cousin (the son of her mother's older brother) and his mother was her younger half-sibling sister with a different father. Conclusions: The hereditary nature is highly probable (autosomal recessive inheritance suspected). However, whole-exome analysis performed identified no pathogenic mutations in these monkeys.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Animais , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/genética , Masculino , Oftalmoscopia , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Retina/fisiopatologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(8): 1486-1496, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452408

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide for which 15 disease-associated loci had been discovered. Among them, only 5 loci have been associated with POAG in Asians. We carried out a genome-wide association study and a replication study that included a total of 7378 POAG cases and 36 385 controls from a Japanese population. After combining the genome-wide association study and the two replication sets, we identified 11 POAG-associated loci, including 4 known (CDKN2B-AS1, ABCA1, SIX6 and AFAP1) and 7 novel loci (FNDC3B, ANKRD55-MAP3K1, LMX1B, LHPP, HMGA2, MEIS2 and LOXL1) at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0×10-8), bringing the total number of POAG-susceptibility loci to 22. The 7 novel variants were subsequently evaluated in a multiethnic population comprising non-Japanese East Asians (1008 cases, 591 controls), Europeans (5008 cases, 35 472 controls) and Africans (2341 cases, 2037 controls). The candidate genes located within the new loci were related to ocular development (LMX1B, HMGA2 and MAP3K1) and glaucoma-related phenotypes (FNDC3B, LMX1B and LOXL1). Pathway analysis suggested epidermal growth factor receptor signaling might be involved in POAG pathogenesis. Genetic correlation analysis revealed the relationships between POAG and systemic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These results improve our understanding of the genetic factors that affect the risk of developing POAG and provide new insight into the genetic architecture of POAG in Asians.

19.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0186678, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261660

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the genetic association between Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and the previously reported POAG susceptibility loci and to perform genotype-phenotype analysis. METHODS: Genetic associations for 27 SNPs from 16 loci previously linked to POAG were assessed using genome-wide SNP data of the primary cohort (565 Japanese POAG patients and 1,104 controls). Reproducibility of the assessment was tested in 607 POAG cases and 455 controls (second cohort) with a targeted genotyping approach. For POAG-associated variants, a genotype-phenotype correlation study (additive, dominant, recessive model) was performed using the objective clinical data derived from 598 eyes of 598 POAG patients. RESULTS: Among 27 SNPs from 16 loci previously linked to POAG, genotypes for total of 20 SNPs in 13 loci were available for targeted association study. Among 8 SNPs in 3 loci that showed at least nominal association (P < 5.00E-02) in the primary cohort, a representative SNP for each loci (rs2157719 for CDKN2B-AS1, rs33912345 for SIX6, and rs9913911 for GAS7) were selected. For these SNPs the association was found significant in both the second cohort analysis and meta-analysis. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed significant correlations between CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719) and decreased intraocular pressure (ß = -6.89 mmHg, P = 1.70E-04; dominant model) after multiple corrections. In addition, nominal correlation was observed between CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719) and optic nerve head blood flow (ß = -0.54 and -0.67 arbitrary units (AU), P = 2.00E-02 and 1.39E-02), between SIX6 (rs33912345) and decreased total peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (ß = -2.16 and -2.82 µm, P = 4.68E-02 and 2.40E-02, additive and recessive model, respectively) and increased optic nerve head blood flow (ß = 0.44 AU, P = 2.20E-02; additive model) and between GAS7 (rs9913911) and increased cup volume (ß = 0.03 mm3, P = 4.60E-02) and mean cup depth (ß = 0.03 mm3, P = 4.11E-02; additive model) and decreased pattern standard deviation (ß = -0.87 dB, P = 2.44E-02; dominant model). CONCLUSION: The association between SNPs near GAS7 and POAG was found in Japanese patients for the first time. Clinical characterization of the risk variants is an important step toward understanding the pathology of the disease and optimizing treatment of patients with POAG.


Assuntos
Alelos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6885, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761134

RESUMO

We found that hesperidin, a plant-derived bioflavonoid, may be a candidate agent for neuroprotective treatment in the retina, after screening 41 materials for anti-oxidative properties in a primary retinal cell culture under oxidative stress. We found that the intravitreal injection of hesperidin in mice prevented reductions in markers of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and RGC death after N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity. Hesperidin treatment also reduced calpain activation, reactive oxygen species generation and TNF-α gene expression. Finally, hesperidin treatment improved electrophysiological function, measured with visual evoked potential, and visual function, measured with optomotry. Thus, we found that hesperidin suppressed a number of cytotoxic factors associated with NMDA-induced cell death signaling, such as oxidative stress, over-activation of calpain, and inflammation, thereby protecting the RGCs in mice. Therefore, hesperidin may have potential as a therapeutic supplement for protecting the retina against the damage associated with excitotoxic injury, such as occurs in glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy.

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