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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While evidence indicates that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colorectal carcinogenesis through its suppressive effect on T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity, the specific T-cell subsets involved remain uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured F. nucleatum DNA within tumor tissue by quantitative PCR on 933 cases (including 128 F. nucleatum-positive cases) among 4,465 incident colorectal carcinoma cases in two prospective cohorts. Multiplex immunofluorescence combined with digital image analysis and machine learning algorithms for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC isoform), and FOXP3 measured various T-cell subsets. We leveraged data on Bifidobacterium, microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor whole exome sequencing, and M1/M2-type tumor-associated macrophages [by CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) multimarker assay]. Using the 4,465 cancer cases and inverse probability weighting method to control for selection bias due to tissue availability, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the association between F. nucleatum and T-cell subsets. RESULTS: The amount of F. nucleatum was inversely associated with tumor stromal CD3+ lymphocytes (multivariable odds ratio, 0.47, 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.79, for F. nucleatum-high vs. negative category; P trend=0.0004) and specifically stromal CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ cells (corresponding multivariable odds ratio, 0.52, 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85; P trend=0.003). These relationships did not substantially differ by MSI status, neoantigen loads, or exome-wide tumor mutational burden. F. nucleatum was not significantly associated with T-cell subset densities in tumor intraepithelial regions or with macrophage densities. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of tissue F. nucleatum is associated with lower densities of stromal memory helper T cells. Our findings provide evidence for the interactive pathogenic roles of microbiota and specific immune cells.

2.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023967

RESUMO

Macrophages are among the most common cells in the colorectal cancer microenvironment, but their prognostic significance is incompletely understood. Using multiplexed immunofluorescence for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, MRC1 (CD206), and KRT (cytokeratins) combined with digital image analysis and machine learning, we assessed the polarization spectrum of tumor-associated macrophages in 931 colorectal carcinomas. We then applied Cox proportional hazards regression to assess prognostic survival associations of intraepithelial and stromal densities of M1-like and M2-like macrophages while controlling for potential confounders, including stage and microsatellite instability status. We found that high tumor stromal density of M2-like macrophages was associated with worse cancer-specific survival, whereas tumor stromal density of M1-like macrophages was not significantly associated with better cancer-specific survival. High M1:M2 density ratio in tumor stroma was associated with better cancer-specific survival. Overall macrophage densities in tumor intraepithelial or stromal regions were not prognostic. These findings suggested that macrophage polarization state, rather than their overall density, was associated with cancer-specific survival, with M1- and M2-like macrophage phenotypes exhibiting distinct prognostic roles. These results highlight the utility of a multimarker strategy to assess the macrophage polarization at single-cell resolution within the tumor microenvironment.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-based biomarkers of anti-solid tumor immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) response are lacking. We hypothesized that changes in systemic cytokine levels with the initial doses of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway inhibitors would correlate with clinical responses. New ultrasensitive ELISA technology enables quantitation of plasma proteins in sub-picogram-per-milliliter concentrations. METHODS: We measured plasma cytokines by ultrasensitive single-molecule array assays in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma before and during treatment with anti-PD-1 therapy. Association with best overall response and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kruskall-Wallis test and Kaplan-Meier plots with log-rank test, respectively. RESULTS: A decrease in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels was associated with improved PFS (n=47 patients, median PFS: 11 vs 4 months, HR 0.45 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.89), p=0.04). The extent of change in IL-6 differed between best overall response categories (p=0.01) and correlated with changes in C reactive protein levels. We also explored plasma cytokine levels in relation to immune-related adverse effects and observed some correlation. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the presence of a systemic, proteomic reflection of successful ICB outside the tumor microenvironment with plasma decreases in IL-6 and CRP.

4.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa040, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923934

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with worse colorectal cancer patient survival and may potentially suppress the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of smoking behavior at colorectal cancer diagnosis might differ by lymphocytic reaction patterns in cancer tissue. Methods: Using 1474 colon and rectal cancer patients within 2 large prospective cohort studies (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study), we characterized 4 patterns of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), intratumoral periglandular reaction, peritumoral lymphocytic reaction, and Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction. Using covariate data of 4420 incident colorectal cancer patients in total, an inverse probability weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was conducted to adjust for selection bias due to tissue availability and potential confounders, including tumor differentiation, disease stage, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results: The prognostic association of smoking status at diagnosis differed by TIL status. Compared with never smokers, the multivariable-adjusted colorectal cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio for current smokers was 1.50 (95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 2.06) in tumors with negative or low TIL and 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.16 to 1.12) in tumors with intermediate or high TIL (2-sided P interaction = .009). No statistically significant interactions were observed in the other patterns of lymphocytic reaction. Conclusions: The association of smoking status at diagnosis with colorectal cancer mortality may be stronger for carcinomas with negative or low TIL, suggesting a potential interplay of smoking and lymphocytic reaction in the colorectal cancer microenvironment.

5.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3644, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686686

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. To characterize its mutational profile, we conduct targeted sequencing of 205 genes for 2,105 CRC cases with survival data. Our data shows several findings in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge of CRC. We identify PRKCI, SPZ1, MUTYH, MAP2K4, FETUB, and TGFBR2 as additional genes significantly mutated in CRC. We find that among hypermutated tumors, an increased mutation burden is associated with improved CRC-specific survival (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82). Mutations in TP53 are associated with poorer CRC-specific survival, which is most pronounced in cases carrying TP53 mutations with predicted 0% transcriptional activity (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.94). Furthermore, we observe differences in mutational frequency of several genes and pathways by tumor location, stage, and sex. Overall, this large study provides deep insights into somatic mutations in CRC, and their potential relationships with survival and tumor features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(16): 4326-4338, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although high T-cell density is a well-established favorable prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, the prognostic significance of tumor-associated plasma cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils is less well-defined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We computationally processed digital images of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections to identify lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils in tumor intraepithelial and stromal areas of 934 colorectal cancers in two prospective cohort studies. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute mortality HR according to cell density quartiles. The spatial patterns of immune cell infiltration were studied using the GTumor:Immune cell function, which estimates the likelihood of any tumor cell in a sample having at least one neighboring immune cell of the specified type within a certain radius. Validation studies were performed on an independent cohort of 570 colorectal cancers. RESULTS: Immune cell densities measured by the automated classifier demonstrated high correlation with densities both from manual counts and those obtained from an independently trained automated classifier (Spearman's ρ 0.71-0.96). High densities of stromal lymphocytes and eosinophils were associated with better cancer-specific survival [P trend < 0.001; multivariable HR (4th vs 1st quartile of eosinophils), 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.71]. High GTumor:Lymphocyte area under the curve (AUC0,20µm; P trend = 0.002) and high GTumor:Eosinophil AUC0,20µm (P trend < 0.001) also showed associations with better cancer-specific survival. High stromal eosinophil density was also associated with better cancer-specific survival in the validation cohort (P trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the potential for machine learning assessment of H&E-stained sections to provide robust, quantitative tumor-immune biomarkers for precision medicine.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 122(9): 1367-1377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological lymphocytic reaction is regarded as an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Considering the lack of adequate statistical power, adjustment for selection bias and comprehensive tumour molecular data in most previous studies, we investigated the strengths of the prognostic associations of lymphocytic reaction in colorectal carcinoma by utilising an integrative database of two prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We examined Crohn's-like reaction, intratumoural periglandular reaction, peritumoural reaction and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in 1465 colorectal carcinoma cases. Using covariate data of 4420 colorectal cancer cases in total, inverse probability-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to control for selection bias (due to tissue availability) and potential confounders, including stage, MSI status, LINE-1 methylation, PTGS2 and CTNNB1 expression, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, and tumour neoantigen load. RESULTS: Higher levels of each lymphocytic reaction component were associated with better colorectal cancer-specific survival (Ptrend < 0.002). Compared with cases with negative/low intratumoural periglandular reaction, multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42-0.71) in cases with intermediate reaction and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.12-0.35) in cases with high reaction. These relationships were consistent in strata of MSI status or neoantigen loads (Pinteraction > 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: The four lymphocytic reaction components are prognostic biomarkers in colorectal carcinoma.

9.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(6): 883-890, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165453

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic reprogramming has a critical role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The usefulness of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue material for metabolomics analysis as compared with fresh frozen tissue material remains unclear. LC/MS-MS-based metabolomics analysis was performed on 11 pairs of matched tumor and normal tissues in both FFPE and fresh frozen tissue materials from patients with colorectal carcinoma. Permutation t test was applied to identify metabolites with differential abundance between tumor and normal tissues. A total of 200 metabolites were detected in the FFPE samples and 536 in the fresh frozen samples. The preservation of metabolites in FFPE samples was diverse according to classes and chemical characteristics, ranging from 78% (energy) to 0% (peptides). Compared with the normal tissues, 34 (17%) and 174 (32%) metabolites were either accumulated or depleted in the tumor tissues derived from FFPE and fresh frozen samples, respectively. Among them, 15 metabolites were common in both FFPE and fresh frozen samples. Notably, branched chain amino acids were highly accumulated in tumor tissues. Using KEGG pathway analyses, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, arginine and proline, glycerophospholipid, and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathways distinguishing tumor from normal tissues were found in both FFPE and fresh frozen samples. This study demonstrates that informative data of metabolic profiles can be retrieved from FFPE tissue materials. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest potential value of metabolic profiling using FFPE tumor tissues and may help to shape future translational studies through developing treatment strategies targeting metabolites.

10.
J Pathol ; 250(4): 397-408, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880318

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), which has been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, can impair anti-tumour immunity, and actively invade colon epithelial cells. Considering the critical role of autophagy in host defence against microorganisms, we hypothesised that autophagic activity of tumour cells might influence the amount of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissue. Using 724 rectal and colon cancer cases within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we evaluated autophagic activity of tumour cells by immunohistochemical analyses of BECN1 (beclin 1), MAP1LC3 (LC3), and SQSTM1 (p62) expression. We measured the amount of F. nucleatum DNA in tumour tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We conducted multivariable ordinal logistic regression analyses to examine the association of tumour BECN1, MAP1LC3, and SQSTM1 expression with the amount of F. nucleatum, adjusting for potential confounders, including microsatellite instability status; CpG island methylator phenotype; long-interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation; and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Compared with BECN1-low cases, BECN1-intermediate and BECN1-high cases were associated with lower amounts of F. nucleatum with odds ratios (for a unit increase in three ordinal categories of the amount of F. nucleatum) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.99) and 0.31 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.60), respectively (Ptrend < 0.001 across ordinal BECN1 categories). Tumour MAP1LC3 and SQSTM1 levels were not significantly associated with the amount of F. nucleatum (Ptrend > 0.06). Tumour BECN1, MAP1LC3, and SQSTM1 levels were not significantly associated with patient survival (Ptrend > 0.10). In conclusion, tumour BECN1 expression is inversely associated with the amount of F. nucleatum in colorectal cancer tissue, suggesting a possible role of autophagy in the elimination of invasive microorganisms. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação/genética
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 133-140, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of colorectal cancer in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrate status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 colorectal cancer cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication-method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each colorectal cancer subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night shifts, those working ≥15 years night shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of colorectal cancer (P trend = 0.06; multivariable HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.48-4.89; P trend = 0.001, ≥15 years night shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.54-1.51; P trend = 0.72; P heterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI, 0.94-3.48; P trend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI, 0.71-1.80; P trend = 0.56; P heterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathologic epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night shift might increase colorectal cancer risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathways.

12.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(1): 65-72, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699705

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids, and emerging evidence suggests that BCAAs may mediate pathways related to cancer progression, possibly due to their involvement in insulin metabolism. We investigated the association between dietary intake of BCAAs with colorectal cancer risk in three prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study I [(NHS), number of participants (n) at baseline = 77,017], NHS II (n = 92,984), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [(HPFS) n = 47,255]. Validated food frequency questionnaires were administered every 4 years and follow-up questionnaires on lifestyle biennially. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Pooled HRs were obtained using random effect models. After up to 28 years of follow-up, 1,660 cases were observed in NHS, 306 in NHS II, and 1,343 in HPFS. In multivariable adjusted models, we observed a weak inverse association between BCAA intake and colorectal cancer [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR including all three cohorts (95% CI): 0.89 (0.80-1.00), P trend = 0.06, HR per standard deviation (SD) increment 0.95 (0.92-0.99)]. However, after including dairy calcium to the models, BCAA intake was no longer associated with risk of colorectal cancer [HR 0.96 (0.85-1.08), P trend = 0.50, HR per SD increment 0.97 (0.93-1.01)]. We did not find evidence that higher dietary BCAA intake is associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer. As this is the first prospective study to examine the association between BCAA intake and colorectal cancer, our findings warrant investigation in other cohorts.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2910, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266951

RESUMO

PARP inhibitors (PARPis) have clinical efficacy in BRCA-deficient cancers, but not BRCA-intact tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). We show that MYC or MYCN amplification in patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) generates sensitivity to PARPi via Myc-mediated transcriptional repression of CDK18, while most tumors without amplification are not sensitive. In response to PARPi, CDK18 facilitates ATR activation by interacting with ATR and regulating ATR-Rad9/ATR-ETAA1 interactions; thereby promoting homologous recombination (HR) and PARPi resistance. CDK18 knockdown or ATR inhibition in GSCs suppressed HR and conferred PARPi sensitivity, with ATR inhibitors synergizing with PARPis or sensitizing GSCs. ATR inhibitor VE822 combined with PARPi extended survival of mice bearing GSC-derived orthotopic tumors, irrespective of PARPi-sensitivity. These studies identify a role of CDK18 in ATR-regulated HR. We propose that combined blockade of ATR and PARP is an effective strategy for GBM, even for low-Myc GSCs that do not respond to PARPi alone, and potentially other PARPi-refractory tumors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Patologia Molecular , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 3040-3051, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044426

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence relating fiber intake to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive and data are limited on different food sources of fiber and heterogeneity by tumor subsite and molecular profile. We prospectively followed for CRC incidence 90,869 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and 47,924 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the associations with CRC risk for total, cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber and whole grains. We also assessed the associations according to tumor subsites (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) and molecular markers (microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype and KRAS mutation). We documented 3,178 CRC cases during 3,685,903 person-years of follow-up in the NHS and HPFS. Intake of total dietary fiber was not associated with CRC risk after multivariable adjustment in either women (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme deciles, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.92-1.48, ptrend = 0.55) or men (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.21, ptrend = 0.47). Higher intake of cereal fiber and whole grains was associated with lower CRC risk in men with an HR of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-1.00) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96), respectively. No heterogeneity was detected by tumor subsite or molecular markers (pheterogeneity > 0.05). Higher intake of total dietary fiber within the range of a typical American diet is unlikely to substantially reduce CRC risk. The potential benefit of cereal fiber and whole grains in men warrants further confirmation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(6): 637-649, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A preventive potential of high calcium intake against colorectal cancer has been indicated for distal colon cancer, which is inversely associated with high-level CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), high-level microsatellite instability (MSI), and BRAF and PIK3CA mutations. In addition, BRAF mutation is strongly inversely correlated with KRAS mutation. We hypothesized that the association between calcium intake and colon cancer risk might vary by these molecular features. METHODS: We prospectively followed 88,506 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 47,733 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for up to 30 years. Duplication-method Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between calcium intake and the risk of colon cancer subtypes. By Bonferroni correction, the α-level was adjusted to 0.01. RESULTS: Based on 853 colon cancer cases, the inverse association between dietary calcium intake and colon cancer risk differed by CIMP status (pheterogeneity = 0.01). Per each 300 mg/day increase in intake, multivariable HRs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.94) for CIMP-negative/low and 1.12 (95% CI 0.93-1.34) for CIMP-high. Similar differential associations were suggested for MSI subtypes (pheterogeneity = 0.02), with the corresponding HR being 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.95) for non-MSI-high and 1.10 (95% CI 0.92-1.32) for MSI-high. No differential associations were observed by BRAF, KRAS, or PIK3CA mutations. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between dietary calcium intake and colon cancer risk may be specific to CIMP-negative/low and possibly non-MSI-high subtypes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 111: 82-93, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway promotes tumour progression. Considering evidence suggesting increased PGE2 synthesis by BRAF mutation in tumour cells, we hypothesised that the association of tumour PTGS2 (COX-2) expression with colorectal cancer mortality might be stronger in BRAF-mutated tumours than in BRAF-wild-type tumours. METHODS: Using 1708 patients, including 1200 stage I-IV colorectal carcinoma cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and 508 stage III colon cancer cases in a National Cancer Institute-sponsored randomised controlled trial of adjuvant therapy (CALGB/Alliance 89803), we evaluated tumour PTGS2 (COX-2) expression status using immunohistochemistry. We examined the prognostic association of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression in strata of BRAF mutation status by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to adjust for potential confounders, including disease stage, tumour differentiation, microsatellite instability status and KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. RESULTS: In NHS and HPFS, the association of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression with colorectal cancer-specific survival differed by BRAF mutation status (Pinteraction = 0.0005); compared with PTGS2 (COX-2)-negative/low carcinomas, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for PTGS2 (COX-2)-high carcinomas were 2.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.28) in BRAF-mutated cases and 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04) in BRAF-wild-type cases. Differential prognostic associations of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression in strata of BRAF mutation status were similarly observed in CALGB/Alliance 89803 trial (Pinteraction = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The association of tumour PTGS2 (COX-2) expression with colorectal cancer mortality is stronger in BRAF-mutated tumours than in BRAF-wild-type tumours, supporting interactive roles of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression and BRAF mutation statuses in prognostication of patients with colorectal cancer; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00003835.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Regulação para Cima
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(5): 283-294, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760501

RESUMO

Calcium intake has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Calcium signaling may enhance T-cell proliferation and differentiation, and contribute to T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk according to tumor immunity status to provide additional insights into the role of calcium in colorectal carcinogenesis. The densities of tumor-infiltrating T-cell subsets [CD3+, CD8+ , CD45RO (PTPRC) + , or FOXP3+ cell] were assessed using IHC and computer-assisted image analysis in 736 cancer cases that developed among 136,249 individuals in two cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Total calcium intake was associated with a multivariable HR of 0.55 (comparing ≥1,200 vs. <600 mg/day; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84; P trend = 0.002) for CD8+ T-cell-low but not for CD8+ T-cell-high tumors (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.67-1.55; P trend = 0.47). Similarly, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for calcium for low versus high T-cell-infiltrated tumors were 0.63 (0.42-0.94; P trend = 0.01) and 0.89 (0.58-1.35; P trend = 0.20) for CD3+ ; 0.58 (0.39-0.87; P trend = 0.006) and 1.04 (0.69-1.58; P trend = 0.54) for CD45RO+ ; and 0.56 (0.36-0.85; P trend = 0.006) and 1.10 (0.72-1.67; P trend = 0.47) for FOXP3+ , although the differences by subtypes defined by T-cell density were not statistically significant. These potential differential associations generally appeared consistent regardless of sex, source of calcium intake, tumor location, and tumor microsatellite instability status. Our findings suggest a possible role of calcium in cancer immunoprevention via modulation of T-cell function.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/imunologia , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto do Abdome/imunologia , Reto do Abdome/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 67-74, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640053

RESUMO

There were few reports of oxytocin (OXT) concentrations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with severe intellectual disabilities. We measured serum OXT concentrations in 79 hospitalized patients with severe intellectual disabilities (16-60 years old, 50 males and 29 females, 54 ASD patients) and investigated the associations between serum OXT concentration, symptom scores, sex differences, and autism spectrum disorder. There were no significant effects of diagnosis, severity of intellectual disabilities, and total score of the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version (CARS-TV), and the Japanese version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). However, there were sex differences in the correlations between OXT concentrations and subscale scores in the ASD group. The male ASD group (n = 39) showed negative correlations between RBS-R Self-injurious and Sameness subscale scores and serum OXT concentrations. In the female ASD group(n = 15), CARS-TV Nonverbal communication subscale scores and RBS-R Compulsive subscale scores were seen to positively correlate with serum OXT concentrations. These findings suggest that OXT functions differ in males and females with severe intellectual disabilities and that OXT partly affects autism and related to some of the repetitive behaviors and nonverbal communication, in ASD patients with severe intellectual disabilities.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Deficiência Intelectual/sangue , Ocitocina/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Annu Rev Pathol ; 14: 83-103, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125150

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that diet, nutrition, lifestyle, the environment, the microbiome, and other exogenous factors have pathogenic roles and also influence the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of tumor and nonneoplastic cells, including immune cells. With the need for big-data research, pathology must transform to integrate data science fields, including epidemiology, biostatistics, and bioinformatics. The research framework of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) demonstrates the strengths of such an interdisciplinary integration, having been used to study breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers. The MPE research paradigm not only can provide novel insights into interactions among environment, tumor, and host but also opens new research frontiers. New developments-such as computational digital pathology, systems biology, artificial intelligence, and in vivo pathology technologies-will further transform pathology and MPE. Although it is necessary to address the rarity of transdisciplinary education and training programs, MPE provides an exemplary model of integrative scientific approaches and contributes to advancements in precision medicine, therapy, and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Resolução de Problemas
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