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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942836

RESUMO

We report the first example of a chiral BDH-TTP radical-cation salt. Chirality is induced in the structure via the use of a chiral spiroboronate anion where three stereocentres are present, one on each chiral ligand and one on the boron centre. Despite starting from a labile racemic mixture of BS and BR enantiomers, only one enantiomer is present in the crystal lattice. The anions pack in a novel double anion layer which is the thickest anion layer found in a BDH-TTP salt. This material is chiral and shows metallic behaviour down to at least 4.2 K.

2.
J Epidemiol ; 28(2): 61-66, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival rate is used to develop cancer control plans. However, there are limitations and biases when interpreting patient survival rate data. This study aimed to identify and account for potential biases and/or limitations on estimating survival rate to enable more effective control of cancer. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed from December 2010 to December 2015 for articles that investigated or described biases in estimating patient survival using cancer registries. Articles that only described the tendency of survival rate and investigated relationships between patient characteristics, treatment, and survival rate were excluded. RESULTS: In total, 50 articles met the inclusion criteria. The identified potential biases were categorized into three areas, as follows: 1) the quality of registry data (eg, the completeness of cancer patients, accuracy of data, and follow-up rates); 2) limitations related to estimated methods of survival rates (eg, misclassification of cause of death for cause-specific survival rate or a lack of comparability of background mortality for relative survival rate); and 3) the comparability of survival rates among different groups (eg, age-adjustment or patients with multiple cancers). CONCLUSION: We concluded that survival rate can be suitable for answering questions related to health policy and research. Several factors should be considered when interpreting survival rates estimated using cancer registries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 47(8): 762-771, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541571

RESUMO

Little is known about cancer incidence among children and youths in Japan. We aimed to describe cancer incidence in Japan focusing on childhood, adolescence and young adulthood (AYA). Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. For the 2009-2011 incidence, the data were collected from 40 prefectures, of which data from 27 prefectures meeting quality standards were analyzed (population coverage: 38.6%). Cancers diagnosed in 0-39 years of age were classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (version 3). Crude incidence rates of cancer (including benign or behavior-unknown brain tumors) were 122.7, 142.2, 310.7, and 910.6 for the 0-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-39 age groups, respectively (per million population). Using the sex- and age-specific incidence rates, the national estimates of cancer incidence were 2055 for 0-14 years (1118 males and 937 females), 864 for 15-19 years (450 males and 414 females), 4246 for 20-29 years (1699 males and 2547 females), and 16 295 for 30-39 years of age (5101 males and 11 194 females). The five leading cancers were leukemia, cancer of the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoma, malignant germ cell and other gonadal tumors, and neuroblastoma in childhood cases (0-14 years old); leukemia, malignant germ cell and other gonadal tumors, lymphoma, CNS, and malignant bone tumors in adolescence (15-19 years old). The leading cancer in 20-29 years of age was malignant germ cell other gonadal tumors (mainly testis and ovary), whereas female breast cancer was most frequent in 30-39 years of age. These results provide an overall picture of childhood and AYA cancer in Japan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nihon Rinsho ; 74(11): 1786-1789, 2016 11.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550682

RESUMO

The mortality, incidence, and survival rates for colorectal cancer in Japan are reviewed, with attention paid to changes over time and comparison with US statistics. The age-adjusted mortality rate gradually decreased in Japan, 16.2 per 100,000 per year in 2014. In contrast, the age-adjusted incident rate is rather flat, 54.7 in 2012. The survival rate, dependent on stage of disease, improved to 69.2 % (2003-2005), as overall 5-year survival. In the desig- nated cancer care hospital, we compared the stage distribution between Japan and US, with stage 0, 14.7 % vs 5.8 %, and with stage IV, 13.3 %vs 19.2 %, the cancer and polyps earlier detected in Japan. The epidemiological colorectal cancer statistics in Japan and US are much different in each aspects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 45(9): 884-91, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26142437

RESUMO

The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 45(8): 719-26, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Differences in hospital case-mix have not been adequately accounted for in hospital volume and patient outcome studies in Japan. We aimed to examine whether differences may exist by investigating the distribution of patients' stage and age across designated cancer treatment hospitals of varying patient volume across Japan. METHODS: We analyzed data of gastric, breast, colorectal, lung and liver cancer patients who were included in the national database of hospital-based cancer registries between 2008 and 2011. We investigated the association between hospital volume, cancer stage and patient age. Hospitals were classified into five groups according to patient volume. RESULTS: In total, 676 713 patients met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of patients with early-stage (tumor-node-metastasis Stage 0 or I) cancer was higher among high-volume hospitals for all cancer types except small cell lung cancer. The proportion of older patients (age >75 years) was smaller among high-volume hospitals for all cancer types. The difference in the proportion of patients with early-stage cancers between very low-volume and very high-volume hospitals was greatest for non-small cell lung cancer (26.5% for very low and 43.5% for very high). This difference for the proportion of older patients was also greatest for non-small cell lung cancer (48.9% for very low and 30.3% for very high). CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the proportions of early-stage cancer patients and younger patients are greater in higher-volume hospitals compared with lower-volume hospitals in Japan. Researchers conducting volume-outcome studies and policymakers analyzing hospital performance should be cautious when making interhospital comparisons.


Assuntos
Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Sistema de Registros
7.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) ; 55(4): 296-304, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797781

RESUMO

Head trauma is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases and one of the important issues in the care of abused children. Since the Child Abuse Prevention Law was enforced in 2000 in Japan, various measures have been taken to prevent child abuse over the following decade. Accordingly, medical research on abusive head trauma (AHT) has advanced, leading to significant progress in the medical diagnosis of AHT. This progress has been brought about by (1) the widespread establishment of child protection teams (CPTs) at core hospitals, (2) the progress in neuroradiological imaging and ophthalmoscopic technologies, and (3) the introduction of postmortem imaging. However, the pathological condition of patients with AHT, particularly that of the diffuse brain swelling type, still remains poorly understood. As a result, no clear treatment strategies for AHT have been developed and no treatment outcomes have been improved to date. The development of new treatment strategies for AHT and the construction of a comprehensive database that supports clinical studies are required in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Japão
8.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 45(4): 390-401, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25637502

RESUMO

The analysis of cancer trends in Japan requires periodic updating. Herein, we present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using recent population-based data. National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2013 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2010 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4, -1.3). During the most recent 10 years, over 60% of the decrease in cancer mortality was accounted for by a decrease in stomach and liver cancers (63% for males and 66% for females). The long-term increase in female breast cancer mortality, beginning in the 1960s, plateaued in 2008. All-cancer incidence continuously increased, with annual percent changes of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) between 1985 and 2005, and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6, 2.9) between 2005 and 2010. During the most recent 10 years, almost half of the increase in cancer incidence was accounted for by an increase in prostate cancer (60%) in males and breast cancer (46%) in females. The cancer registry quality indices also began to increase from ∼2005. Decreases in stomach and liver cancers observed for incidence and mortality reflect the reduced attribution of infection-related factors (i.e. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis virus). However, it should be noted that cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates began to increase from ∼1990.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Grupos Populacionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 38(5): 490-5, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that rare cancer is a new target of cancer control in Japan, the incidence of rare cancers is unknown and there is no generally accepted definition of rare cancers in this country. With the aim of calculating incidences of rare cancers in Japan, we therefore adopted a definition and classification of rare cancers that had been published in the European Union (EU) in 2011. METHODS: Using incidence data between 1998 and 2007 submitted by 12 of population based cancer registries in Japan that met our quality criteria and drawing on the EU definition (incidence <6 per 100,000 per year), we estimated the incidences of 845 combinations of tumor sites and histological groups and thus identified the cancers that are rare in Japan. RESULTS: After identifying 193 combinations of tumor sites and histological groups that fit our criteria for rare cancers, we estimated their incidence to be about 75 per 100,000, which corresponds to about 94,800 new diagnoses in 2012 or approximately 15% of all cancer diagnoses. The categorization of rare and common cancers was almost the same in Japan as in EU. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides an indication of the size of the rare cancer burden in Japan and epidemiological information to explore this. We are expecting further discussion based on our results with stakeholders in order to construct a Japanese definition of rare cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Raras/patologia
10.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 44(4): 388-96, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24503029

RESUMO

The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Distribuição por Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
11.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 44(1): 36-41, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24218520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Japan, population-based cancer incidence data are reported several years behind the latest year of cancer mortality data. To bridge this gap, we aimed to determine a short-term projection method for cancer incidence. METHODS: Data between 1985 and 2007 were obtained from the population-based cancer registries in four prefectures (Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Three projection models were examined: generalized linear model with age and period (A + P linear); generalized linear model with age, period and their interactions (A*P linear); and generalized additive model with age, period and their interactions smoothed by spline (A*P spline). We performed a 5-year projection for the years 2000 and 2005, based on the data of 1985-95 and 1985-2000, respectively. Seven cancer sites (stomach, liver, colorectal, lung, female breast, cervix uteri and prostate) and all cancers combined were analyzed. The accuracy of projection was evaluated by whether each observed number fell within the 95% confidence interval of the projected number. RESULTS: The A*P spline model accurately projected 8 of 13 cancer site-sex combinations, whereas the number of site-sex combinations of accurate projection was 2 and 6 for A + P linear and A*P linear models, respectively. For liver and colorectal cancers, the A*P spline model alone performed accurate projections; the relative differences between projected and observed numbers of cancer incidence ranged between -0.4 and +10.9% for the A*P spline, and between +7.4 and +37.6% for the other two models. All three models failed to project sudden increases in prostate cancer between 2000 and 2005. CONCLUSIONS: The A*P spline model is a candidate method for the projection of cancer incidence in Japan. However, we need a continuous validation for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Qual Life Res ; 23(1): 21-30, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23881515

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most breast cancer patients receive psychosocial support interventions. However, the effectiveness of these interventions has not yet been clarified. Quality of life (QOL) was an important construct that should be considered when assessing these interventions. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial and especially psychoeducational support interventions for early-stage breast cancer patients since the follow-up was bound up to 6 months after finishing the intervention. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify randomized controlled trials with early-stage breast cancer patients receiving psychosocial (psychoeducational and other) support in which QOL was measured as a treatment outcome. We compared mean differences at less than 6 months post-intervention with a control group. The primary outcome was Global Health Status/QOL scale (Global QOL), and secondary outcomes were the subscales of QOL. RESULTS: No significant effect was observed for Global QOL; however, individuals receiving psychosocial support scored higher on the Breast Cancer Symptoms subscale. For psychoeducational support in the psychosocial support, significant effect was observed on the Emotional subscale. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis strengthens the evidence of the effectiveness of psychosocial support in improving breast cancer symptoms and psychoeducational support in improving emotional well-being within 6 months post-intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Psicoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 44(1): 2-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23448800

RESUMO

Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer , Bases de Dados Factuais , Política de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sistema de Registros , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Japão , Estados Unidos
15.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 53(1): 49-53, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23480358

RESUMO

We describe a patient with typical manifestations of 9p monosomy syndrome, including trigonocephaly and sex reversal. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a 9p terminal deletion of approximately 9 Mb with the breakpoint at 9p23. We compared the deleted segments of 9p associated with reported cases of 9p monosomy syndrome with trigonocephaly. We did not identify a region that was shared by all patients; however, when only pure terminal or interstitial deletions that did not involve material from any other chromosome were compared, we identified a segment from D9S912 to RP11-439I6 of approximately 1 Mb that was deleted in every patient. We propose that this 1-Mb segment might be the critical region for 9p monosomy syndrome with trigonocephaly.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Craniossinostoses/genética , Monossomia , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
16.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 43(5): 492-507, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23493744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The analysis of cancer trends in Japan has only been sporadically reported. We present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using the most recent population-based data. METHODS: National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2011 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2007 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of four prefectures (Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. RESULTS: All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval: -1.4, -1.3), while all-cancer incidence continually increased from 1985, with an annual percent change of 0.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 0.8). Major cancer sites, particularly the liver, colorectum and lung (males), showed a pattern of increasing incidence and mortality rates until the mid-1990s, stabilizing or decreasing thereafter. Stomach cancer showed a long-term decreasing trend for both incidence and mortality, while female breast cancer showed a continuously increasing trend. The incidence of prostate cancer, particularly at the localized stage, increased rapidly between 2000 and 2003, while that of mortality decreased from 2004. No changes were detected in the incidence or mortality for colorectal, female breast or cervical cancers after the establishment of national screening programs for these cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of cancer trends in Japan revealed a recent decrease in mortality and a continuous increase in incidence, which are considered to reflect changes in the underlying risk factors such as tobacco smoking and infection, and are partially explained by early detection and improved treatment.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 43(3): 328-36, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23296772

RESUMO

The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2007 based on data collected from 21 out of 33 population-based cancer registries as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The total number of incidences in Japan for 2007 was estimated to be 704 090 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Distribuição por Sexo
18.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 18(2): 459-64, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21114801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reliable information is essential to both clinical and policy decision making. We aimed to shed lights on the similarity and differences between a hospital-based cancer registry with a clinicians' database for breast cancer by comparing the registered data on the same year. METHODS: We performed a head-to-head comparison of breast cancer cases extracted from the hospital-based cancer registry and the clinicians' database maintained by the Division of Breast Surgery at the National Cancer Center Hospital in 2004. RESULTS: The hospital-based cancer registry reported 827 cases of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in 2004, while the clinicians' database contained 366 surgically treated cases from 2004. Of these, 276 cases overlapped. Presence or absence of treatment modality was discordant in 15% for radiation therapy, 19% for chemotherapy, and 24% for hormone therapy between the two data sets. Furthermore, the recorded disease pathology was discordant in 13% for pathology and 28% for staging, with 22% for T-stage, 7% for N-stage, 7% for M-stage. CONCLUSIONS: Although information contained in hospital-based cancer registry and clinicians' database are generally accurate, some important differences were revealed as a result of varying interpretations of clinical information. Analyses of these data sets must be made with attention to details such as eligible patients, registered treatment, and timing of registration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
19.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 27(10): 1563-70, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21928021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus does not indicate a single clinical entity, but includes a variety of clinicopathological conditions caused by excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based on the disturbed circulation. Recent progress in prenatal neuroimagings such as MRI and ultrasound echoencephalography on fetus enables to understand clinicopathological conditions of CSF circulation disorder in conjunction with morphological changes in the central nervous system properly. It has been revealed that the CSF dynamics develop in the theory of evolution from the immature brain, as in the animals with the minor CSF pathway predominance, towards matured adult human brain together with the completion of the major CSF pathway: the "Evolution Theory in CSF Dynamics". Now, we can analyze CSF circulation dynamically and also analyze the flow velocity and direction of CSF movement. CENTER OF EXCELLENCE-FETAL HYDROCEPHALUS TOP 10 JAPAN: Along with this technical improvement, the standards of clinicopathological evaluation of hydrocephalus as well as the classification and concept of hydrocephalus shall undergo a major upgrade. Based on such remarkable improvement in the recent practical diagnostic evaluation of fetal hydrocephalus, it is now required to update the guideline for management and treatment of fetal and congenital hydrocephalus, and a nationwide study group; Center of Excellence-Fetal Hydrocephalus Top 10 Japan, was organized in 2008 in Japan. The retrospective analysis of 333 cases of congenital hydrocephalus indicated a fact that 43% of these cases were diagnosed prenatally, and the majority of cases were treated in these top 10 institutes in Japan. Now, congenital hydrocephalus diagnosed immediately after birth is regarded as to be based on embryonic stage; brain disorder in patients with congenital hydrocephalus should be considered in conjunction with neuronal mature process of embryonic stage. The fact is supported by the current trends in hydrocephalus research represented by "Perspective Classification of Congenital Hydrocephalus" and "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification". The ultimate goal of hydrocephalus treatment remains achieving arrested hydrocephalus by shunt surgeries. In the future, to achieve arrested hydrocephalus, minimum quantity of CSF to be drained should be elucidated. Consideration for accurate operative indication of ETV along with new neuroendoscopic device development and analysis of CSF circulation is expected in the future. The data in this prospective multicenter analysis in this guideline are credited in Oxford Evidence level 2b (Grade II).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feto/patologia , Hidrocefalia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/normas , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Hidrodinâmica , Japão , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
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