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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 129-151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473851

RESUMO

The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of genetically engineered T cell receptor (TCR) T cells is one of the burgeoning fields of immunotherapy, with promising results in current clinical trials. Presently, clinicaltrials.gov has over 200 active trials involving adoptive cell therapy. The ACT of genetically engineered T cells not only allows the ability to select for TCRs with desired properties such as high-affinity receptors and tumor reactivity but to further enhance those receptors allowing for better targeting and killing of cancer cells in patients. Moreover, the addition of genetic material, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, can increase the survival and persistence of the T cell allowing for complete and sustained remission of cancer targets. The potential for improvement in adoptive cell therapy is limitless, with genetic modifications targeting to improve weaknesses of ACT and to thus enhance receptor affinity and functional avidity of the genetically engineered T cells.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/citologia , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595324

RESUMO

Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) using T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated various levels of feasibility, safety, and efficacy using TCR-engineered T cells to treat cancer and viral infections. Although evidence suggests their use can be effective, to what extent and how to improve these therapeutics are still matters of investigation. As TCR affinity has been generally accepted as the central role in defining T cell specificity and sensitivity, selection for and generation of high affinity TCRs has remained a fundamental approach to design more potent T cells. However, traditional methods for affinity-enhancement by random mutagenesis can induce undesirable cross-reactivity causing on- and off-target adverse events, generate exhausted effectors by overstimulation, and ignore other kinetic and cellular parameters that have been shown to impact antigen specificity. In this Focussed Research Review, we comment on the preclinical and clinical potential of TCR gene-modified T cells, summarize our contributions challenging the role TCR affinity plays in antigen recognition, and explore how structure-guided design can be used to manipulate antigen specificity and TCR cross-reactivity to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene-modified T cells used in ACT.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 186, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307533

RESUMO

Tumor immunotherapy using gene-modified T cells has already met with considerable success in the treatment of metastatic melanoma and B cell lymphoma. With improving patient prognoses, new questions arise. In particular, the long-term consequences of treatment among individuals of childbearing age could now be considered. Former patients can carry a cohort of transgenic memory T cells long after treatment has ceased and the effector T cell population has contracted. When patients become parents well after treatment is completed, expectant mothers may still pass transgenic T cells to their unborn children. Consequences should be more measurable if the mother also breastfeeds the baby. Maternal T cells may shape immune responses in the child, can tolerize the child to maternal antigens, and might cause either beneficial or adverse effects in the offspring. The hypothesis put forth is that transgenic T cells transferred from mother to child during and after pregnancy might have consequences that have not been adequately considered to date. Depending on the targeted antigen and the MHC eventually required to present it, such transfer may be beneficial, uneventful or even damaging. Such potential consequences are addressed in this paper. The transgenic T cells might form a pocket of memory T cells in secondary lymphoid organs of the child, expand upon antigen stimulation, and react. However, simple measures might be devised to avoid any reason for concern. These considerations provide ample incentive to probe transgenerational transfer of transgenic T cells.

5.
J Biol Chem ; 294(23): 9198-9212, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971427

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of tumor epitope-reactive T cells has emerged as a promising strategy to control tumor growth. However, chronically-stimulated T cells expanded for adoptive cell transfer are susceptible to cell death in an oxidative tumor microenvironment. Because oxidation of cell-surface thiols also alters protein functionality, we hypothesized that increasing the levels of thioredoxin (Trx), an antioxidant molecule facilitating reduction of proteins through cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange, in T cells will promote their sustained antitumor function. Using pre-melanosome protein (Pmel)-Trx1 transgenic mouse-derived splenic T cells, flow cytometry, and gene expression analysis, we observed here that higher Trx expression inversely correlated with reactive oxygen species and susceptibility to T-cell receptor restimulation or oxidation-mediated cell death. These Trx1-overexpressing T cells exhibited a cluster of differentiation 62Lhi (CD62Lhi) central memory-like phenotype with reduced glucose uptake (2-NBDGlo) and decreased effector function (interferon γlo). Furthermore, culturing tumor-reactive T cells in the presence of recombinant Trx increased the dependence of T cells on mitochondrial metabolism and improved tumor control. We conclude that strategies for increasing the antioxidant capacity of antitumor T cells modulate their immunometabolic phenotype leading to improved immunotherapeutic control of established tumors.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(3): 180, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792401

RESUMO

Potassium ion channels are critical in the regulation of cell motility. The acquisition of cell motility is an essential parameter of cancer metastasis. However, the role of K+ channels in cancer metastasis has been poorly studied. High expression of the hG1 gene, which encodes for Kv11.1 channel associates with good prognosis in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the efficacy of the Kv11.1 activator NS1643 in arresting metastasis in a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) mouse model. NS1643 significantly reduces the metastatic spread of breast tumors in vivo by inhibiting cell motility, reprogramming epithelial-mesenchymal transition via attenuation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and suppressing cancer cell stemness. Our findings provide important information regarding the clinical relevance of potassium ion channel expression in breast tumors and the mechanisms by which potassium channel activity can modulate tumor biology. Findings suggest that Kv11.1 activators may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-negative BC. Ion channels are critical factor for cell motility but little is known about their role in metastasis. Stimulation of the Kv11.1 channel suppress the metastatic phenotype in TNBC. This work could represent a paradigm-shifting approach to reducing mortality by targeting a pathway that is central to the development of metastases.

7.
Mol Ther ; 27(2): 300-313, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617019

RESUMO

T cell receptors (TCRs) have emerged as a new class of immunological therapeutics. However, though antigen specificity is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, TCRs themselves do not possess the high specificity of monoclonal antibodies. Although a necessary function of T cell biology, the resulting cross-reactivity presents a significant challenge for TCR-based therapeutic development, as it creates the potential for off-target recognition and immune toxicity. Efforts to enhance TCR specificity by mimicking the antibody maturation process and enhancing affinity can inadvertently exacerbate TCR cross-reactivity. Here we demonstrate this concern by showing that even peptide-targeted mutations in the TCR can introduce new reactivities against peptides that bear similarity to the original target. To counteract this, we explored a novel structure-guided approach for enhancing TCR specificity independent of affinity. Tested with the MART-1-specific TCR DMF5, our approach had a small but discernible impact on cross-reactivity toward MART-1 homologs yet was able to eliminate DMF5 cross-recognition of more divergent, unrelated epitopes. Our study provides a proof of principle for the use of advanced structure-guided design techniques for improving TCR specificity, and it suggests new ways forward for enhancing TCRs for therapeutic use.

8.
Nat Chem Biol ; 14(10): 934-942, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224695

RESUMO

T cell receptor cross-reactivity allows a fixed T cell repertoire to respond to a much larger universe of potential antigens. Recent work has emphasized the importance of peptide structural and chemical homology, as opposed to sequence similarity, in T cell receptor cross-reactivity. Surprisingly, though, T cell receptors can also cross-react between ligands with little physiochemical commonalities. Studying the clinically relevant receptor DMF5, we demonstrate that cross-recognition of such divergent antigens can occur through mechanisms that involve heretofore unanticipated rearrangements in the peptide and presenting MHC protein, including binding-induced peptide register shifts and extensions from MHC peptide binding grooves. Moreover, cross-reactivity can proceed even when such dramatic rearrangements do not translate into structural or chemical molecular mimicry. Beyond demonstrating new principles of T cell receptor cross-reactivity, our results have implications for efforts to predict and control T cell specificity and cross-reactivity and highlight challenges associated with predicting T cell reactivities.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009548

RESUMO

To study the contribution of T-cell receptors (TCR) to resulting T-cell responses, we studied three different human αß TCRs, reactive to the same gp100-derived peptide presented in the context of HLA-A*0201. When expressed in primary CD8 T cells, all receptors elicited classic antigen-induced IFN-γ responses, which correlated with TCR affinity for peptide-MHC in the order T4H2 > R6C12 > SILv44. However, SILv44 elicited superior IL-17A release. Importantly, in vivo, SILv44-transgenic T cells mediated superior antitumor responses to 888-A2 + human melanoma tumor cells upon adoptive transfer into tumor-challenged mice while maintaining IL-17 expression. Modeling of the TCR ternary complexes suggested architectural differences between SILv44 and the other complexes, providing a potential structural basis for the observed differences. Overall, the data reveal a more prominent role for the T-cell receptor in defining host T-cell physiology than traditionally assumed, while parameters beyond IFN-γ secretion and TCR affinity ultimately determine the reactivity of tumor-reactive T cells.

10.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(6): 732-746, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881824

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common primary cancer and second largest cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The first-line oral chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib only increases survival in patients with advanced HCC by less than 3 months. Most patients with advanced HCC have shown limited response rates and survival benefits with sorafenib. Although sorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple kinases, including serine/threonine-protein kinase c-Raf, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß, HCC cells are able to escape from sorafenib treatment using other pathways that the drug insufficiently inhibits. The aim of this study was to identify and target survival and proliferation pathways that enable HCC to escape the antitumor activity of sorafenib. We found that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) remains activated in HCC cells treated with sorafenib. Knockdown of IGF1R sensitizes HCC cells to sorafenib treatment and decreases protein kinase B (AKT) activation. Overexpression of constitutively activated AKT reverses the effect of knockdown of IGF1R in sensitizing HCC cells to treatment with sorafenib. Further, we found that ceritinib, a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, effectively inhibits the IGF1R/AKT pathway and enhances the inhibitory efficacy of sorafenib in human HCC cell growth and survival in vitro, in a xenograft mouse model and in the c-Met/ß-catenin-driven HCC mouse model. Conclusion: Our study provides a biochemical basis for evaluation of a new combination treatment that includes IGF1R inhibitors, such as ceritinib and sorafenib, in patients with HCC. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:732-746).

11.
Cytokine ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885993

RESUMO

TNF is a multifunctional cytokine that is critical to host defense against pathogens but can also drive the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases. Inhibition of TNF occasionally causes exacerbation of some autoimmune diseases, suggesting a role for TNF in the regulation of immune homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that human peripheral blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) express membrane-bound TNF, a potent activator of the type 2 TNF receptor. While the type 1 TNF receptor can cause cell death and is expressed ubiquitously, the type 2 receptor promotes cell growth and its expression is limited mainly to immune and endothelial cells. When autocrine TNF is blocked in an in vitro culture without IL-2, activated Tregs stop proliferating. These data indicate a novel role for TNF as a Treg-derived autocrine growth factor.

12.
Mol Ther ; 26(4): 996-1007, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503203

RESUMO

The use of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells in adoptive cell transfer has had promising clinical success, but often, simple preclinical evaluation does not necessarily accurately predict treatment efficacy or safety. Preclinical studies generally evaluate one or a limited number of type 1 cytokines to assess antigen recognition. However, recent studies have implicated other "typed" T cells in effective anti-tumor/viral immunity, and limited functional evaluations may underestimate cross-reactivity. In this study, we use an altered peptide ligand (APL) model and multi-dimensional flow cytometry to evaluate polyfunctionality of TCR gene-modified T cells. Evaluating six cytokines and the lytic marker CD107a on a per cell basis revealed remarkably diverse polyfunctional phenotypes within a single T cell culture and among peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) donors. This polyfunctional assessment identified unexpected phenotypes, including cells producing both type 1 and type 2 cytokines, and highlighted interferon γneg (IFNγneg) antigen-reactive populations overlooked in our previous studies. Additionally, APLs skewed functional phenotypes to be less polyfunctional, which was not necessarily related to changes in TCR-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) affinity. A better understanding of gene-modified T cell functional diversity may help identify optimal therapeutic phenotypes, predict clinical responses, anticipate off-target recognition, and improve the design and delivery of TCR gene-modified T cells.

13.
Melanoma Res ; 28(3): 171-184, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521881

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is a promising method of treatment for a number of cancers. Many of the curative results have been seen specifically in advanced-stage melanoma. Despite this, single-agent therapies are only successful in a small percentage of patients, and relapse is very common. As chemotherapy is becoming a thing of the past for treatment of melanoma, the combination of cellular therapies with immunotherapies appears to be on the rise in in-vivo models and in clinical trials. These forms of therapies include tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, T-cell receptor, or chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells, cytokines [interleukin (IL-2), IL-15, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-α, interferon-γ], antibodies (αPD-1, αPD-L1, αTIM-3, αOX40, αCTLA-4, αLAG-3), dendritic cell-based vaccines, and chemokines (CXCR2). There are a substantial number of ongoing clinical trials using two or more of these combination therapies. Preliminary results indicate that these combination therapies are a promising area to focus on for cancer treatments, especially melanoma. The main challenges with the combination of cellular and immunotherapies are adverse events due to toxicities and autoimmunity. Identifying mechanisms for reducing or eliminating these adverse events remains a critical area of research. Many important questions still need to be elucidated in regard to combination cellular therapies and immunotherapies, but with the number of ongoing clinical trials, the future of curative melanoma therapies is promising.

14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(4): 691-702, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396710

RESUMO

Therapeutic outcomes for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy are constrained by the quality of the infused T cells. The rapid expansion necessary to obtain large numbers of cells results in a more terminally differentiated phenotype with decreased durability and functionality. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) protects against activation-induced cell death (AICD) and improves anti-tumor efficacy of Pmel-1 T cells in vivo. Here, we show that these benefits of NAC can be extended to engineered T cells and significantly increases T-cell survival within the tumor microenvironment. The addition of NAC to the expansion protocol of human TIL13838I TCR-transduced T cells that are under evaluation in a Phase I clinical trial, demonstrated that findings in murine cells extend to human cells. Expansion of TIL13838I TCR-transduced T cells in NAC also increased their ability to kill target cells in vitro. Interestingly, NAC did not affect memory subsets, but diminished up-regulation of senescence (CD57) and exhaustion (PD-1) markers and significantly decreased expression of the transcription factors EOMES and Foxo1. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway ablates the decrease in Foxo1 induced by NAC treatment of activated T cells. This suggests a model in which NAC through PI3K/Akt activation suppresses Foxo1 expression, thereby impacting its transcriptional targets EOMES, PD-1, and granzyme B. Taken together, our results indicate that NAC exerts pleiotropic effects that impact the quality of TCR-transduced T cells and suggest that the addition of NAC to current clinical protocols should be considered.

15.
J Leukoc Biol ; 103(5): 973-983, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350789

RESUMO

T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells are a promising immunotherapy but require refinement to improve clinical responses and limit off-target toxicities. A variety of TCR and gene-delivery vector modifications have been developed to enhance introduced TCR expression and limit introduced/endogenous TCR chain mispairing, improving target antigen recognition and minimizing mispairing-induced cross-reactivity. Using our well-characterized HCV1406 TCR, we previously compared the impact of various chain pairing enhancing modifications on TCR expression and cognate antigen recognition. HCV1406 TCR is also natively cross-reactive against naturally occurring altered peptide ligands (APLs), which was shown to be dependent on high TCR surface density. In this report, we observed in a Jurkat model that absent TCR chain pairing competition alleviated CD8-dependent APL recognition and induced novel cross-reactivity of HCV1406 TCR. We then compared chain pairing enhancing modifications' effects on TCR cross-reactivity in Jurkat and T cells, showing C-terminal leucine zippers and constant region murinization alleviated CD8 dependence and induced novel APL recognition. While modifications enhancing TCR chain pairing intend to avoid cross-reactivity by limiting mispairing with the endogenous TCR, these data suggest they may also enhance natural cross-reactivity and reduce dependence on CD8. These observations have significant implications on the design/implementation of TCR gene-modified T cells.

16.
Cell Metab ; 27(1): 85-100.e8, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129787

RESUMO

Heightened effector function and prolonged persistence, the key attributes of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively, are key features of potent anti-tumor T cells. Here, we established ex vivo culture conditions to generate hybrid Th1/17 cells, which persisted long-term in vivo while maintaining their effector function. Using transcriptomics and metabolic profiling approaches, we showed that the enhanced anti-tumor property of Th1/17 cells was dependent on the increased NAD+-dependent activity of the histone deacetylase Sirt1. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Sirt1 activity impaired the anti-tumor potential of Th1/17 cells. Importantly, T cells with reduced surface expression of the NADase CD38 exhibited intrinsically higher NAD+, enhanced oxidative phosphorylation, higher glutaminolysis, and altered mitochondrial dynamics that vastly improved tumor control. Lastly, blocking CD38 expression improved tumor control even when using Th0 anti-tumor T cells. Thus, strategies targeting the CD38-NAD+ axis could increase the efficacy of anti-tumor adoptive T cell therapy.

18.
Immunol Lett ; 193: 51-57, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180044

RESUMO

It has been generally considered that the perinatal immune system is less inflammatory compared to the adult system and type 2 responses predominate perinatal immune responses against antigens. Indeed, previous studies in mice showed that there are cell-intrinsic differences between neonatal and adult CD4T cells. However, studies on human cord blood and infant blood demonstrated that human perinatal T cells do not produce elevated levels of Th2 cytokines with the exception of IL-13. These data raise the question if human T cells in the perinatal blood fundamentally differ from adult T cells. To decipher differences between human perinatal and adult T cells, we performed a focused comparative analysis on purified naïve CD4T cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood. Our data demonstrate naïve CD4T cells from UCB differ from adult naïve CD4T cells in surface expression of CD26, dipeptidyl peptidase-4. While only a fraction of effector/memory T cells from adult blood express CD26, practically all T cells from UCB express high levels of CD26. We also determined that Th1/Th2 polarizing conditions induce UCB CD4T cells to produce higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-5 compared to adult CD4T cells, respectively. These data demonstrate intrinsic differences between UCB and adult naive CD4T cells and suggest that human perinatal immune responses involve more complex mechanisms than the previously thought Th2-dominant responses.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Recém-Nascido , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-5/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Gravidez , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(2): 311-325, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052782

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma incidence has been increasing for over 30 years, and despite promising new therapies, metastatic disease remains difficult to treat. We describe preliminary results from a Phase I clinical trial (NCT01586403) of adoptive cell therapy in which three patients received autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells transduced with a lentivirus carrying a tyrosinase-specific TCR and a marker protein, truncated CD34 (CD34t). This unusual MHC Class I-restricted TCR produces functional responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Parameters monitored on transduced T cells included activation (CD25, CD69), inhibitory (PD-1, TIM-3, CTLA-4), costimulatory (OX40), and memory (CCR7) markers. For the clinical trial, T cells were activated, transduced, selected for CD34t+ cells, then re-activated, and expanded in IL-2 and IL-15. After lymphodepleting chemotherapy, patients were given transduced T cells and IL-2, and were followed for clinical and biological responses. Transduced T cells were detected in the circulation of three treated patients for the duration of observation (42, 523, and 255 days). Patient 1 tolerated the infusion well but died from progressive disease after 6 weeks. Patient 2 had a partial response by RECIST criteria then progressed. After progressing, Patient 2 was given high-dose IL-2 and subsequently achieved complete remission, coinciding with the development of vitiligo. Patient 3 had a mixed response that did not meet RECIST criteria for a clinical response and developed vitiligo. In two of these three patients, adoptive transfer of tyrosinase-reactive TCR-transduced T cells into metastatic melanoma patients had clinical and/or biological activity without serious adverse events.

20.
Oncotarget ; 8(50): 86987-87001, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152058

RESUMO

Telomerase (TERT) is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that preserves the molecular organization at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Since TERT deregulation is a common step in leukaemia, treatments targeting telomerase might be useful for the therapy of hematologic malignancies. Despite a large spectrum of potential drugs, their bench-to-bedside translation is quite limited, with only a therapeutic vaccine in the clinic and a telomerase inhibitor at late stage of preclinical validation. We recently demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of T cell transduced with an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognize human TERT with high avidity, controls human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) progression without severe side-effects in humanized mice. In the present report, we show the ability of our approach to limit the progression of more aggressive leukemic pathologies, such as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Together, our findings demonstrate that TERT-based adoptive cell therapy is a concrete platform of T cell-mediated immunotherapy for leukaemia treatment.

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