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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18632, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895823

RESUMO

Health related quality of life (HRQOL) in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients has been attracting much attention these days because it is closely associated with clinical outcomes in CLD patients. HRQOL has become established as an important concept and target for research and practice in the fields of medicine. A critique of HRQOL research is the lack of conceptual clarity and a common definition of HRQOL. Using a clear definition of HRQOL may increase the conceptual understanding. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the association between serum zinc (Zn) level and HRQOL as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Japanese version (PSQI-J) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in CLD patients (n = 322, median age = 65 years, 121 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients (37.6%)). The median serum Zn level for all cases was 73.2 µg/dl. The median BDI-II score and PSQI-J score were 6 and 5, respectively. Patients with higher BDI-II score tended to have lower serum Zn level compared with those with lower BDI-II score. Similar tendencies were observed in patients with higher PSQI-J score. In the SF-36, physical functioning, role physical and physical component summary score significantly correlated with serum Zn level regardless of age, liver disease etiology and the LC status. While mental health and mental component summary score did not significantly correlate with serum Zn level regardless of age, liver disease etiology and the LC status. In conclusion, serum Zn level can be a useful marker for decreased HRQOL in patients with CLDs, especially for physical components.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/sangue , Qualidade de Vida , Zinco/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92: 228-233, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The usefulness of serial procalcitonin (PCT) measurements for predicting the prognosis and treatment efficacy for hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients was investigated. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, cohort study enrolled consecutive CAP patients who were hospitalised at 10 hospitals in western Japan from September 2013 to September 2016. PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured on admission (PCT D1 and CRP D1), within 48-72 h after admission (PCT D3 and CRP D3), and within 144-192 h after admission. CURB-65 and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) were assessed on admission. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality; secondary outcomes were early and late treatment failure rates. RESULTS: A total of 710 patients were included. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.1%. On multivariate analysis, only PCT D3/D1 ratio >1 [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 4.33 (1.46-12.82),P = 0.008] and PSI [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.32 (1.07-5.03), P = 0.03] were significant prognostic factors. Regarding treatment efficacy, PCT D3/D1 >1 was a significant predictor of early treatment failure on multivariate analysis. PCT D3/D1 with the PSI significantly improved the prognostic accuracy over that of the PSI alone. CONCLUSIONS: PCT should be measured consecutively, not only on admission, to predict the prognosis and treatment efficacy in CAP.

4.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(2): 102-111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japanese registry for mechanical assisted circulatory support (J-MACS) is a prospective registry to collect all data of implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (and part of paracorporeal VAD) established in 2010. The first analytical report was published in 2017. The organization running J-MACS was used to be the pharmaceuticals and medical devices agency (PMDA), but has been changed to the council for clinical use of ventricular assist device related academic societies in 2017. METHODS: Since 2018, we changed the analytical methods as follows: first, we eliminated paracorporeal VAD from the analysis. Second, we included not only primary implantation but bridge to bridge (BTB) implantation of LVAD. Third, we added the analyses of adverse events that were not included in the previous analysis. RESULTS: As of Oct 2018, 711 primary LVAD implants and 168 BTB implants were enrolled. Survival rate of primary LVAD was 93% at 360 days and 91% at 720 days, and that of BTB was 86% at 360 days and 82% at 720 days. CONCLUSION: We first reported the results of BTB in the second official report of J-MACS. The prognosis after LVAD implantation has been kept good in Japanese circumstances.

5.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(2): 274-281, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Unlike metastatic disease, histological differences are usually not considered while planning chemoradiotherapy. This study aimed to compare clinical outcomes and relapse patterns between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, and investigated possible histology-specific approaches for chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes and relapse patterns in patients who received definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Katsura hospital between 2003 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 68 and 33 patients with squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, respectively, were enrolled. Patients with adenocarcinoma had less advanced T stages, and a larger proportion of female patients. Other factors were not different between the two groups. The median follow-up duration in all patients and survivors was 21.3 months and 91.4 months, respectively. Median survival and relapse-free survival were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, the failure patterns and incidences of distant failure were significantly different. Patients with squamous cell carcinomas had predominantly locoregional disease features and a shorter duration from relapse to death compared to patients with adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: Failure pattern was significantly different between the two histologies. Among relapsed patients, the prognosis was poorer in those with squamous cell carcinomas than those with adenocarcinomas. Further studies, to evaluate histology-specific approaches in chemoradiotherapy, are warranted.

6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 547-554, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of cardiovascular surgery has been improving over time, but the treatment of postoperative complications such as deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) still needs critical attention. A nationwide surgical registry was analyzed for procedural details and hospital factors related to DSWI. METHODS: The study used the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database, which captured data from 82% of all the hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Japan. A total of 109,717 surgical cases (34,980 coronary artery bypass grafting, 43,602 valve operations, 31,135 thoracic aortic operations) were included in the study. RESULTS: The overall incidence of DSWI was 1738 (1.6%). The 30-day mortality and operative mortality were 3311 (3.0%) and 5155 (4.7%), respectively. Across the 3 procedures, thoracic aortic operation showed the highest odds ratio (2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32 to 2.94) for operative mortality but the lowest (0.91; 95% CI:,0.73 to 1.13) for DSWI incidence. Conversely, coronary artery bypass grafting showed the lowest odds ratio (1.36; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.49) for operative mortality but the highest (1.52; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.76) for DSWI. There was also hospital-level variation: Correlation was statistically significant between the observed-to-expected ratio of DSWI incidence and the observed-to-expected mortality ratio of cardiovascular procedures across the hospitals, but the coefficient was small (r = .24, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals that have a lower risk-adjusted mortality rate of cardiovascular procedures do not always have a lower risk-adjusted DSWI occurrence rate. In addition, the incidence of DSWI varies across hospitals. We need to consider DSWI independently of surgical mortality, whereas for treatment we should consider both the specific hospital environment and the multidisciplinary care.

7.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 82-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) constitutes a new class of molecular-targeted theranostics utilizing monoclonal antibody (mAb)-photosensitizer conjugates and NIR light. In this study, we developed a new type of NIR-PIT targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expressed on vascular endothelium in an experimental gastric cancer model and evaluated the feasibility by comparing conventional NIR-PIT targeting cancer cell membrane in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: HER2-positive human gastric cancer cells, NCI-N87, were used for the experiments. Anti-HER2 mAb, trastuzumab and anti-VEGFR-2 mAb, DC101 were conjugated to photosensitizer, IR700. Phototoxicity in response to NIR-PIT were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Microvessel densities, as an indicator of angiogenesis, were counted in harvested xenografts after NIR-PIT to elucidate the mechanism. RESULTS: DC101-IR700 did not induce phototoxic effect in vitro because of the absence of expression of VEGFR-2 in NCI-N87 cancer cells. However, it induced an antitumor effect in NCI-N87 xenograft tumors accompanied with damage in tumor neovasculature as determined by decreasing tumor microvessel density, which represents a different mechanism than that of conventional NIR-PIT targeting antigens expressed on the tumor cell membrane. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a new approach of NIR-PIT utilizing a target on vascular endothelium, such as VEGFR-2, and this treatment might lead to the development of a new therapeutic strategy for human gastric cancer.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18366, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852142

RESUMO

We aimed to compare the impact on survival among albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, modified ALBI (mALBI) and our proposed combined ALBI grade and Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) or FIB4 index grading system in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) related compensated liver cirrhosis (n = 165, 93 men and 72 women, median age = 67 years). Patients with ALBI grade 1, 2, and 3 were allocated a score of 1, 2, and 3 points, respectively. Patients with mALBI grade 1, 2A, and 2B were allocated a score of 1, 2, and 3 points, respectively. Patients with a high or low M2BPGi were allocated a score of 1 and 0 point. Patients with a high or low FIB4 index were allocated a score of 1 and 0 point. Sum of the point of ALBI (1, 2, or 3) and M2BPGi (0 or 1) or FIB4 index (0 or 1) was defined as ALBI-M2BPGi grade or ALBI-FIB4 grade. Prognostic accuracy was compared using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) value and time dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The median follow-up duration was 5.422 years. AIC value for survival by ALBI-M2BPGi grade was the lowest among 4 prognostic models (AIC: 205.731 in ALBI grade, 200.913 in mALBI grade, 189.816 in ALBI-M2BPGi grade, and 204.671 in ALBI-FIB4 grade). All area under the ROC curves of ALBI-M2BPGi grade in each time point were higher than those of ALBI grade, mALBI grade, and ALBI-FIB4 grade. In conclusion, our proposed ALBI-M2BPGi grading system seems to be helpful for estimating prognosis in patients with CHC related compensated LC.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Albumina Sérica Humana/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangue , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Bilirrubina/sangue , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo
9.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766742

RESUMO

Currently, the Japanese society of clinical nutrition (JSCN) defines serum zinc (Zn) level < 60 µg/dL as Zn deficiency and 60 µg/dL ≤ serum Zn level < 80 µg/dL as subclinical Zn deficiency, and 80 µg/dL ≤ serum Zn level < 130 µg/dL as normal Zn range. We aimed to elucidate the prognostic impact of this Zn classification system in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) compared to the Child-Pugh classification and the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grading system (n = 441, median age = 66 years). The Akaike information criterion (AIC) with each evaluation method was tested in order to compare the overall survival (OS). The median serum Zn level was 65 µg/dL. There were 56 patients with normal Zn level, 227 with subclinical Zn deficiency and 158 with Zn deficiency. OS was well stratified among three groups of serum Zn level (p < 0.0001). The AIC value for survival by the Zn classification system was the lowest among three prognostic models (AIC: 518.99 in the Child-Pugh classification, 502.411 in ALBI grade and 482.762 in the Zn classification system). Multivariate analyses of factors associated with OS revealed that serum Zn classification by JSCN was an independent factor. In conclusion, the serum Zn classification proposed by JSCN appears to be helpful for estimating prognosis in LC patients.

10.
Cancer Med ; 8(18): 7781-7792, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674732

RESUMO

Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new type of tumor-specific treatment utilizing monoclonal antibody (mAb)-photosensitizer conjugates and near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. One potential PIT target, the type I transmembrane protein TROP2, is expressed at high levels in many cancers, including pancreatic carcinoma (PC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC), in which its expression is correlated with poor prognosis and tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of PIT utilizing newly developed humanized anti-TROP2 mAb conjugated to the photosensitizer IR700 (TROP2-IR700) for PC and CC. Immunohistochemistry on PC and CC tissue microarrays confirmed that TROP2 is overexpressed in about half of PC and CC specimens. Using cultured PC and CC cells, TROP2-IR700 localized TROP2-specific and target-specific cell killing was observed after NIR light irradiation. In addition, TROP2-IR700 was localized to mouse xenograft tumors expressing TROP2 after intravenous injection. PC and CC xenograft tumor growth was significantly inhibited by TROP2-targeted PIT relative to controls. The efficacy of TROP2-targeted PIT in vitro and against xenografted tumors in vivo suggests promise as a therapy for human PC and CC, both of which currently have dismal prognoses and limited therapeutic options.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707692

RESUMO

The three-dimensional reconstruction of optical coherence tomography and optical frequency domain imaging (3D-OCT/OFDI) helps optimize bifurcation percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with side branch (SB) dilatation by identifying the optimal rewiring position. 3D-OCT/OFDI's diagnostic performance for assessing the rewiring position into a jailed SB is unknown. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performances of a conventional (ver. 1.1) and a new (ver. 1.2) online 3D-OFDI reconstruction system based on an offline 3D reconstruction system's performance. We analyzed 45 patients' 52 OFDI pullbacks with main vessel stenting followed by rewiring into a jailed SB for coronary bifurcation lesions. We counted the undetected stent struts in the polygon of confluence as the stent detection performance. We assessed the diagnostic agreement regarding the rewiring position into a jailed SB by the three 3D reconstruction systems. The percentage of undetected struts and the diagnostic agreement of ver.1.2 were significantly better than those of ver.1.1 [5.1 ± 5.1% vs. 30.2 ± 14.2%; p < 0.0001, and 94.2% (49/52) vs. 76.9% (40/52); p = 0.0120]. The new online 3D-OFDI reconstruction system provides better diagnostic performance than the conventional online system for assessing the rewiring position into a jailed SB.

12.
iScience ; 20: 348-358, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610371

RESUMO

Juveniles must reach a critical body size to become a mature adult. Molecular determinants of critical size have been studied, but the evolutionary importance of critical size is still unclear. Here, using nine fly species, we show that interspecific variation in organism size can be explained solely by species-specific critical size. The observed variation in critical size quantitatively agrees with the interspecific scaling relationship predicted by the life history model, which hypothesizes that critical size mediates an energy allocation switch between juvenile and adult tissues. The mechanism underlying critical size scaling is explained by an inverse relationship between growth duration and growth rate, which cancels out their contributions to the final size. Finally, we show that evolutionary changes in growth duration can be traced back to the scaling of ecdysteroid hormone dynamics. We conclude that critical size adaptively optimizes energy allocation, and has a central role in organism size determination.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540447

RESUMO

We sought to elucidate the relationship between albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade and non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ) calculated by indirect calorimetry in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients (n = 601, median age = 63 years). Factors linked to npRQ < 0.85, which is reported to be an optimal cutoff point for the prognosis in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, were also investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The median npRQ for all cases was 0.86. In total, 253 patients (42.1%) had npRQ < 0.85. The proportions of patients with npRQ < 0.85 in LC and non-LC patients were 51.9% (166/320) in LC patients and 31.0% (87/281) in non-LC patients (p < 0.0001). The median npRQ in ALBI grades 1, 2, and 3 for all cases were: 0.89, 0.85, and 0.82 (overall p < 0.0001). The proportions of patients with npRQ < 0.85 were 31.0% (71/229) in ALBI grade 1, 46.34% (152/328) in ALBI grade 2, and 68.18% (30/44) in ALBI grade 3 (overall p < 0.0001). In multivariate analyses of factors linked to npRQ < 0.85, ALBI grade 3 (p = 0.0095, hazard ratio = 3.242, ALBI grade 1 as a reference) was an independent predictor along with prothrombin time (p = 0.0139). In conclusion, ALBI grade can be a useful marker for npRQ in patients with CLDs.

14.
Oncol Rep ; 42(5): 2057-2064, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545443

RESUMO

The interaction between tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (OX40) on T cells and the OX40 ligand (OX40L) on antigen­presenting cells (APCs) is a pivotal step for T­cell activation and the promotion of antitumor immunity. However, it is hypothesized that soluble OX40 (sOX40) in blood suppresses T­cell activation by blocking the OX40/OX40L interaction. In the present study, the association between blood sOX40 levels and the clinical characteristics of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was investigated. Blood was collected from 22 patients with advanced CRC. Blood sOX40 levels were determined by enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression encoding OX40 or cytokines was analyzed by quantitative RT­PCR. Blood sOX40 levels were positively correlated with the blood levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19­9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C­reactive protein (CRP) and soluble programmed cell death ligand­1 (PD­L1) in patients but negatively correlated with the blood levels of albumin. Blood sOX40 levels were not correlated with the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)­gamma, interleukin (IL)­6, IL­10 and IL­4 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the patients and were not correlated with the frequency of programmed cell death­1 (PD­1) expressing CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ cells. Notably, according to both univariate and multivariate analyses, high blood sOX40 levels were significantly correlated with a reduced survival time in patients. Although activated Jurkat cells (a human T cell line) exhibited an upregulation of sOX40 production and OX40 mRNA expression, the OX40 mRNA expression of the PBMCs of patients was not correlated with blood sOX40 levels. High blood levels of sOX40 were correlated with a reduced survival time in patients with advanced CRC, possibly associated with the suppression of antitumor immunity by sOX40.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480612

RESUMO

: We sought to compare the impact upon grip strength (GS) between the Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) and the Fibrosis-4 (FIB4) index in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients (n = 376: 171 males and 205 females, and 137 liver cirrhosis (LC) cases (36.4%)). Factors linked to the low GS (<26 kg in male and <18 kg in female) were also investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The median GS in males was 35.5 kg, while that in females was 21.1 kg. The median M2BPGi was 1.11 cutoff index, whereas the median FIB4 index was 2.069. In both male (P < 0.0001) and female (P = 0.0001), GS in LC patients was significantly lower than that in non-LC patients. In males, M2BPGi (r = -0.4611, P < 0.0001) and the FIB4 index (r = -0.4556, P < 0.0001) significantly correlated with GS. Similarly, in females, M2BPGi (r = -0.33326, P < 0.0001) and our FIB4 index (r = -0.26388, P = 0.0001) also significantly correlated with GS. In the multivariate analyses of factors linked to the low GS, independent factors were: M2BPGi (P = 0.0003) and skeletal muscle index (P = 0.0007) in males, and age (P < 0.0001) and serum albumin level (P = 0.0484) in females. In conclusion, liver fibrosis markers were well-correlated with GS in CLD patients. In particular, M2BPGi can be helpful for predicting the low GS in male patients.

16.
J Cell Biol ; 218(10): 3397-3414, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409654

RESUMO

The spatio-temporal regulation of small Rho GTPases is crucial for the dynamic stability of epithelial tissues. However, how RhoGTPase activity is controlled during development remains largely unknown. To explore the regulation of Rho GTPases in vivo, we analyzed the Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) Cysts, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian p114RhoGEF, GEF-H1, p190RhoGEF, and AKAP-13. Loss of Cysts causes a phenotype that closely resembles the mutant phenotype of the apical polarity regulator Crumbs. This phenotype can be suppressed by the loss of basolateral polarity proteins, suggesting that Cysts is an integral component of the apical polarity protein network. We demonstrate that Cysts is recruited to the apico-lateral membrane through interactions with the Crumbs complex and Bazooka/Par3. Cysts activates Rho1 at adherens junctions and stabilizes junctional myosin. Junctional myosin depletion is similar in Cysts- and Crumbs-compromised embryos. Together, our findings indicate that Cysts is a downstream effector of the Crumbs complex and links apical polarity proteins to Rho1 and myosin activation at adherens junctions, supporting junctional integrity and epithelial polarity.

17.
Lung Cancer ; 135: 175-180, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Afatinib is an effective treatment in patients who have epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its toxicities often require dose adjustment. Exploratory analyses of previous trials have suggested that reducing the dose of afatinib can decrease treatment-related adverse events without negatively affecting effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of low starting dose of afatinib with dose modification according to its toxicity in patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase II trial. Treatment-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC positive for common EGFR mutations received afatinib starting in a dose of 20 mg/day. If tolerated, the dose was increased in 10-mg increments up to 50 mg/day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: From February 2015 through March 2016, 46 patients were enrolled. The median age was 73 years (range, 43-86), and 35 patients (72%) were women.EGFR mutation subtypes included exon 19 deletion (54%) and Leu858Arg point mutation (46%). Most patients had a performance status of 0 or 1 (91%) and a histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (98%). As of the data cut-off date of June 2017, the median follow-up was 18.9 months. The median PFS was 15.2 months (95% CI: 13.2-not estimable). The 1-year overall survival rate was 95.6% (95% CI: 89.7%-100%). The objective response rate was 81.8% (95% CI, 81.3%-98.6%). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 14 patients (30.4%) and included rash/acne in 4 patients (8.7%), paronychia in 4 patients (8.7%), diarrhea in 2 patients (4.3%). There was no treatment-related death. CONCLUSIONS: Low starting dose of afatinib therapy showed promising clinical efficacy and good tolerability. Further investigations are warranted.

18.
Toxicol Pathol ; 47(7): 817-832, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337280

RESUMO

Microminipigs have become an attractive animal model for toxicology and pharmacology studies and for human disease models, owing to their manageable size. Although there are numerous reports of spontaneous age-related lesions in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys, those in minipigs are scarce. In the present study, spontaneous age-related histopathological changes were investigated using 37 microminipigs (20 males and 17 females) that were 6 months to 10 years of age. Abnormal deposits of materials were evident in several animals from 6 years of age, and these deposits included amyloid in the renal medulla, thyroid gland, and adrenal gland, hyaline droplets in glomeruli, and fibrillar inclusions in neurons. Arterial sclerosing changes (intimal thickening, intimal proliferation, and medial mineralization) and proliferative lesions (hyperplasia of hepatocytes, follicular cells, Leydig cells, and uterine endometrial glands) were present at 4 years of age and beyond. Renal adenoma, uterine leiomyoma, and Leydig cell tumor were observed in several microminipigs. Moreover, glomerulosclerosis, renal interstitial fibrosis, thymic involution, and adrenocortical cell vacuolation were common in aging microminipigs. Since knowledge of age-related changes is helpful for pathologists, the basic information obtained in this study will be a useful reference for all future toxicity evaluations in microminipigs.

19.
J Artif Organs ; 22(4): 276-285, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327062

RESUMO

We studied a control method of rotary blood pumps (RBPs), which is called as the cardiac beat synchronization (CBS) system. Usually, RBPs operate at constant target rotational speed, meanwhile, the CBS system modulates target speed synchronizing with cardiac beat. We built a computer simulation method to evaluate the CBS system. This simulator acquires a mathematical model of a circulatory system including a RBP and can provide us the theoretical hemodynamics when our control method is applied. We compared theoretical results with experimental ones with the model focusing on both pulsatility and aortic valve (AV) opening interval enhanced by the CBS system. Our simulator could reproduce behavior of the circulatory system whether the RBP is connected or not. Comparison among no RBP, constant assist, systolic assist, and diastolic assist modes indicated that pulsatility is enhanced with systolic assist theoretically. While systolic assist decreased AV opening interval, diastolic assist made it longer than the ones in other control strategies.

20.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 45(10): 2679-2687, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277922

RESUMO

We investigated the diagnostic capability of the proprietary attenuation imaging (ATI) modality found on some Canon Medical Systems Corp. ultrasound scanners to detect histologically diagnosed steatosis in 148 patients. ATI values increased significantly with increasing steatosis grade (p < 0.001). The diagnostic values (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of ATI for steatosis grades ≥ 1 (5%-33% of hepatocytes), ≥ 2 (33%-66% of hepatocytes) and 3 (> 66% of hepatocytes) were 0.85, 0.91 and 0.91. In addition, ATI values increased significantly with increasing steatosis grades (p = 0.002) even in obese patients (n = 41). The diagnostic values of ATI for steatosis grades ≥ 1, ≥ 2 and 3 in obese patients were 0.72, 0.72 and 0.78. Furthermore, ATI values increased significantly with increasing steatosis grade (p < 0.001) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 38). The diagnostic values of ATI for steatosis grades ≥ 1, ≥ 2 and 3 in NAFLD patients were 0.77, 0.88 and 0.86. In conclusion, the ATI method showed good diagnostic capability for the detection of hepatic steatosis.

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