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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 45-51, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391410

RESUMO

This study aimed to survey the trend of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli obtained from retail meat. We examined the susceptibilities of 1,115 E. coli isolates obtained from chicken, beef, pork, venison, and wild boar meat from 2011 to 2017 in Tokyo to 14 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem). Of all the tested isolates, 18.7% (135/721) isolates from chicken, 77.0% (117/152) from beef, 46.6% (89/187) from pork, 100% (28/28) from venison, and 92.6% (25/27) from wild boar meat were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, TC resistance was the most common, with rates as high as 56.7% (409/721) and 40.6% (76/187) in the isolates from chicken and pork, respectively. CTX resistance was detected in 4.9% (25/506) of the isolates from domestic chicken and 23.7% (51/215) of the isolates from imported chicken. Moreover, CTX resistance rate in isolates from domestic chicken was significantly lower in 2016 (0.9%, 1/111) and in 2017 (0.8%, 1/121) than in 2012 (10.6%, 17/161). In conclusion, E. coli isolates from retail meat were most commonly resistant to TC, and CTX resistance was higher in E. coli isolates from imported chicken than in E. coli isolates from domestic chicken.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cervos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Suínos , Tóquio
2.
Microbiol Immunol ; 61(12): 554-557, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052266

RESUMO

In this study, the presence of the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli from retail meat in Japan was investigated. Nine E. coli isolates (eight from chickens and one from pork) carried the mcr-1 gene on the plasmid. In six isolates from domestic chickens, mcr-1 was located on the IncI2 plasmid, which is approximately 60 kb in size. In the remaining three isolates from imported chicken and pork, mcr-1 was located on the IncX4 plasmid (30 kb).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/classificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Carne/economia , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Suínos
3.
J Reprod Immunol ; 120: 42-47, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441552

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate whether natural killer (NK) cell activity was associated with the etiology of recurrent miscarriage (RM), and to evaluate the predictive value of NK cell activity for outcomes of following pregnancies in women with RM. Peripheral NK cell activity was measured in 160 non-pregnant women with a history of two or more miscarriages. This activity was compared according to the etiology of RM and to pregnancy outcomes in women who became pregnant. NK cell activity in women with unexplained RM was significantly higher than that in those with known etiologies of RM. NK cell activity in women whose next pregnancies ended in miscarriage of fetuses with a normal chromosome karyotype (MN) was higher than that in those with live births (p<0.05). Women with NK cell activity ≥33% had a higher risk for MN (relative risk 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3-8.7). An increase in peripheral NK cell activity was associated with MN. This increase might be involved in the pathophysiology underlying RM.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Aborto Habitual/diagnóstico , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Vet Med Sci ; 78(7): 1183-7, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000951

RESUMO

We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000-2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006-2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3-1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Prevalência
5.
J Vet Med Sci ; 78(3): 477-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537550

RESUMO

PCR serogrouping methods were used to examine strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Japan. Among 187 strains, 99.5% were classified into 4 PCR serogroups corresponding to conventional serotypes. Only one isolate had a new PCR profile, which may be a variant of serogroup IVb.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Japão , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Sorotipagem/métodos
6.
J Reprod Immunol ; 109: 48-51, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25747500

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate changes in natural killer (NK) cell activity and the percentage of monocytes in women with recurrent miscarriage who received medium-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. Fourteen women with a history of six or more recurrent miscarriages of unexplained etiology received 60-g IVIg therapy (20 g daily, for three days) during early gestation. NK cell activity in the peripheral blood decreased to 12% one week after therapy compared with before therapy (median, 22%, P < 0.001) and the percentage of monocytes increased from 5.2% to 7.5% (P < 0.005). Four pregnancies ended in live births of healthy neonates, whereas the other ten pregnancies ended in miscarriages. Excluding one miscarriage with a chromosomal abnormality, the live birth rate was 30.8% (4/13). The rate of reduction of NK cell activity in the success group (-58.8%) tended to be greater than that in the failure group (-14.8%, P = 0.057).


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Células Matadoras Naturais , Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Aborto Espontâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Parto , Gravidez
7.
Metab Eng ; 11(4-5): 213-20, 2009 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19281857

RESUMO

2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) is a catabolic intermediate in Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 (previously characterized as Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6), which is a degrader of lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Recently, PDC has been also characterized as a novel starting material for several potentially useful synthetic polymers. In a previous study, we constructed a biosynthetic system in which PDC was generated efficiently from a chemically synthesized compound, protocatechuate. In order to develop an alternative system for production of PDC, we tried to generate it from glucose, which is a low-cost sugar that can be obtained from abundant cellulosic wastes and biomass crops. We designed a metabolic bypass to PDC from the shikimate pathway in recombinant Escherichia coli cells. PDC accumulated in the medium of recombinant E. coli cells that had been transformed with genes isolated from Emericella niger, E. coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. The yield of PDC depended on the combination of genes that we introduced into the cells and on the specific of host strain. Under optimal conditions, the yield and titer of PDC were, respectively, 17.3% and 0.35 mg/l when the concentration of glucose was 2 g/l and the culture volume was 50 ml. Our results open up the possibility of novel utilization of biomass as the source of a useful chemical building block.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Pironas/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Sphingomonas/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Meios de Cultura/análise , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose/genética , Mutação , Sphingomonas/genética
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