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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 904846, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967566

RESUMO

Introduction: Pediatric shock, especially septic shock, is a significant healthcare burden in low-income countries. Early recognition and management of shock in children improves patient outcome. Simulation-based education (SBE) for shock recognition and prompt management prepares interdisciplinary pediatric emergency teams in crisis management. COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on in-person simulation led us to the development of telesimulation for shock. We hypothesized that telesimulation training would improve pediatric shock recognition, process of care, and patient outcomes in both simulated and real patient settings. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective quasi-experimental interrupted time series cohort study over 9 months. We conducted 40 telesimulation sessions for 76 participants in teams of 3 or 4, utilizing the video telecommunication platform (Zoom©). Trained observers recorded time-critical interventions on real patients for the pediatric emergency teams composed of residents, fellows, and nurses. Data were collected on 332 pediatric patients in shock (72% of whom were in septic shock) before, during, and after the intervention. The data included the first hour time-critical intervention checklist, patient hemodynamic status at the end of the first hour, time for the resolution of shock, and team leadership skills in the emergency room. Results: There was a significant improvement in the percent completion of tasks by the pediatric emergency team in simulated scenarios (69% in scenario 1 vs. 93% in scenario 2; p < 0.001). In real patients, completion of tasks as per time-critical steps reached 100% during and after intervention compared to the pre-intervention phase (87.5%), p < 0.05. There was a significant improvement in the first hour hemodynamic parameters of shock patients: pre (71%), during (79%), and post (87%) intervention (p < 0.007 pre vs. post). Shock reversal time reduced from 24 h pre-intervention to 6 h intervention and to 4.5 h post intervention (p < 0.002). There was also a significant improvement in leadership performance assessed by modified Concise Assessment of Leader Management (CALM) instrument during the simulated (p < 0.001) and real patient care in post intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Telesimulation training is feasible and improved the process of care, time-critical interventions, leadership in both simulated and real patients and resolution of shock in real patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies where telesimulation has shown improvement in real patient outcomes.

2.
J Perinatol ; 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that videolaryngoscope use for tracheal intubations would differ across NICUs, be associated with higher first attempt success and lower adverse events. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the National Emergency Airway Registry for Neonates (01/2015 to 12/2017) included intubation with direct laryngoscope or videolaryngoscope. Primary outcome was first attempt success. Secondary outcomes were adverse tracheal intubation associated events and severe desaturation. RESULTS: Of 2730 encounters (13 NICUs), 626 (23%) utilized a videolaryngoscope (3% to 64% per site). Videolaryngoscope use was associated with higher first attempt success (p < 0.001), lower adverse tracheal intubation associated events (p < 0.001), but no difference in severe desaturation. After adjustment, videolaryngoscope use was not associated with higher first attempt success (OR:1.18, p = 0.136), but was associated with lower tracheal intubation associated events (OR:0.45, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Videolaryngoscope use is variable, not independently associated with higher first attempt success but associated with fewer tracheal intubation associated events.

3.
Respir Care ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New graduate respiratory therapists (RTs), regardless of the degree program, receive limited preparation in neonatal/pediatric diseases and management. Experienced RTs typically have adult knowledge but limited exposure to pediatrics. We developed a program that included competence-based simulation to improve orientation success. METHODS: A 9-week orientation program curriculum with simulation-based competence assessment was developed to ensure all new hires gained knowledge and skills to perform pediatric clinical tasks. Each new hire individually completed the same simulation scenarios during the first week and last week of orientation. Curriculum changes were made over time based on performance in simulations and on-the-job knowledge and skills during and after orientation. Paired and unpaired t tests were used with P < .05 as significant. RESULTS: From January 2017-February 2020, the program had 3 updates. Noninvasive ventilation and decompensating patient scenarios were completed for all periods. Ninety-two new staff were oriented in period 1 = 29 (new graduate RTs 20, experienced RTs 9); period 2 = 17 (new graduate RTs 10, experienced RTs 7); period 3 = 24 (new graduate RTs 21, experienced RTs 3), and period 4 = 22 (new graduate RTs = 22). Remediation during orientation occurred in 15% of the staff. Seventy-one percent successfully advanced to ICU orientation after completion of the program. All staff improved scores between pre- versus post-simulations in all periods: mean difference ± SD period 1: new graduate RTs 32.0 ± 17.0, P < .001; experienced RTs 28.0 ± 18.9, P < .001; period 2: new graduate RTs 23.0 ± 15.2, P < .001; experienced RTs 29.0 ± 12.1, P < .001; period 3: new graduate RTs 26.0 ± 15.8, P < .001; experienced RTs 27.0 ± 15.1, P = .007; and period 4: new graduate RTs 19.0 ± 14.5, P < .001, paired t test. The scores between new graduate RTs and experienced RTs during post-simulation were not significantly different for period 1 (P = .35) but were significantly different for periods 2-4 (P = .040, unpaired t test). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a competence-based orientation program showed educational advancements and helped determine successful orientation completion.

4.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(9): 1015-1023, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the use of video laryngoscopy for pediatric patients outside of the operating room. AIM: Our primary aim was to evaluate whether implementation of video laryngoscopy-guided coaching for tracheal intubation is feasible with a high level of compliance and associated with a reduction in adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. METHODS: This is a pre-post observational study of video laryngoscopy implementation with standardized coaching language for tracheal intubation in a single-center, pediatric intensive care unit. The use of video laryngoscopy as a coaching device with standardized coaching language was implemented as a part of practice improvement. All patients in the pediatric intensive care unit were included between January 2016 and December 2017 who underwent primary tracheal intubation with either video laryngoscopy or direct laryngoscopy. The uptake of the implementation, sustained compliance, tracheal intubation outcomes including all adverse tracheal intubation-associated events, oxygen desaturations (<80% SpO2), and first attempt success were measured. RESULTS: Among 580 tracheal intubations, 284 (49%) were performed during the preimplementation phase, and 296 (51%) postimplementation. Compliance for the use of video laryngoscopy with standardized coaching language was high (74% postimplementation) and sustained. There were no statistically significant differences in adverse tracheal intubation-associated events between the two phases (pre- 9% vs. post- 5%, absolute difference -3%, CI95 : -8% to 1%, p = .11), oxygen desaturations <80% (pre- 13% vs. post- 13%, absolute difference 1%, CI95 : -6% to 5%, p = .75), or first attempt success (pre- 73% vs. post- 76%, absolute difference 4%, CI95 : -3% to 11%, p = .29). Supervisors were more likely to use the standardized coaching language when video laryngoscopy was used for tracheal intubation than with standard direct laryngoscopy (80% vs. 43%, absolute difference 37%, CI95 : 23% to 51%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of video laryngoscopy as a supervising device with standardized coaching language was feasible with high level of adherence, yet not associated with an increased occurrence of any adverse tracheal intubation-associated events and oxygen desaturation.


Assuntos
Laringoscópios , Tutoria , Criança , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Intubação Intratraqueal , Laringoscopia , Oxigênio , Gravação em Vídeo
5.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(9): 1047-1053, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid administration in children undergoing surgery requires precision, however, determining fluid responsiveness can be challenging. Ultrasound has been used widely in the emergency department and intensive care units as a noninvasive, bedside manner of determining volume status, but the intraoperative period presents unique challenges as often the chest and abdomen are inaccessible for ultrasound. We investigate whether carotid artery ultrasound, specifically carotid flow time, can be used to determine fluid responsiveness in children under general anesthesia. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 87 children ages 1-12 years who were scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery. Ultrasound of the carotid artery and heart was performed at three time points: (1) after inhalational induction of anesthesia with the subject spontaneously breathing, (2) during positive pressure ventilation through endotracheal tube or supraglottic airway with tidal volume set at 8 ml/kg with PEEP of 10 cmH2 O, and (3) after a 10 ml/kg fluid bolus. Carotid flow time and cardiac output were measured from saved images. RESULTS: Corrected carotid flow time (FTc) increased with initiation of positive pressure ventilation in both fluid responders and nonresponders (352.7 vs. 365.3 msec, p = .005 in fluid responders; 348.3 vs. 365.2 msec, p = .001 in nonresponders). FTc increased after fluid bolus in both responders and nonresponders (365.3 vs. 397.6 msec, p < .001 in fluid responders; 365.2 vs. 397.2 msec, p < .001 in nonresponders). However, baseline FTc during spontaneous ventilation or positive pressure ventilation prior to fluid bolus was not associated with fluid responsiveness. DISCUSSION: Flow time increases with initiation of positive pressure ventilation and after administration of a fluid bolus. FTc may serve as an indicator of fluid status but does not predict fluid responsiveness in children under general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Hemodinâmica , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Débito Cardíaco , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico
6.
Crit Care Med ; 50(7): 1127-1137, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between preintubation respiratory support and outcomes in patients with acute respiratory failure and to determine the impact of immunocompromised (IC) diagnoses on outcomes after adjustment for illness severity. DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Eighty-two centers in the Virtual Pediatric Systems database. PATIENTS: Children 1 month to 17 years old intubated in the PICU who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for greater than or equal to 24 hours. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or both were used prior to intubation in 1,825 (34%) of 5,348 PICU intubations across 82 centers. When stratified by IC status, 50% of patients had no IC diagnosis, whereas 41% were IC without prior hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and 9% had prior HCT. Compared with patients intubated without prior support, preintubation exposure to HFNC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or NIPPV (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74) was associated with increased odds of PICU mortality. Within subgroups of IC status, preintubation respiratory support was associated with increased odds of PICU mortality in IC patients (HFNC: aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.11-2.03; NIPPV: aOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.31-2.35) and HCT patients (HFNC: aOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07-2.86; NIPPV: aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.12-3.02) compared with IC/HCT patients intubated without prior respiratory support. Preintubation exposure to HFNC/NIPPV was not associated with mortality in patients without an IC diagnosis. Duration of HFNC/NIPPV greater than 6 hours was associated with increased mortality in IC HCT patients (HFNC: aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.05-5.55; NIPPV: aOR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.15) and patients compared HCT patients with less than 6-hour HFNC/NIPPV exposure. After adjustment for patient and center characteristics, both preintubation HFNC/NIPPV use (median, 15%; range, 0-63%) and PICU mortality varied by center. CONCLUSIONS: In IC pediatric patients, preintubation exposure to HFNC and/or NIPPV is associated with increased odds of PICU mortality, independent of illness severity. Longer duration of exposure to HFNC/NIPPV prior to IMV is associated with increased mortality in HCT patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , Cânula , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Pediatr ; 245: 165-171.e13, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a comprehensive competency assessment tool for pediatric bag-mask ventilation (pBMV) and demonstrate multidimensional validity evidence for this tool. STUDY DESIGN: A novel pBMV assessment tool was developed consisting of 3 components: a 22-item-based checklist (trichotomized response), global rating scale (GRS, 5-point), and entrustment assessment (4-point). Participants' performance in a realistic simulation scenario was video-recorded and assessed by blinded raters. Multidimensional validity evidence for procedural assessment, including evidence for content, response-process, internal structure, and relation to other variables, was assessed. The scores of each scale were compared with training level. Item-based checklist scores also were correlated with GRS and entrustment scores. RESULTS: Fifty-eight participants (9 medical students, 10 pediatric residents, 18 critical care/neonatology fellows, 21 critical care/neonatology attendings) were evaluated. The pBMV tool was supported by high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.867). Inter-rater reliability for the item-based checklist component was acceptable (r = 0.65, P < .0001). The item-based checklist scores differentiated between medical students and other providers (P < .0001), but not by other trainee level. GRS and entrustment scores significantly differentiated between training levels (P < .001). Correlation between skill item-based checklist and GRS was r = 0.489 (P = .0001) and between item-based checklist and entrustment score was r = 0.52 (P < .001). This moderate correlation suggested each component measures pBMV skills differently. The GRS and entrustment scores demonstrated moderate inter-rater reliability (0.42 and 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: We established evidence of multidimensional validity for a novel entrustment-based pBMV competence assessment tool, incorporating global and entrustment-based assessments. This comprehensive tool can provide learner feedback and aid in entrustment decisions as learners progress through training.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Criança , Competência Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(4): 333-343, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123808

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the tracheal intubation technique across a network of children's hospitals and explore the association between intubation technical adjuncts and first-attempt success as well as between laryngoscopy duration and the incidence of hypoxemia. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in 4 tertiary pediatric emergency departments of the Videography in Pediatric Resuscitation Collaborative. Children undergoing tracheal intubation captured on video were eligible for inclusion. Data on intubator background, patient characteristics, technical characteristics (eg, use of videolaryngoscopy and apneic oxygenation), and procedural outcomes were obtained through a video review. RESULTS: We obtained complete data on first attempts in 494 patients. The first-attempt success rate was 67%, the median laryngoscopy duration was 35 seconds (interquartile range 25 to 40), and hypoxemia occurred in 15% of the patients. Videolaryngoscopy was used for at least a part of the procedure in 48% of the attempts, and it had no association with success or the incidence of hypoxemia. Attempts in which videolaryngoscopy was used for the entire procedure (compared with direct laryngoscopy for the entire procedure) had a longer duration (the difference between the medians was 6 seconds; 95% confidence interval, 1 to 12 seconds). Intubation attempts longer than 45 seconds had a greater incidence of hypoxemia (29% versus 6%). Furthermore, apneic oxygenation was used in 8% of the first attempts. CONCLUSION: Among children undergoing tracheal intubation in a group of pediatric emergency departments, first-attempt success occurred in 67% of the patients. Videolaryngoscopy use was associated with longer laryngoscopy durations but was not associated with success or the incidence of hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ressuscitação , Criança , Humanos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal , Laringoscopia
9.
Am J Med Qual ; 37(3): 255-265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935683

RESUMO

To better understand facilitators and barriers to implementation of quality improvement (QI) efforts, this study examined 2 evidence-based interventions, video laryngoscopy (VL)-assisted coaching, and apneic oxygenation (AO). One focus group with frontline clinicians was held at each of the 10 participating pediatric intensive care units. Qualitative analysis identified common and unique themes. Intervention fidelity was monitored with a priori defined success as >50% VL-assisted coaching or >80% AO use for 3 consecutive months. Eighty percent of intensive care units with VL-assisted coaching and 20% with AO met this criteria during the study period. Common facilitator themes were adequate device accessibility, having a QI culture, and strong leadership. Common barrier themes included poor device accessibility and perception of delay in care. A consistently identified theme in the successful sites was strong QI leadership, while unsuccessful sites consistently identified insufficient education. These facilitators and barriers should be proactively addressed during dissemination of these interventions.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Melhoria de Qualidade , Criança , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Laringoscopia , Respiração Artificial
10.
Acad Emerg Med ; 29(4): 406-414, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation (TI) practice across pediatric emergency departments (EDs) has not been comprehensively reported. We aim to describe TI practice and outcomes in pediatric EDs in contrast to those in intensive are units (ICUs) and use the data to identify quality improvement targets. METHODS: Consecutive TI encounters from pediatric EDs and ICUs in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) database from 2015 to 2018 were analyzed for patient, provider, and practice characteristics and outcomes: adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs), oxygen desaturation (SpO2 < 80%), and procedural success. A multivariable model identified factors associated with TIAEs in the ED. RESULTS: A total of 756 TIs in 13 pediatric EDs and 12,512 TIs in 51 pediatric/cardiac ICUs were reported. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age for ED TIs was higher (32 [7-108] months) than that for ICU TIs (15 [3-91] months; p < 0.001). Proportion of TIs for respiratory decompensation (52% of ED vs. 64% ICU), shock (26% vs. 14%), and neurologic deterioration (30% vs. 11%) also differed by location. Limited neck mobility was reported more often in the ED (16% vs. 6%). TIs in the ED were performed more often via video laryngoscopy (64% vs. 29%). Adverse TIAE rates (15.6% ED, 14% ICU; absolute difference = 1.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.1 to 4.2; p = 0.23) and severe TIAE rates (5.4% ED, 5.8% ICU; absolute difference = -0.3%, 95% CI = -2.0 to 1.3; p = 0.68) were not different. Oxygen desaturation was less commonly reported in ED TIs (13.6%) than ICU TIs (17%, absolute difference = -3.4%, 95% CI = -5.9 to -0.8; p = 0.016). Among ED TIs, shock as an indication (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.26 to 3.65) and limited mouth opening (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.93) were independently associated with TIAEs. CONCLUSIONS: While TI characteristics vary between pediatric EDs and ICUs, outcomes are similar. Shock and limited mouth opening were independently associated with adverse TI events in the ED.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Intubação Intratraqueal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio , Sistema de Registros
12.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal tracheal intubation (TI) is a high-risk procedure associated with adverse safety events. In our newborn and infant ICU, we measure adverse tracheal intubation-associated events (TIAEs) as part of our participation in National Emergency Airway Registry for Neonates, a neonatal airway registry. We aimed to decrease overall TIAEs by 10% in 12 months. METHODS: A quality improvement team developed an individualized approach to intubation using an Airway Bundle (AB) for patients at risk for TI. Plan-do-study-act cycles included AB creation, simulation, unit roll out, interprofessional education, team competitions, and adjusting AB location. Outcome measure was monthly rate of TIAEs (overall and severe). Process measures were AB initiation, AB use at intubation, video laryngoscope (VL) use, and paralytic use. Balancing measure was inadvertent administration of TI premedication. We used statistical process control charts. RESULTS: Data collection from November 2016 to August 2020 included 1182 intubations. Monthly intubations ranged from 12 to 41. Initial overall TIAE rate was 0.093 per intubation encounter, increased to 0.172, and then decreased to 0.089. System stability improved over time. Severe TIAE rate decreased from 0.047 to 0.016 in June 2019. AB initiation improved from 70% to 90%, and AB use at intubation improved from 18% to 55%. VL use improved from 86% to 97%. Paralytic use was 83% and did not change. The balancing measure of inadvertent TI medication administration occurred once. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a significant decrease in the rate of severe TIAEs through the implementation of an AB. Next steps include increasing use of AB at intubation.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Segurança do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
13.
Resuscitation ; 168: 52-57, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536558

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) among children with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and its association with survival. METHODS: Children (<18 years) admitted to ICUs participating in the Virtual Pediatric Systems multicenter registry between January 2011 and December 2017 who had an IHCA during their hospitalization were included. Patients were classified by whether they had a documented diagnosis of PH at the time of IHCA. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without PH. After propensity score matching, conditional logistic regression within the matched cohort determined the association between PH and survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Of 18,575 children with IHCA during the study period, 1,590 (8.6%) had a pre-arrest diagnosis of PH. Patients with PH were more likely to be 29 days to 2 years of age, female, Black/African American, and American Indian/Alaskan Native, and to be treated in a cardiac ICU or mixed PICU/cardiac ICU. At ICU admission, PH patients had a lower probability of death as determined by the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM-2) score. Patients with PH were more likely to be receiving inhaled nitric oxide (13.0% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001). Propensity score matching successfully matched 1,302 PH patients with 3,604 non-PH patients. Patients with PH were less likely to survive to hospital discharge (aOR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.95; p = 0.01) than non-PH patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter study, 8.6% of children with IHCA had pre-existing documented PH. These children were less likely to survive to hospital discharge than those without PH.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Criança , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente
14.
Simul Healthc ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic forced healthcare institutions to rapidly adapt practices for patient care, staff safety, and resource management. We evaluated contributions of the simulation center in a freestanding children's hospital during the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We reviewed our simulation center's activity for education-based and system-focused simulation for 2 consecutive academic years (AY19: 2018-2019 and AY20: 2019-2020). We used statistical control charts and χ2 analyses to assess the impact of the pandemic on simulation activity as well as outputs of system-focused simulation during the first wave of the pandemic (March-June 2020) using the system failure mode taxonomy and required level of resolution. RESULTS: A total of 1983 event counts were reported. Total counts were similar between years (994 in AY19 and 989 in AY20). System-focused simulation was more prevalent in AY20 compared with AY19 (8% vs. 2% of total simulation activity, P < 0.001), mainly driven by COVID-19-related simulation events. COVID-19-related simulation occurred across the institution, identified system failure modes in all categories except culture, and was more likely to identify macro-level issues than non-COVID-19-related simulation (64% vs. 44%, P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Our simulation center pivoted to deliver substantial system-focused simulation across the hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our experience suggests that simulation centers are essential resources in achieving safe and effective hospital-wide improvement.

15.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 31(10): 1105-1112, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve pediatric airway management outside of the operating room, a Hospital-wide Emergency Airway Response Team (HEART) program composed of anesthesiology, otorhinolaryngology, and respiratory therapy clinicians was developed. AIMS: To report processes and outcomes of HEART activations in a quaternary academic children's hospital. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study between January 2017 and December 2019. Local airway emergency database was reviewed for HEART activations. Additional safety data was obtained from patients' electronic health records. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Adverse airway outcomes, either adverse tracheal intubation-associated events or oxygen desaturation (SpO2 <80%). We compared airway management by primary teams before HEART arrival and by HEART after arrival. RESULTS: Of 96 HEART activations, 36 were from neonatal intensive care unit, 35 from pediatric and cardiac intensive care units, 14 from emergency department, and 11 from inpatient wards. 56 (62%) children had airway anomalies and 41/96 (43%) were invasively ventilated. Median HEART arrival time was 5 min (interquartile range, 3-5). 56/96 (58%) required insertion of an advanced airway (supra/extra-glottic airway, endotracheal tube, tracheostomy tube). HEART succeeded in establishing a definitive airway in 53/56 (94%). Adverse airway outcomes were more common before (56/96, 58%) versus after HEART arrival (28/96, 29%; absolute risk difference 29%; 95% confidence interval 16, 41%; p < .001). Oxygen desaturation occurred more frequently before (46/96, 48%) versus after HEART arrival (24/96, 25%; absolute risk difference 23%; 95% confidence interval 11, 35%; p = .02). Cardiac arrests were more common before (9/96, 9%) versus after HEART arrival (3/96, 3%). Multiple (≥3) intubation attempts were more frequent before (14/42, 33%) versus after HEART arrival (9/46, 20%; absolute risk difference -14%; 95% confidence interval -32, 5%; p = .15). CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary emergency airway response team plays an important role in pediatric airway management outside of the operating room. Adverse airway outcomes were more frequent before compared to after HEART arrival.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Criança , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Intubação Intratraqueal , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize neonatal-perinatal medicine fellows' progression toward neonatal intubation procedural competence during fellowship training. METHODS: Multi-center cohort study of neonatal intubation encounters performed by neonatal-perinatal medicine fellows between 2014 through 2018 at North American academic centers in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Neonates. Cumulative sum analysis was used to characterize progression of individual fellows' intubation competence, defined by an 80% overall success rate within 2 intubation attempts. We employed multivariable analysis to assess the independent impact of advancing quarter of fellowship training on intubation success. RESULTS: There were 2297 intubation encounters performed by 92 fellows in 8 hospitals. Of these, 1766 (77%) were successful within 2 attempts. Of the 40 fellows assessed from the start of training, 18 (45%) achieved procedural competence, and 12 (30%) exceeded the deficiency threshold. Among fellows who achieved competence, the number of intubations to meet this threshold was variable, with an absolute range of 8 to 46 procedures. After adjusting for patient and practice characteristics, advancing quarter of training was independently associated with an increased odds of successful intubation (adjusted odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14). CONCLUSIONS: The number of neonatal intubations required to achieve procedural competence is variable, and overall intubation competence rates are modest. Although repetition leads to skill acquisition for many trainees, some learners may require adjunctive educational strategies. An individualized approach to assess trainees' progression toward intubation competence is warranted.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Bolsas de Estudo , Intubação Intratraqueal , Canadá , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise Multivariada , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
Neonatology ; 118(4): 434-442, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111869

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal tracheal intubation (TI) outcomes have been assessed by role, but training level may impact TI success and safety. Effect of physician training level (PTL) on the first-attempt success, adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs), and oxygen desaturation was assessed. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 11 international NEAR4NEOS sites between October 2014 and December 2017. Primary TIs performed by pediatric/neonatal physicians were included. Univariable analysis evaluated association between PTL, patient/practice characteristics, and outcomes. Multivariable analysis with generalized estimating equation assessed for independent association between PTL and outcomes (first-attempt success, TIAEs, and oxygen desaturation ≥20%; attending as reference). RESULTS: Of 2,608 primary TIs, 1,298 were first attempted by pediatric/neonatal physicians. PTL was associated with patient age, weight, comorbidities, TI indication, difficult airway history, premedication, and device. First-attempt success rate differed across PTL (resident 23%, fellow 53%, and attending 60%; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in TIAEs (resident 22%, fellow 20%, and attending 25%; p = 0.34). Desaturation occurred more frequently with residents (60%), compared to fellows and attendings (46 and 53%; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, adjusted odds ratio of the first-attempt success was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.11-0.30) for residents and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.51-1.24) for fellows. PTL was not independently associated with adjusted odds of TIAEs or severe oxygen desaturation. CONCLUSION: Higher PTL was associated with increased first-attempt success but not TIAE/oxygen desaturation. Identifying strategies to decrease adverse events during neonatal TI remains critical.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal , Médicos , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
19.
Pediatr Qual Saf ; 6(3): e409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046538

RESUMO

The National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) Airway Safety Quality Improvement (QI) Bundle is a QI tool to improve the safety of tracheal intubations. The ability to achieve targeted compliance with bundle adherence is a challenge for centers due to competing QI initiatives, lack of interdisciplinary involvement, and time barriers. We applied translational simulations to identify safety and performance gaps contributing to poor compliance and remediate barriers by delivering simulation-based interventions. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective review following translational simulations to improve compliance with the NEAR4KIDS bundle . The simulation was implemented between March 2018 and December 2018. Bundle adherence was assessed 12 months before simulation and 9 months following simulation. Primary outcomes were compliance with the bundle and utilization of apneic oxygenation. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. RESULTS: Preintervention bundle compliance was 66%, and the application of apneic oxygenation was 27.9%. Following the simulation intervention, bundle compliance increased to 93.7% (P < 0.001) and adherence to apneic oxygenation increased to 77.9% (P < 0.001). There was no difference in the occurrence of tracheal intubation-associated events. CONCLUSIONS: Translational simulation was a safety tool that improved NEAR4KIDS bundle compliance and elucidated factors contributing to successful implementation. Through simulation, we optimized bundle customization through process improvement, fostered a culture of safety, and effectively engaged multidisciplinary teams in this quality initiative to improve adherence to best practices surrounding tracheal intubations.

20.
Neonatology ; 118(4): 470-478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intubations are frequently performed procedures in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and delivery rooms (DR). Unsuccessful first attempts are common as are tracheal intubation-associated events (TIAEs) and severe desaturations. Stylets are often used during intubation, but their association with intubation outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare intubation success, rate of relevant TIAEs, and severe desaturations in neonates intubated with and without stylets. METHODS: Tracheal intubations of neonates in the NICU or DR from 16 centers between October 2014 and December 2018, performed by neonatology or pediatric providers, were collected from the NEAR4NEOs international registry. Primary oral intubations with a laryngoscope were included in the analysis. First-attempt success, the occurrence of relevant TIAEs, and severe oxygen desaturation (≥20% saturation drop from baseline) were compared between intubations performed with versus without a stylet. Logistic regression with generalized estimate equations was used to control for covariates and clustering by sites. RESULTS: Out of 5,292 primary oral intubations, 3,877 (73%) utilized stylets. Stylet use varied considerably across the centers with a range between 0.5 and 100%. Stylet use was not associated with first-attempt intubation success, esophageal intubation, mainstem intubation, or severe desaturations after controlling for confounders. Patient size was associated with these outcomes and much more predictive of success. CONCLUSIONS: Stylet use during neonatal intubation was not associated with higher first-attempt intubation success, fewer relevant TIAEs, or less severe desaturations. These data suggest that stylets can be used based on individual preference, but stylet use may not be associated with better intubation outcomes.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Intubação Intratraqueal , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Sistema de Registros
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