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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is associated with difficulty in ventilator weaning and increased mortality in septic adults. We evaluated the association of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with outcomes in a cohort of children with severe sepsis and septic shock. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center noncardiac PICU. PATIENTS: Age greater than 1 month to less than 18 years old with severe sepsis or septic shock from January 2011 to June 2017 with echocardiogram within 48 hours of sepsis onset. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Echocardiograms were retrospectively assessed for mitral inflow E (early) and A (atrial) velocity and e' (early mitral annular motion) septal and lateral velocity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was defined as E/e' greater than 10, E/A less than 0.8, or E/A greater than 1.5. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was present in 109 of 204 patients (53%). The data did not demonstrate an association between the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the proportion of children requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at the time of echocardiogram (difference in proportion, +5% [72% vs 67%; 95% CI, -8% to 17%]; p = 0.52). The duration of mechanical ventilation was median 192.9 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-378.4 hr) in the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction group versus 151.0 hours (interquartile range, 45.7-244.3 hr) in the group without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was not significantly associated with ICU length of stay or mortality. Exploratory analyses revealed that an alternative definition of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, solely defined by E/e' greater than 10, was found to have an association with mechanical ventilation requirement at the time of echocardiogram (difference in proportion, +15%; 95% CI, 3-28%; p = 0.02) and duration of mechanical ventilation (median, 207.3 vs 146.9 hr). CONCLUSIONS: The data failed to show an association between the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction defined by both E/e' and E/A and the primary and secondary outcomes. When an alternative definition of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with E/e' alone was used, there was a significant association with respiratory outcomes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the current practice of family presence during neonatal tracheal intubations (TIs) across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and examine the association with outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of TIs performed in NICUs participating in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Neonates (NEAR4NEOS). SETTING: Thirteen academic NICUs. PATIENTS: Infants undergoing TI between October 2014 and December 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of family presence with TI processes and outcomes including first attempt success (primary outcome), success within two attempts, adverse TI-associated events (TIAEs) and severe oxygen desaturation ≥20% from baseline. RESULTS: Of the 2570 TIs, 242 (9.4%) had family presence, which varied by site (median 3.6%, range 0%-33%; p<0.01). Family member was more often present for older infants and those with chronic respiratory failure. Fewer TIs were performed by residents when family was present (FP 10% vs no FP 18%, p=0.041). Among TIs with family presence versus without family presence, the first attempt success rate was 55% vs 49% (p=0.062), success within two attempts was 74% vs 66% (p=0.014), adverse TIAEs were 18% vs 20% (p=0.62) and severe oxygen desaturation was 49% vs 52%, (p=0.40). In multivariate analyses, there was no independent association between family presence and intubation success, adverse TIAEs or severe oxygen desaturation. CONCLUSION: Family are present in less than 10% of TIs, with variation across NICUs. Even after controlling for important patient, provider and site factors, there were no significant associations between family presence and intubation success, adverse TIAEs or severe oxygen desaturation.

3.
Lancet ; 396(10266): 1905-1913, 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orotracheal intubation of infants using direct laryngoscopy can be challenging. We aimed to investigate whether video laryngoscopy with a standard blade done by anaesthesia clinicians improves the first-attempt success rate of orotracheal intubation and reduces the risk of complications when compared with direct laryngoscopy. We hypothesised that the first-attempt success rate would be higher with video laryngoscopy than with direct laryngoscopy. METHODS: In this multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, we recruited infants without difficult airways abnormalities requiring orotracheal intubation in operating theatres at four quaternary children's hospitals in the USA and one in Australia. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to video laryngoscopy or direct laryngoscopy using random permuted blocks of size 2, 4, and 6, and stratified by site and clinician role. Guardians were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was the proportion of infants with a successful first attempt at orotracheal intubation. Analysis (modified intention-to-treat [mITT] and per-protocol) used a generalised estimating equation model to account for clustering of patients treated by the same clinician and institution, and adjusted for gestational age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, weight, clinician role, and institution. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03396432. FINDINGS: Between June 4, 2018, and Aug 19, 2019, 564 infants were randomly assigned: 282 (50%) to video laryngoscopy and 282 (50%) to direct laryngoscopy. The mean age of infants was 5·5 months (SD 3·3). 274 infants in the video laryngoscopy group and 278 infants in the direct laryngoscopy group were included in the mITT analysis. In the video laryngoscopy group, 254 (93%) infants were successfully intubated on the first attempt compared with 244 (88%) in the direct laryngoscopy group (adjusted absolute risk difference 5·5% [95% CI 0·7 to 10·3]; p=0·024). Severe complications occurred in four (2%) infants in the video laryngoscopy group compared with 15 (5%) in the direct laryngoscopy group (-3·7% [-6·5 to -0·9]; p=0·0087). Fewer oesophageal intubations occurred in the video laryngoscopy group (n=1 [<1%]) compared with in the direct laryngoscopy group (n=7 [3%]; -2·3 [-4·3 to -0·3]; p=0·028). INTERPRETATION: Among anaesthetised infants, using video laryngoscopy with a standard blade improves the first-attempt success rate and reduces complications. FUNDING: Anaesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, Society for Airway Management, and Karl Storz Endoscopy.

4.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a tracheal intubation safety bundle on adverse tracheal intubation-associated events across 15 PICUs. DESIGN: Multicenter time-series study. SETTING: PICUs in the United States. PATIENTS: All patients received tracheal intubations in ICUs. INTERVENTIONS: We implemented a tracheal intubation safety bundle as a quality-improvement intervention that includes: 1) quarterly site benchmark performance report and 2) airway safety checklists (preprocedure risk factor, approach, and role planning, preprocedure bedside "time-out," and immediate postprocedure debriefing). We define each quality-improvement phase as baseline (-24 to -12 mo before checklist implementation), benchmark performance reporting only (-12 to 0 mo before checklist implementation), implementation (checklist implementation start to time achieving > 80% bundle adherence), early bundle adherence (0-12 mo), and sustained (late) bundle adherence (12-24 mo). Bundle adherence was defined a priori as greater than 80% of checklist use for tracheal intubations for 3 consecutive months. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event, and secondary outcomes included severe tracheal intubation-associated events, multiple tracheal intubation attempts, and hypoxemia less than 80%.From January 2013 to December 2015, out of 19 participating PICUs, 15 ICUs (79%) achieved bundle adherence. Among the 15 ICUs, the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event rates were baseline phase: 217/1,241 (17.5%), benchmark reporting only phase: 257/1,750 (14.7%), early 0-12 month complete bundle compliance phase: 247/1,591 (15.5%), and late 12-24 month complete bundle compliance phase: 137/1,002 (13.7%). After adjusting for patient characteristics and clustering by site, the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event rate significantly decreased compared with baseline: benchmark: odds ratio, 0.83 (0.72-0.97; p = 0.016); early bundle: odds ratio, 0.80 (0.63-1.02; p = 0.074); and late bundle odds ratio, 0.63 (0.47-0.83; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Effective implementation of a quality-improvement bundle was associated with a decrease in the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event that was sustained for 24 months.

5.
Front Physiol ; 11: 564589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117190

RESUMO

Objective: Develop an automated approach to detect flash (<1.0 s) or prolonged (>2.0 s) capillary refill time (CRT) that correlates with clinician judgment by applying several supervised machine learning (ML) techniques to pulse oximeter plethysmography data. Materials and Methods: Data was collected in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Cardiac ICU, Progressive Care Unit, and Operating Suites in a large academic children's hospital. Ninety-nine children and 30 adults were enrolled in testing and validation cohorts, respectively. Patients had 5 paired CRT measurements by a modified pulse oximeter device and a clinician, generating 485 waveform pairs for model training. Supervised ML models using gradient boosting (XGBoost), logistic regression (LR), and support vector machines (SVMs) were developed to detect flash (<1 s) or prolonged CRT (≥2 s) using clinician CRT assessment as the reference standard. Models were compared using Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) and precision-recall curve (positive predictive value vs. sensitivity) analysis. The best performing model was externally validated with 90 measurement pairs from adult patients. Feature importance analysis was performed to identify key waveform characteristics. Results: For flash CRT, XGBoost had a greater mean AUC (0.79, 95% CI 0.75-0.83) than logistic regression (0.77, 0.71-0.82) and SVM (0.72, 0.67-0.76) models. For prolonged CRT, XGBoost had a greater mean AUC (0.77, 0.72-0.82) than logistic regression (0.73, 0.68-0.78) and SVM (0.75, 0.70-0.79) models. Pairwise testing showed statistically significant improved performance comparing XGBoost and SVM; all other pairwise model comparisons did not reach statistical significance. XGBoost showed good external validation with AUC of 0.88. Feature importance analysis of XGBoost identified distinct key waveform characteristics for flash and prolonged CRT, respectively. Conclusion: Novel application of supervised ML to pulse oximeter waveforms yielded multiple effective models to identify flash and prolonged CRT, using clinician judgment as the reference standard. Tweet: Supervised machine learning applied to pulse oximeter waveform features predicts flash or prolonged capillary refill.

6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(12): 1042-1050, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tracheal intubation carries a high risk of adverse events. The current literature is unclear regarding the "New Trainee Effect" on tracheal intubation safety in the PICU. We evaluated the effect of the timing of the PICU fellow academic cycle on tracheal intubation associated events. We hypothesize 1) PICUs with pediatric critical care medicine fellowship programs have more adverse tracheal intubation associated events during the first quarter (July-September) of the academic year compared with the rest of the year and 2) tracheal intubation associated event rates and first attempt success performed by pediatric critical care medicine fellows improve through the 3-year clinical fellowship. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-seven North American PICUs participating in National Emergency Airway Registry for Children. PATIENTS: All patients who underwent tracheal intubations in the PICU from July 2013 to June 2017. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The occurrence of any tracheal intubation associated events during the first quarter of the academic year (July-September) was compared with the rest in four different types of PICUs: PICUs with fellows and residents, PICUs with fellows only, PICUs with residents only, and PICUs without trainees. For the second hypothesis, tracheal intubations by critical care medicine fellows were categorized by training level and quarter for 3 years of fellowship (i.e., July-September of 1st yr pediatric critical care medicine fellowship = first quarter, October-December of 1st yr pediatric critical care medicine fellowship = second quarter, and April-June during 3rd year = 12th quarter). A total of 9,774 tracheal intubations were reported. Seven-thousand forty-seven tracheal intubations (72%) were from PICUs with fellows and residents, 525 (5%) with fellows only, 1,201 (12%) with residents only, and 1,001 (10%) with no trainees. There was no difference in the occurrence of tracheal intubation associated events in the first quarter versus the rest of the year (all PICUs: July-September 14.9% vs October-June 15.2%; p = 0.76). There was no difference between these two periods in each type of PICUs (all p ≥ 0.19). For tracheal intubations by critical care medicine fellows (n = 3,836), tracheal intubation associated events significantly decreased over the fellowship: second quarter odds ratio 0.64 (95% CI, 0.45-0.91), third quarter odds ratio 0.58 (95% CI, 0.42-0.82), and 12th quarter odds ratio 0.40 (95% CI, 0.24-0.67) using the first quarter as reference after adjusting for patient and device characteristics. First attempt success significantly improved during fellowship: second quarter odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI, 1.04-1.85), third quarter odds ratio 1.59 (95% CI, 1.20-2.09), and 12th quarter odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI, 1.42-3.14). CONCLUSIONS: The New Trainee Effect in tracheal intubation safety outcomes was not observed in various types of PICUs. There was a significant improvement in pediatric critical care medicine fellows' first attempt success and a significant decline in tracheal intubation associated event rates, indicating substantial skills acquisition throughout pediatric critical care medicine fellowship.

7.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(12): 1051-1058, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine level of agreement among clinical signs of shock type, identify which signs clinicians prioritize to determine shock type and select vasoactive medications, and test the association of shock type-vasoactive mismatch with prolonged organ dysfunction or death (complicated course). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Single large academic PICU. PATIENTS: Patients less than 18 years treated on a critical care sepsis pathway between 2012 and 2016. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Agreement among clinical signs (extremity temperature, capillary refill, pulse strength, pulse pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) was measured using Fleiss and Cohen's κ. Association of clinical signs with shock type and shock type-vasoactive mismatch (e.g., cold shock treated with vasopressor rather than inotrope) with complicated course was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 469 patients, clinicians determined 307 (65%) had warm and 162 (35%) had cold shock. Agreement across all clinical signs was low (κ, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.20-0.30), although agreement between extremity temperature, capillary refill, and pulse strength was better than with pulse pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Only extremity temperature (adjusted odds ratio, 26.6; 95% CI, 15.5-45.8), capillary refill (adjusted odds ratio, 15.7; 95% CI, 7.9-31.3), and pulse strength (adjusted odds ratio, 21.3; 95% CI, 8.6-52.7) were associated with clinician-documented shock type. Of the 86 patients initiated on vasoactive medications during the pathway, shock type was discordant from vasoactive medication (κ, 0.14; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.31) and shock type-vasoactive mismatch was not associated with complicated course (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Agreement was low among common clinical signs used to characterize shock type, with clinicians prioritizing extremity temperature, capillary refill, and pulse strength. Although clinician-assigned shock type was often discordant with vasoactive choice, shock type-vasoactive mismatch was not associated with complicated course. Categorizing shock based on clinical signs should be done cautiously.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 48(10): e927-e933, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Capillary refill time is a noninvasive method to assess tissue perfusion to determine shock status. Capillary refill time is defined as the time required to regain skin color after blanching pressure is applied. Although common methods to measure capillary refill time depend on clinicians' visual assessment, a new approach using a pulse oximeter waveform analysis exists, referred to as full finger reperfusion time. We aim to evaluate reproducibility and validity of the novel full finger reperfusion time measurement using clinicians' visual capillary refill time assessment as a reference standard. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: PICUs and operating suites at a large academic children's hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety-nine children 1-12 years old with various skin color tones. INTERVENTIONS: Each child had 10 measurements, including five full finger reperfusion time and five clinician capillary refill time, alternating second and third digits. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighteen children had prolonged capillary refill time (> 2 s) and four children with capillary refill time greater than 3 seconds. Four-hundred eighty-five data pairs were analyzed. Intraclass correlation coefficient of full finger reperfusion time within each patient was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.83), demonstrating good reproducibility. Correlation coefficient between full finger reperfusion time and clinician capillary refill time was moderate: r = 0.37 (p < 0.0001; 95% CI, 0.29-0.44) for the pairs and r = 0.52 (p < 0.0001; 95% CI, 0.36-0.65) for patient average. Bland-Altman plot showed a consistent difference between full finger reperfusion time and clinician capillary refill time (full finger reperfusion time 1.14 s longer). Weak association was found between force and full finger reperfusion time (ß = -0.033 ± 0.016; 95% CI, -0.065 to -0.0016; p = 0.04), finger thickness (ß = -0.20 ± 0.089; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.19; p = 0.03), except for color tone (p = 0.31). Finger temperature was associated with full finger reperfusion time (ß = -0.18 ± 0.041; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.0999; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Full finger reperfusion time demonstrated good reproducibility. Full finger reperfusion time showed moderate correlation with clinician capillary refill time. Full finger reperfusion time was 1.14 seconds longer than capillary refill time. Future studies should focus on the clinical value of full finger reperfusion time as a monitoring device for hemodynamics in critically ill children.

10.
Crit Care Med ; 48(10): 1503-1512, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive ventilation is widely used to avoid tracheal intubation in critically ill children. The objective of this study was to assess whether noninvasive ventilation failure was associated with severe tracheal intubation-associated events and severe oxygen desaturation during tracheal intubation. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study of consecutive intubated patients using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children registry. SETTING: Thirteen PICUs (in 12 institutions) in the United States and Canada. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing tracheal intubation in participating sites were included. Noninvasive ventilation failure group included children with any use of high-flow nasal cannula, continuous positive airway pressure, or bilevel noninvasive ventilation in the 6 hours prior to tracheal intubation. Primary tracheal intubation group included children without exposure to noninvasive ventilation within 6 hours before tracheal intubation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Severe tracheal intubation-associated events (cardiac arrest, esophageal intubation with delayed recognition, emesis with aspiration, hypotension requiring intervention, laryngospasm, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum) and severe oxygen desaturation (< 70%) were recorded prospectively. The study included 956 tracheal intubation encounters; 424 tracheal intubations (44%) occurred after noninvasive ventilation failure, with a median of 13 hours (interquartile range, 4-38 hr) of noninvasive ventilation. Noninvasive ventilation failure group included more infants (47% vs 33%; p < 0.001) and patients with a respiratory diagnosis (56% vs 30%; p < 0.001). Noninvasive ventilation failure was not associated with severe tracheal intubation-associated events (5% vs 5% without noninvasive ventilation; p = 0.96) but was associated with severe desaturation (15% vs 9% without noninvasive ventilation; p = 0.005). After controlling for baseline differences, noninvasive ventilation failure was not independently associated with severe tracheal intubation-associated events (p = 0.35) or severe desaturation (p = 0.08). In the noninvasive ventilation failure group, higher FIO2 before tracheal intubation (≥ 70%) was associated with severe tracheal intubation-associated events. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill children are frequently exposed to noninvasive ventilation before intubation. Noninvasive ventilation failure was not independently associated with severe tracheal intubation-associated events or severe oxygen desaturation compared to primary tracheal intubation.

11.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 30(9): 1027-1032, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a known biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of bronchial hyperreactivity in adults and children. AIMS: To investigate the potential role of eNO measurement for predicting perioperative respiratory adverse events in children, we sought to determine its feasibility and acceptability before adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: We attempted eNO testing in children, 4-12 years of age, immediately prior to admission for outpatient adenotonsillectomy. We used correlations between eNO levels and postoperative adverse respiratory events to make sample size predictions for future studies that address the predictability of the device. RESULTS: One hundred and three (53%) of 192 children were able to provide an eNO sample. The success rate increased with age from 23% (9%-38%) at age 4 to over 85% (54%-98%) after age 9. Using the eNO normal value (<20 ppb) as a cutoff, an expected sample size to detect a significant difference between children with and without adverse events is 868, assuming that respiratory adverse events occur in 29% of children. CONCLUSIONS: eNO testing on the day of surgery has limited feasibility in children younger than 7 years of age. The most common reason for failure was inadequate physical performance while interacting with the testing device. The role of this respiratory biomarker in the context of perioperative outcomes for pediatric adenotonsillectomy remains unknown and should be further studied with improved technologies.

12.
Crit Care Med ; 48(9): e744-e752, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bag-mask ventilation is commonly used prior to tracheal intubation; however, the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of difficult bag-mask ventilation among critically ill children are not well studied. This study aims to describe prevalence and risk factors for pediatric difficult bag-mask ventilation as well as its association with adverse tracheal intubation-associated events and oxygen desaturation in PICU patients. DESIGN: A retrospective review of prospectively collected observational data from a multicenter tracheal intubation database (National Emergency Airway Registry for Children) from January 2013 to December 2018. SETTING: Forty-six international PICUs. PATIENTS: Children receiving bag-mask ventilation as a part of tracheal intubation in a PICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome is the occurrence of either specific tracheal intubation-associated events (hemodynamic tracheal intubation-associated events, emesis with/without aspiration) and/or oxygen desaturation (< 80%). Factors associated with perceived difficult bag-mask ventilation were found using univariate analyses, and multivariable logistic regression identified an independent association between bag-mask ventilation difficulty and the primary outcome. Difficult bag-mask ventilation is reported in 9.5% (n = 1,501) of 15,810 patients undergoing tracheal intubation with bag-mask ventilation during the study period. Difficult bag-mask ventilation is more commonly reported with increasing age, those with a primary respiratory diagnosis/indication for tracheal intubation, presence of difficult airway features, more experienced provider level, and tracheal intubations without use of neuromuscular blockade (p < 0.001). Specific tracheal intubation-associated events or oxygen desaturation events occurred in 40.2% of patients with reported difficult bag-mask ventilation versus 19.8% in patients without perceived difficult bag-mask ventilation (p < 0.001). The presence of difficult bag-mask ventilation is independently associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome: odds ratio, 2.28 (95% CI, 2.03-2.57; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Difficult bag-mask ventilation is reported in approximately one in 10 PICU patients undergoing tracheal intubation. Given its association with adverse procedure-related events and oxygen desaturation, future study is warranted to improve preprocedural planning and real-time management strategies.

13.
Respir Care ; 65(10): 1534-1540, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation by respiratory therapists (RTs) is a well-established practice that has been described primarily in adult and neonatal patients. However, minimal data exist regarding RTs' intubation performance in pediatric ICUs. The purpose of this study was to describe the current landscape of intubations performed by RTs in pediatric ICUs. METHODS: A multicenter quality improvement database, the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) was queried from 2015 to 2018. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on subject demographics, indication for intubation, difficult airway history and feature presence, provider discipline, medications, and device. Intubation outcomes included first-attempt and overall success rates, adverse events, and oxygen desaturation (ie, [Formula: see text] < 80%). Overall intubation success was defined as intubation achieved in ≤ 2 attempts. RESULTS: There were 12,056 initial intubation encounters from 46 ICUs, with 109 (0.9%) first attempts performed by RTs. Nine (20%) ICUs reported at least one intubation encounter by RTs. The number of intubations performed by RTs at individual centers ranged from 1 to 46 (RT participation rate: 0.3% to 19.6%). RTs utilized video laryngoscopy more often than other providers (53.2% for RTs vs 28.1% for others, P < .001). RTs' first attempt success (RT 60.6% vs other 69.2%, P = .051), overall success (RT 76.2 % vs other 82.4%, P = .09), and oxygen desaturation [Formula: see text] < 80% (RT 16.5% vs other 16.9%, P = .91) were similar to other providers. Adverse events were more commonly reported in intubations by RTs versus by other providers (22.9% vs 13.8%, P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: RTs infrequently intubate in pediatric ICUs, with success rates similar to other providers but higher adverse event rates. RTs were more likely to use video laryngoscopy than other providers. RTs' intubation participation, success, and adverse event rates varied greatly across pediatric ICUs.

14.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(9): e672-e678, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diaphragm atrophy is evident during invasive ventilation for pediatric acute respiratory failure, but with unknown significance. We hypothesized that diaphragm atrophy in pediatric acute respiratory failure is associated with prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation following extubation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Single-center academic PICU. PATIENTS: Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. INTERVENTIONS: Diaphragm ultrasound was performed within 36 hours after intubation and repeated within 48 hours preceding extubation. Rapid shallow breathing index at 15 and 30 minutes of a spontaneous breathing trial and negative inspiratory force were collected in a subset of patients concurrently with the ultrasound measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration was measured to assess for diaphragm atrophy during mechanical ventilation. Percentage change in diaphragm thickness at end-expiration was defined as baseline diaphragm thickness at end-expiration minus final, preextubation diaphragm thickness at end-expiration divided by baseline diaphragm thickness at end-expiration. The primary outcome measure was duration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation following extubation with prolonged use defined as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use for greater than 24 hours postextubation. Among 56 children, 47 (median age, 15.5 mo; interquartile range, 6-53 mo) had diaphragm thickness at end-expiration measured within 48 hours prior to extubation. Fourteen (30%) had prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use with median duration 110 hours (interquartile range, 52-130 hr). The median percentage change of diaphragm thickness at end-expiration from baseline among those with and without prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use was -20% (interquartile range, -32% to -10%) versus -7% (interquartile range, -21% to 0%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragm atrophy is associated with prolonged postextubation noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children with acute respiratory failure. Serial bedside diaphragm ultrasound may identify children at risk for prolonged noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use after extubation.

15.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(8): e485-e490, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has required that hospitals rapidly adapt workflows and processes to limit disease spread and optimize the care of critically ill children. DESIGN AND SETTING: As part of our institution's coronavirus disease 2019 critical care workflow design process, we developed and conducted a number of simulation exercises, increasing in complexity, progressing to intubation wearing personal protective equipment, and culminating in activation of our difficult airway team for an airway emergency. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: In situ simulations were used to identify and rework potential failure points to generate guidance for optimal airway management in coronavirus disease 2019 suspected or positive children. Subsequent to this high-realism difficult airway simulation was a real-life difficult airway event in a patient suspected of coronavirus disease 2019 less than 12 hours later, validating potential failure points and effectiveness of rapidly generated guidance. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A number of potential workflow challenges were identified during tabletop and physical in situ manikin-based simulations. Experienced clinicians served as participants, debriefed, and provided feedback that was incorporated into local site clinical pathways, job aids, and suggested practices. Clinical management of an actual suspected coronavirus disease 2019 patient with difficult airway demonstrated very similar success and anticipated failure points. Following debriefing and assembly of a success/failure grid, a coronavirus disease 2019 airway bundle template was created using these simulations and clinical experiences for others to adapt to their sites. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of tabletop planning, in situ simulations, and debriefing of real coronavirus disease 2019 cases can enhance planning, training, job aids, and feasible policies/procedures that address human factors, team communication, equipment choice, and patient/provider safety in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic era.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
16.
Crit Care Med ; 48(7): 1026-1033, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of immunocompromised diagnoses among children with severe sepsis and septic shock, and to determine the association between immunocompromised diagnoses and clinical outcomes after adjustment for demographics and illness severity. DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Eighty-three centers in the Virtual Pediatric Systems database. PATIENTS: Children with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to a participating PICU between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Across 83 centers, we identified 10,768 PICU admissions with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code for severe sepsis or septic shock; 3,021 of these patients (28%) had an immunocompromised diagnosis. To evaluate variation across centers and determine factors associated with PICU mortality, we used mixed-effect logistic regression models. Among patients without hematopoietic cell transplant, congenital immunodeficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.24-2.92), multiple prior malignancies (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.15-2.99), and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.91-4.98) were associated with an increased odds of PICU mortality. Among patients with prior hematopoietic cell transplant, liquid malignancy (adjusted odds ratio, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.09-4.74), congenital immunodeficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 6.94; 95% CI, 3.84-12.53), multiple prior malignancies (adjusted odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80-6.95), and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.36-5.71) were associated with an increased odds of PICU mortality. PICU mortality varied significantly by center, and a higher mean number of sepsis patients per month in a center was associated with lower PICU mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.98). PICU resource utilization varied by immunocompromised diagnosis and history of hematopoietic cell transplant, and among survivors immunocompromised patients have shorter median PICU length of stay compared with patients without immunocompromised diagnoses (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromised diagnoses are present in 28% of children with severe sepsis or septic shock. Multiple prior malignancies, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, congenital immunodeficiency, and hematopoietic cell transplant are independently associated with an increased odds of PICU mortality in children with severe sepsis or septic shock. Significant variation exists in PICU mortality among centers despite adjustment for immunocompromised diagnoses, known risk factors for sepsis-related mortality, and center-level sepsis volume.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e489-e497, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tracheal intubation in critically ill children with shock poses a risk of hemodynamic compromise. Ketamine has been considered the drug of choice for induction in these patients, but limited data exist. We investigated whether the administration of ketamine for tracheal intubation in critically ill children with or without shock was associated with fewer adverse hemodynamic events compared with other induction agents. We also investigated if there was a dose dependence for any association between ketamine use and adverse hemodynamic events. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis using prospectively collected observational data from the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children database from 2013 to 2017. SETTING: Forty international PICUs participating in the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children. PATIENTS: Critically ill children 0-17 years old who underwent tracheal intubation in a PICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The association between ketamine exposure as an induction agent and the occurrence of adverse hemodynamic events during tracheal intubation including dysrhythmia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest was evaluated. We used multivariable logistic regression to account for patient, provider, and practice factors with robust SEs to account for clustering by sites. Of 10,750 tracheal intubations, 32.0% (n = 3,436) included ketamine as an induction agent. The most common diagnoses associated with ketamine use were sepsis and/or shock (49.7%). After adjusting for potential confounders and sites, ketamine use was associated with fewer hemodynamic tracheal intubation associated adverse events compared with other agents (adjusted odds ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.95). The interaction term between ketamine use and indication for shock was not significant (p = 0.11), indicating ketamine effect to prevent hemodynamic adverse events is consistent in children with or without shock. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine use for tracheal intubation is associated with fewer hemodynamic tracheal intubation-associated adverse events.

19.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(Suppl 1): 10-67, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop evidence-based recommendations for clinicians caring for children (including infants, school-aged children, and adolescents) with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. DESIGN: A panel of 49 international experts, representing 12 international organizations, as well as three methodologists and three public members was convened. Panel members assembled at key international meetings (for those panel members attending the conference), and a stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in November 2018. A formal conflict-of-interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among the chairs, co-chairs, methodologists, and group heads, as well as within subgroups, served as an integral part of the guideline development process. METHODS: The panel consisted of six subgroups: recognition and management of infection, hemodynamics and resuscitation, ventilation, endocrine and metabolic therapies, adjunctive therapies, and research priorities. We conducted a systematic review for each Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcomes question to identify the best available evidence, statistically summarized the evidence, and then assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. We used the evidence-to-decision framework to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or as a best practice statement. In addition, "in our practice" statements were included when evidence was inconclusive to issue a recommendation, but the panel felt that some guidance based on practice patterns may be appropriate. RESULTS: The panel provided 77 statements on the management and resuscitation of children with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. Overall, six were strong recommendations, 49 were weak recommendations, and nine were best-practice statements. For 13 questions, no recommendations could be made; but, for 10 of these, "in our practice" statements were provided. In addition, 52 research priorities were identified. CONCLUSIONS: A large cohort of international experts was able to achieve consensus regarding many recommendations for the best care of children with sepsis, acknowledging that most aspects of care had relatively low quality of evidence resulting in the frequent issuance of weak recommendations. Despite this challenge, these recommendations regarding the management of children with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction provide a foundation for consistent care to improve outcomes and inform future research.

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