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1.
Resuscitation ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients have been reported to be less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders compared with male patients in prehospital settings. However, no clinical studies have investigated gender disparities in the application of public-access automated external defibrillator (AED) pads among OHCA patients in public locations. METHODS: OHCA data from 2011 to 2018 were obtained from the OHCA registry in Osaka City, Japan and OHCAs that occurred in public locations were included. Gender differences in receiving public-access AED pad application by bystanders were assessed according to the age of the OHCA patient (<15, 15-49, 50-74, and ≥75 years) after controlling confounders. RESULTS: The analysis included 4358 OHCA patients (3313 male and 1045 female patients). The multivariable logistic regression analyses found no significant gender differences in the likelihood of public-access AED pad application among patients aged<15 years (5.3% in male patients vs 6.3% in female patients; adjusted OR=1.00, p=1.000), 50-74 years (16.8% vs 12.7%; adjusted OR=0.96, p=0.796), and ≥75 years (12.3% vs 14.8%; adjusted OR=1.45, p=0.098). In contrast, among patients aged 15-49 years, female patients were significantly less likely to receive public-access AED pad application compared with male patients (12.1% vs 5.2%; adjusted OR=0.54, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: In this population, female OHCA patients of reproductive age (15-49 years) were less likely to receive public-access AED pad application compared with male patients of the same age group.

2.
Circ J ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although schools are key places that conduct cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and public-access defibrillation (PAD) programs, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in educational institutions is poorly understood. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of such OHCAs.Methods and Results:Data for OHCAs of any cause occurring in educational institutions between 2013 and 2015 were extracted from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. Patient characteristics and outcomes were documented. Subjects were divided into 6 age groups (0-1, 2-5, 6-11, 12-14, 15-17, and ≥18 years). Among the 783 eligible OHCA patients, most received bystander CPR regardless of age, ranging from 73.9% in those aged ≥18 years to 90.0% in those aged 2-5 years. However, the proportion receiving PAD differed by age group, ranging from 2.9% in those aged 0-1 years to 66.7% in those aged 12-14 years. The proportion of patients with 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcome differed significantly by age group, being extremely low among patients aged 0-1 years (zero for OHCA of cardiac origin), but high among patients aged 6-11, 12-14, and 15-17 years (69.2%, 77.5%, and 70.0%, respectively) for OHCA of cardiac origin. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of OHCA occurring in educational institutions, where PAD is available, differed significantly by age.

3.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 46-53, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956145

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), dispatcher assistance (DA), and location of arrest on survival and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).From a nationwide population-based registry of OHCA patients in Japan, we enrolled adult patients with bystander-witnessed OHCA of medical origin between 2013 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was a neurologically favorable outcome, defined by cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bystander CPR and DA by location of arrest. A total of 104,621 cases were included (15,984 bystander CPR without DA [15.3%], 40,087 bystander CPR with DA [38.3%], and 48,550 no bystander CPR [46.4%]). In public locations, both the bystander-CPR-with-DA group (22.9% [1,068/4,665]; adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-1.85) and the bystander-CPR-without-DA group (25.8% [918/3,557]; AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.65) had neurologically favorable outcomes compared with the no-bystander-CPR group (9.9% [610/6,133]). In residential locations, the AORs were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.22-1.70) in the bystander-CPR-without-DA group and 1.60 (95% CI, 1.45-1.77) in the bystander-CPR-with-DA group. However, in nursing homes, bystander CPR was not associated with improved outcomes of OHCA, regardless of the implementation of DA.Bystander CPR with or without DA had better outcomes after OHCA in residential and public locations but not in nursing homes.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Resuscitation ; 146: 188-202, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536776

RESUMO

AIM: To understand whether the science to date has focused on single or multiple chest compression components and identify the evidence related to chest compression components to determine the need for a full systematic review. METHODS: This review was undertaken by members of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and guided by a specific methodological framework and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed human studies that examined the effect of different chest compression depths or rates, or chest wall or leaning, on physiological or clinical outcomes. The databases searched were MEDLINE complete, Embase, and Cochrane. RESULTS: Twenty-two clinical studies were included in this review: five observational studies involving 879 patients examined both chest compression rate and depth; eight studies involving 14,285 patients examined chest compression rate only; seven studies involving 12001 patients examined chest compression depth only, and two studies involving 1848 patients examined chest wall recoil. No studies were identified that examined chest wall leaning. Three studies reported an inverse relationship between chest compression rate and depth. CONCLUSION: This scoping review did not identify sufficient new evidence that would justify conducting new systematic reviews or reconsideration of current resuscitation guidelines. This scoping review does highlight significant gaps in the research evidence related to chest compression components, namely a lack of high-level evidence, paucity of studies of in-hospital cardiac arrest, and failure to account for the possibility of interactions between chest compression components.

5.
J Cardiol ; 75(1): 97-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has become common in Japan. To provide a strategy for appropriate public-access AED deployment, we assessed public-access defibrillation (PAD) by laypersons and the outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) among adult patients by location of arrest. METHODS: From a nationwide, prospective, population-based registry of patients after OHCA in Japan, we enrolled adult patients with bystander-witnessed OHCA of medical origin in public locations between 2013 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was one-month favorable neurological outcome defined by cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Factors associated with favorable neurological outcome after ventricular fibrillation (VF) were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 20,970 adult bystander-witnessed OHCAs of medical origin occurred in public locations. Of those, the proportions of PAD by location were: 13.1% (757/5761) in public areas, 15.9% (333/2089) at workplaces, 26.0% (544/2095) in recreation/sports areas, 36.1% (112/310) in educational institutions, and 5.8% (241/4151) on streets/highways. In a multivariable analysis of VF arrests, both bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54-2.07] and PAD (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.05-2.66), and emergency medical service (EMS) response time (AOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87-0.90) were associated with improved outcomes. Earlier PAD initiated by bystanders before EMS arrival was also associated with better outcomes after OHCA. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, where public-access AEDs are well-disseminated, the PAD program worked effectively for adult OHCA of medical origin occurring in public locations. Notably, the proportions of PAD differed substantially according to specific public locations.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 140-146, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials or observational studies showed that the use of public-access automated external defibrillator (AED) was effective for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, it is unclear whether public-access AED use is effective for all patients with OHCA irrespective of first documented rhythm. We aimed to evaluate the effect of public-access AED use for OHCA patients considering first documented rhythm (shockable or non-shockable) in public locations. METHODS: From the Utstein-style registry in Osaka City, Japan, we obtained information on adult patients with OHCA of medical origin in public locations before emergency-medical-service personnel arrival between 2011 and 2015. Primary outcome was 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the public-access AED pad application and favorable neurological outcome after OHCA by using one-to-one propensity score matching analysis. RESULTS: Among 1743 eligible patients, a total of 336 (19.3%) patients received public-access AED pad application. The proportion of patients who survived 1-month with favorable neurological outcome was significantly higher in the pad application group than in the non-pad application group (29.8% vs. 9.7%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73-4.68, AOR after propensity score matching, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.29-4.68). In a subgroup analysis, the AORs of patients with shockable or non-shockable rhythms were 3.36 (95% CI, 1.78-6.35) and 2.38 (95% CI, 0.89-6.34), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Public-access AED pad application was associated with better outcome among patients with OHCA of medical origin in public locations irrespective of first documented rhythm.

7.
J Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association between survival and bystandercardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with or without dispatcher instructions (DI) considering the time from emergency call receipt by the dispatch center to emergency medical services (EMS) personnel's contact with the patient (i.e. time to EMS arrival). METHODS: This prospective study conducted in Osaka City, Japan, from 2009 to 2015 included patients with medical cause-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were ≥18 years old. The primary outcome was one-month favorable neurological survival. Using multiple logistic regression models, the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of independent and DI-dependent CPR for the primary outcome were compared with no CPR. Adjustments were made for patients' age, sex, activities of daily living before the cardiac arrest, year of cardiac arrest, location, presence or absence of witnesses, etiology of cardiac arrest, and the time from EMS contact with the patient to patient's arrival at the hospital. The effective estimated "time to EMS arrival" was also calculated. RESULTS: For analyses 10,925 individuals were eligible. Independent CPR had a significantly higher one-month favorable neurological survival than no CPR whereas there was no significant difference between DI-dependent CPR and no CPR (AOR, 1.90 [1.47-2.46] and 1.16 [0.91-1.47], respectively). The estimated "time to EMS arrival" for a one-month favorable neurological survival after independent CPR was ≤13min. CONCLUSIONS: Bystander CPR that did not need DI was associated with significantly higher one-month favorable neurological survival than no CPR, with an effective estimated "time to EMS arrival" of ≤13min.

8.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 79, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the associations between the duration of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services (EMS) and outcomes among paediatric patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). We investigated these associations and the optimal prehospital EMS CPR duration by the location of arrests. METHODS: We included paediatric patients aged 0-17 years with OHCAs before EMS arrival who were transported to medical institutions after resuscitation by bystanders or EMS personnel. We excluded paediatric OHCA patients for whom CPR was not performed, who had cardiac arrest after EMS arrival, whose EMS CPR duration were < 0 min or ≥120 min and who had cardiac arrest in healthcare facilities. Prehospital EMS CPR duration was defined as the time from CPR initiation by EMS personnel to the time of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation or to the time of hospital arrival. The primary outcome was 1-month survival with a favourable neurological outcome (cerebral performance category scale 1 or 2). Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U tests for numerical variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to assess the association between prehospital EMS CPR duration and a favourable neurological outcome, and crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with a favourable neurological outcome was lower in residential locations than in public locations (2.3% [66/2865] vs 10.8% [113/1048]; P < .001). In both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses, the proportion of patients with a favourable neurological outcome decreased as prehospital EMS CPR duration increased, regardless of the location of arrests (P for trend <.001). However, some patients achieved a favourable neurological outcome after a prolonged prehospital EMS CPR duration (> 30 min) in both groups (1.4% [6/417] in residential locations and 0.6% [1/170] in public locations). CONCLUSIONS: A longer prehospital EMS CPR duration is independently associated with a lower proportion of patients with a favourable neurological outcome. The association between prehospital EMS CPR duration and neurological outcome differed significantly by location of arrests.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Circ J ; 83(8): 1682-1688, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the dissemination of public-access defibrillation (PAD) at the population level is associated with an increase in neurologically favorable outcomes among patients experiencing ventricular fibrillation (VF) in public vs. residential locations in Japan.Methods and Results:We enrolled adult patients with bystander-witnessed VF between 2013 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was 1-month neurologically favorable outcome defined by cerebral performance category 1 or 2. The number of survivors with neurologically favorable outcome attributed to PAD after VF arrest was estimated by location of arrest. A total of 16,252 adult patients with bystander-witnessed VF arrest were analyzed. In public locations, 29.3% (2,334/7,973) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients received PAD, whereas 1.1% (89/8,279) of OHCA patients received PAD in residential locations. OHCA patients with PAD had significantly better neurological outcomes compared with those without PAD in public locations (51.8% vs. 25.5%, P<0.001), whereas there were no significant differences in neurologically favorable outcome between patients with or without PAD in residential locations (22.5% vs. 18.6%, P=0.357). The total number of patients with neurologically favorable outcomes attributed to PAD was estimated at 615 in public locations, but only 3 in residential locations. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, when compared with residential locations, PAD works more successfully in public locations for adults with bystander-witnessed VF arrest.

10.
Resuscitation ; 141: 63-68, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training is recommended in schools, there are few attempts to train all students at universities and no reports showing actual resuscitation actions at emergency settings after the training. We surveyed how many students encountered a collapsed person, whether they performed any resuscitation actions, and any reasons why they could not do any resuscitation actions. METHODS: We have provided chest compression-only CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use training for 3000 new university students every April since 2015 and followed up on their subsequent emergency actions to collapsed persons in the real world. We carried out a questionnaire survey for 2nd through 4th-year students during the annual student health checkup period in 2018. RESULTS: A total of 7595 students underwent the annual health checkup and 5549 of them (73.1%) responded to the survey. The rates of encountering collapsed persons and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were 2.5 and 1.1 per 100 person-years, respectively. Of the 264 students who encountered a collapsed person, 82 (53.6%) who encountered non-OHCA collapsed persons and 54 (48.6%) who encountered OHCA persons performed at least one resuscitation action including either chest compression, AED use, or any other various resuscitation actions. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of encountering OHCA patients was 1.1 per 100 person-years and half of them who encountered a collapsed person performed at least one resuscitation action. Hands-on mass training would encourage university students to perform any resuscitation actions on the emergency scene.

11.
Resuscitation ; 140: 150-158, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to assess the characteristics such as public-access defibrillation (PAD) by laypersons and the outcomes after pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location in the PAD era. METHODS: From a nationwide, prospective, population-based registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Japan, we enrolled consecutive pediatric patients aged ≤17 years before emergency medical service (EMS) arrival between 2013 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was 1-month survival, with favorable neurologic outcome defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Factors associated with favorable neurologic outcome were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 3991 eligible pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, the proportion of PAD was 0.2% (5/2888) at residence, 1.6% (2/125) in public areas, 0.9% (3/321) on streets/highways, 21.6% (11/51) at recreation/sports event areas, 46.1% (82/178) at education institutions, and 1.2% (5/428) in others. In the multivariable analysis, arrest witnessed by family members (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.22-8.58) and nonfamily members (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.26-4.77), first documented ventricular fibrillation (AOR, 12.29; 95% CI, 7.08-21.35), PAD (AOR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.23-5.62), and earlier EMS response time (AOR for 1-min increment, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94) were associated with improving outcome. As for locations, recreation/sports event areas (AOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.17-10.07) and education institutions (AOR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.39-6.63) were also associated with favorable neurologic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, where public-access automated external defibrillators are well disseminated, characteristics such as PAD and outcomes for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest before EMS arrival differed substantially by location.

12.
Resuscitation ; 140: 93-97, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is recommended globally that shocks by automated external defibrillators (AEDs) should be delivered immediately when a shockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurs. However, the actual time-interval from collapse to first shock by public-access AED and its impact on subsequent outcome has not been extensively investigated in real-world settings. METHODS: OHCA data from 2013 to 2015 were obtained from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. Bystander-witnessed OHCA patients with shockable rhythm who were shocked by public-access AED in public locations were included. The primary endpoint was 1-month survival with favourable neurological outcome, and the association between time-interval from collapse to first shock by public-access AED and subsequent outcome was assessed. RESULTS: During the study period, 28% (2282/8126) of bystander-witnessed OHCA cases with shockable rhythm were shocked by public-access AED in public locations. The proportion of OHCA patients who were shocked by public-access AED within 5 min from collapse was 58% (1323/2282). Among these patients, the proportion of 1-month survival with favourable neurological outcome was 62% (815/1317). The proportion significantly decreased with increased time from collapse to shock by public-access AED (48% for 6-10 min, 38% for 11-15 min, 30% for 16-20 min, and 7% for 21-25 min; p-for-trend <0.001), and no patient survived if shock delivery occurred more than 26 min after OHCA. CONCLUSION: In Japan, earlier shock by public-access AED led to better outcome after bystander-witnessed OHCA with shockable rhythm in public locations. However, the proportion of OHCA patients who received early shock was still low in public locations.

13.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 14: 100316, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049459

RESUMO

Background: In cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for emergency medical services (EMS) system, we encounter the situation that the actual cluster size and ratio of allocated patients between two groups eventually differ from those used for sample size estimation because of the nature of patient enrollment. In such trials, estimations of effect size of test intervention and intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) used for sample size estimation are also difficult. To improve efficient management on clinical cluster RCTs, we need to understand the effect of such inconsistencies of the design parameters on the type I error rate and statistical power of testing. Methods: We planned the trial which evaluated the 1-month favorable neurological survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with or without real-time feedback, debriefing, and retraining system by EMS personnel. Under the conditions that we possibly encountered in this trial, we examined the effect of inconsistencies in the actual ICC, cluster size, and ratio of patient allocation with those expected for sample size estimation on the type I error rate and power, using simulation studies. We further investigated the contribution of incorporating sample size re-estimation, based on the results of interim analysis of the trial, on the power increase. Results: This simulation study showed that the inconsistencies of cluster size and patient allocation ratio decreased the power by 5-10% in some cases. In addition, the power decreased by 3-4% when the actual ICC was larger than that expected for sample size estimation. Furthermore, the use of a generalized estimating equation method to evaluate the difference in the 1-month favorable neurological survival between two groups caused inflation of type I error rate. Finally, the increase in power by incorporating sample size re-estimation was limited. Conclusions: We identified remarkable effects of sample size estimation and re-estimations in a cluster RCT for real-time feedback, debriefing, and retraining system of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The estimation of design parameters for sample size estimation is generally challenging in cluster RCTs for EMS system; therefore, it is important to conduct a trial simulation that assesses the statistical performances under sample sizes based on the various expected values of the design parameters before beginning the trial.

14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(4): 577-587, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether sex-based disparities occur by location of arrest in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims receiving bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This secondary analysis of the All-Japan Utstein Registry included patients 18 years and older with OHCA of medical origin in public or residential locations, witnessed by bystanders, from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015. We assessed the likelihood of receiving BCPR based on sex differences and by arrest location. Sex-based disparities in receiving BCPR stratified by age and location were assessed via multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: During the study period, 373,359 OHCAs were registered, and 84,734 were eligible for analysis. Overall, 54.2% of women (3123 of 5766) and 57.0% of men (8672 of 15,213) received BCPR in public locations (P<.001), and 46.5% of women (11,263 of 24,216) and 44.0% of men (17,390 of 39,539) received BCPR in residential locations (P<.001). In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no significant difference between the sexes in terms of who received BCPR in public locations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-1.06), and women had a higher likelihood of receiving BCPR in residential locations (AOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13). In public locations, women aged 18 to 64 years were less likely to receive BCPR (AOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99), and when witnessed by a non-family member, women were less likely to receive BCPR regardless of age group. CONCLUSION: The reasons for this sex-based disparity should be better understood to facilitate public health interventions.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ ; 364: l430, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine survival associated with advanced airway management (AAM) compared with no AAM for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Cohort study between January 2014 and December 2016. SETTING: Nationwide, population based registry in Japan (All-Japan Utstein Registry). PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, separated into two sub-cohorts by their first documented electrocardiographic rhythm: shockable (ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia) and non-shockable (pulseless electrical activity or asystole). Patients who received AAM during cardiopulmonary resuscitation were sequentially matched with patients at risk of AAM within the same minute on the basis of time dependent propensity scores. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival at one month or at hospital discharge within one month. RESULTS: Of the 310 620 patients eligible, 8459 (41.2%) of 20 516 in the shockable cohort and 121 890 (42.0%) of 290 104 in the non-shockable cohort received AAM during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After time dependent propensity score sequential matching, 16 114 patients in the shockable cohort and 236 042 in the non-shockable cohort were matched at the same minute. In the shockable cohort, survival did not differ between patients with AAM and those with no AAM: 1546/8057 (19.2%) versus 1500/8057 (18.6%) (adjusted risk ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.07). In the non-shockable cohort, patients with AAM had better survival than those with no AAM: 2696/118 021 (2.3%) versus 2127/118 021 (1.8%) (adjusted risk ratio 1.27, 1.20 to 1.35). CONCLUSIONS: In the time dependent propensity score sequential matching for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in adults, AAM was not associated with survival among patients with shockable rhythm, whereas AAM was associated with better survival among patients with non-shockable rhythm.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/mortalidade , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Fibrilação Ventricular/etiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/mortalidade , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
16.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(3): 389-393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828071

RESUMO

Warfarin is a drug used for anticoagulation management, with a narrow therapeutic range and multiple drug-drug interactions. Adherence and proper use of concomitant medication are thus fundamental to the efficacy and safety of warfarin therapy. In 2012, we retrospectively analyzed data from three large-scale pharmacy chains in Japan. We included all adults (≥ 20 years old) with at least one record of warfarin dispensation. We examined patient demographic data, adherence as measured by medication possession ratio (MPR), and co-dispensation focusing on the number of concomitant dispensations and concurrent use of medications that increase bleeding risk. Thresholds of underadherence and overadherence were set at <0.9 and >1.1, considering the narrow therapeutic window. We reviewed 443007 warfarin dispensation records of 71340 individuals (median age, 73 years; 62% male). The MPR was 1.0 (interquartile range: 0.96-1.0), and underadherence and overadherence was found in 16.3 and 1.9% of individuals, respectively. The median number of co-dispensed drugs was eight at each pharmacy encounter, which did not differ by age group. Drugs associated with a high bleeding risk were dispensed in 40.0% of encounters and accounted for 16.4% of all co-dispensed drugs. In summary, we found optimal overall adherence, as assessed by MPR, among our Japanese study population, even when defining a strict cut-off value. However, polypharmacy was common in all age groups and medications with a high bleeding risk profile were often co-dispensed with warfarin. Future research addressing how these dispensation patterns affect patient outcome is warranted.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Adesão à Medicação , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias , Polimedicação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Resuscitation ; 138: 168-181, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival varies greatly between communities. The Utstein template was developed and promulgated to improve the comparability of OHCA outcome reports, but it has undergone limited empiric validation. We sought to assess how much of the variation in OHCA survival between emergency medical services (EMS) across the globe is explained by differences in the Utstein factors. We also assessed how accurately the Utstein factors predict OHCA survival. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patient-level prospectively collected data from 12 OHCA registries from 12 countries for the period 1 Jan 2006 through 31 Dec 2011. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the variation in survival between EMS agencies (n=232). RESULTS: Twelve registries contributed 86,759 cases. Patient arrest characteristics, EMS treatment and patient outcomes varied across registries. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 10% (range, 6% to 22%). Overall survival with Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2 (available for 8/12 registries) was 8% (range, 2% to 20%). The area-under-the-curve for the Utstein model was 0.85 (Wald CI: 0.85-0.85). The Utstein factors explained 51% of the EMS agency variation in OHCA survival. CONCLUSIONS: The Utstein factors explained 51% of the variation in survival to hospital discharge among multiple large geographically separate EMS agencies. This suggests that quality improvement and public health efforts should continue to target modifiable Utstein factors to improve OHCA survival. Further study is required to identify the reasons for the variation that is incompletely understood.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191011, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924892

RESUMO

Importance: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health issue, and in recent years, the number of OHCAs among the elderly population, aged 65 years or older, has significantly increased in developed countries. Objective: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients 65 years or older who experienced OHCA based on the location-public, residential, or nursing home-where it occurred in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study used information collected by the All-Japan Utstein Registry to examine data from 293 615 patients 65 years or older who experienced OHCA during the period from January 2013 to December 2015 in Japan. Data analyses were conducted from June to July 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 1-month survival with a favorable outcome that was defined as a cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2 (1, good cerebral performance; 2, moderate cerebral disability; 3, severe cerebral disability; 4, coma or vegetative state; and 5, death or brain death). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine favorable outcome by location. Results: A total of 233 511 patients with OHCA were included in the final analysis; 29 911 (12.8%) occurred in a public location, 157 087 (67.3%) at a residential location, and 46 513 (19.9%) at a nursing home. The median age of the patients was 83.0 years (interquartile range, 76.0-88.0 years), and the proportion of men was 53.1% (124 108 of 233 511). The proportion of favorable neurologic outcomes was 4.5% (1351 of 29 911) in public locations, 1.0% (1555 of 157 087) in residential locations, and 0.6% (301 of 46 513) in nursing homes. Patients with cardiac arrests in public locations had a significantly higher likelihood of achieving a favorable neurologic outcome than those in residential locations (adjusted odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.25-1.48), whereas those in nursing homes were less likely to achieve a favorable neurologic outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.54-0.72). However, this difference in outcomes among patients based on location decreased with age. Conclusions and Relevance: The outcomes of patients 65 years or older after OHCA differed by the location of the cardiac arrest. These outcomes may be improved by updating existing response measures across all locations.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Logradouros Públicos
19.
Resuscitation ; 135: 66-72, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is a key factor for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CPR performed by off-duty medical professionals vs. laypersons and one-month survival with favorable neurological outcome after OHCA. METHODS: Using a population-based database of OHCA patients in Osaka City, Japan, from 2013 through 2015, we enrolled adult OHCA patients with resuscitation attempts performed by bystanders before the arrival of emergency-medical-service personnel. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between CPR performed by off-duty medical professionals vs. laypersons and the OHCA outcome after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The primary outcome measure was one-month survival with favorable neurological outcome, defined as cerebral performance category of 1 or 2. RESULTS: A total of 2326 subjects were eligible for our study. Among these, 365 (15.7%) patients received CPR by off-duty medical professionals and 1,961 (84.3%) received CPR by laypersons. In the multivariable analysis, there was no difference in favorable neurological outcome between off-duty medical professionals (6.3% [23/365]) and laypersons (5.1% [100/1,961]) among eligible patients (adjusted odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval [0.37-2.06]). This finding was also confirmed in propensity score-matched patients. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan where the CPR training or bystander CPR has been widely disseminating, CPR by laypersons had similar effects compared to that by off-duty medical professionals. As this study could not assess the quality of bystander CPR, further studies are essential to verify the effects of the bystander CPR type on OHCA patients.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(1): e009436, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612478

RESUMO

Background Little is known about whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( CPR ) training can increase bystander CPR in the community or the appropriate target number of CPR trainings. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate community-wide aggressive dissemination of CPR training and evaluate temporal trends in bystander CPR . Methods and Results We provided CPR training (45-minute chest compression-only CPR plus automated external defibrillator use training or the conventional CPR training), targeting 16% of residents. All emergency medical service-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of medical origin were included. Data on patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and bystander CPR quality were prospectively collected from September 2010 to December 2015. The primary outcome was the proportion of high-quality bystander CPR . During the study period, 57 173 residents (14.7%) completed the chest compression-only CPR training and 32 423 (8.3%) completed conventional CPR training. The proportion of bystander CPR performed did not change (from 43.3% in 2010 to 42.0% in 2015; P for trend=0.915), but the proportion of high-quality bystander CPR delivery increased from 11.7% in 2010 to 20.7% in 2015 ( P for trend=0.015). The 1-year increment was associated with high-quality bystander CPR (adjusted odds ratio, 1.461; 95% CI, 1.055-2.024). Bystanders who previously experienced CPR training were 3.432 times (95% CI, 1.170-10.071) more likely to perform high-quality CPR than those who did not. Conclusions We trained 23.0% of the residents in the medium-sized city of Osaka, Japan, and demonstrated that the proportion of high-quality CPR performed on the scene increased gradually, whereas that of bystander CPR delivered overall remained stable.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Desfibriladores , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Massagem Cardíaca/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Pressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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