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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5059, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429413

RESUMO

With the current interest in cultured meat, mammalian cell-based meat has mostly been unstructured. There is thus still a high demand for artificial steak-like meat. We demonstrate in vitro construction of engineered steak-like tissue assembled of three types of bovine cell fibers (muscle, fat, and vessel). Because actual meat is an aligned assembly of the fibers connected to the tendon for the actions of contraction and relaxation, tendon-gel integrated bioprinting was developed to construct tendon-like gels. In this study, a total of 72 fibers comprising 42 muscles, 28 adipose tissues, and 2 blood capillaries were constructed by tendon-gel integrated bioprinting and manually assembled to fabricate steak-like meat with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 10 mm inspired by a meat cut. The developed tendon-gel integrated bioprinting here could be a promising technology for the fabrication of the desired types of steak-like cultured meats.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Géis , Carne , Tendões , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colágeno , Células Endoteliais , Músculos/citologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Células-Tronco , Tendões/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual
2.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 57(1): 10-16, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447967

RESUMO

In our previous study, we established a unique porcine macrophage cell line, immortalized porcine kidney-derived macrophages (IPKM). The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the characteristics of IPKM. CD163 is a scavenger receptor for the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex and is used as a phenotypic marker of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. The expression of CD163 is enhanced by dexamethasone (DEX), a potent steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in human and rodent macrophages in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects of DEX on CD163 expression in porcine IPKM. Treatment with DEX markedly enhanced CD163 expression in the IPKM. In addition, we found that SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), blocked the effects of DEX, suggesting that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the DEX-induced enhancement of CD163 expression. Since CD163 is considered to be a putative receptor for the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the effects of DEX on the infection of IPKM by PRRSV were evaluated. Although the IPKM were susceptible to infection by the Fostera PRRSV vaccine strain, DEX treatment did not affect the propagation of the virus in the IPKM. This suggests that the DEX-induced enhancement of CD163 expression alone is not sufficient to facilitate the infection of IPKM by PRRSV.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Rim/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Butadienos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/virologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Suínos
3.
J Virol Methods ; 288: 114026, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238183

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays restricted tropism to porcine alveolar macrophages in nature. Meanwhile, non-porcine cell lines derived from African green monkey kidney cell lines are permissive to PRRSV, resulting in their widespread use in PRRSV research. Furthermore, genetically modified cell lines expressing receptors targeted by PRRSV have been established. We previously established porcine immortalized kidney-derived macrophages (IPKMs) that maintained typical macrophage function. In the present study, we demonstrated the advantages of IPKMs for PRRSV research. IPKMs expressed receptors for PRRSV such as CD163 and CD169. The efficiency of virus isolation from field biological samples was higher for IPKMs than for MARC-145 cells. Five different clusters of North American type PRRSV were propagated in IPKMs. Four field strains continuously produced progeny viruses during 10 continuous passages. The efficiency of virus isolation from field biological samples and continuous progeny virus production in the sequential passages using IPKMs indicated that these cells are good vessels for PRRSV research.

6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 259: 59-67, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822890

RESUMO

Kudoa septempunctata, a myxosporean parasite of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), causes foodborne gastroenteritis after ingestion of contaminated raw flounder. Available methods to detect K. septempunctata require expensive equipment, well-trained personnel, and lengthy procedures. Here we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb 15G11) against K. septempunctata and used it to produce a prototype immunochromatographic assay (prototype Kudoa-ICA). Within 15min, the prototype Kudoa-ICA detected ≥1.0×105spores/mL in a spore suspension and ≥2.0×104spores/g of P. olivaceus muscle. The prototype Kudoa-ICA weakly cross-reacted with spores of K. lateolabracis and K. iwatai. cDNA sequence, expression, and western blot analyses revealed that MAb 15G11 detected an approximately 24-kDa protein encoded by a 573bp mRNA. The cDNA nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were not significantly similar to any sequence in the GeneBank database. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that MAb 15G11 reacted with the sporoplasmic cells and mainly with the capsulogenic cells of the K. septempunctata spore. Although the Kudoa-ICA was weakly cross-reactive with two other Kudoa species, it detected >1.0×106spores/g of K. septempunctata in P. olivaceus muscle, which is the criterion used to indicate a violation of the Food Hygiene Law of Japan. We conclude that MAb 15G11 may be suitable for use in an immunochromatographic assay for screening P. olivaceus muscle contaminated with K. septempunctata at food distribution sites such as food wholesalers, grocery stores, and restaurants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Linguado/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Myxozoa/imunologia , Esporos de Protozoários/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Japão , Músculos/parasitologia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Esporos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Food Prot ; 78(8): 1560-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219371

RESUMO

Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a frequent cause of foodborne infections, and methods for rapid and reliable detection of STEC are needed. A nucleic acid lateral flow assay (NALFA) plus PCR was evaluated for detecting STEC after enrichment. When cell suspensions of 45 STEC strains, 14 non-STEC strains, and 13 non-E. coli strains were tested with the NALFA plus PCR, all of the STEC strains yielded positive results, and all of the non-STEC and non-E. coli strains yielded negative results. The lower detection limit for the STEC strains ranged from 0.1 to 1 pg of genomic DNA (about 20 to 200 CFU) per test, and the NALFA plus PCR was able to detect Stx1- and Stx2-producing E. coli strains with similar sensitivities. The ability of the NALFA plus PCR to detect STEC in enrichment cultures of radish sprouts, tomato, raw ground beef, and beef liver inoculated with 10-fold serially diluted STEC cultures was comparable to that of a real-time PCR assay (at a level of 100 to 100,000 CFU/ml in enrichment culture). The bacterial inoculation test in raw ground beef revealed that the lower detection limit of the NALFA plus PCR was also comparable to that obtained with a real-time PCR assay that followed the U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines. Although further evaluation is required, these results suggest that the NALFA plus PCR is a specific and sensitive method for detecting STEC in a food manufacturing plant.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Primers do DNA/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Guias como Assunto , Limite de Detecção , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Raphanus/microbiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture
8.
J AOAC Int ; 98(2): 379-89, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25905744

RESUMO

NH Immunochromato O157 is an immunochromatographic test for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157:NM in food. It enables simple and rapid testing for the target organism after 18-24 h enrichment. In inclusivity and exclusivity testing, all 50 O157:H7 strains and 15 O157:NM strains tested positive, while all 33 exclusivity strains yielded negative results. Taken together, all 98 strains tested in inclusivity/exclusivity testing were identified correctly. NH Immunochromato O157 method was compared to U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, Chapter 5.08, reference method for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in 25 g of raw ground beef. The performance of both methods was revealed to be statistically equivalent. Autoclaved and non-autoclaved sample enrichments yielded the same results, showing sterilization is not mandatory for testing with NH Immunochromato O157. The results of the robustness study were not statistically different in all conditions, suggesting that NH Immunochromato produce reliable results under various conditions. However, the users are recommended to follow the instruction when applying sample to the test strip, because a smaller sample volume may produce invalid result.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Planta ; 232(1): 209-18, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20396902

RESUMO

Some flavonoids are considered as beneficial compounds because they exhibit anticancer or antioxidant activity. In higher plants, flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are derived from phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. A large number of phenylpropanoids are generated from p-coumaric acid, which is a derivative of the primary metabolite, phenylalanine. The first two steps in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway are catalyzed by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and the coupling of these two enzymes forms a rate-limiting step in the pathway. For the generation of p-coumaric acid, the conversion from phenylalanine to p-coumaric acid that is catalyzed by two enzymes can be theoretically performed by a single enzyme, tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) that catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to p-coumaric acid in certain bacteria. To modify the p-coumaric acid pathway in plants, we isolated a gene encoding TAL from a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and introduced the gene (RsTAL) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of metabolites revealed that the ectopic over-expression of RsTAL leads to higher accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic 5-day-old seedlings. On the other hand, 21-day-old seedlings of plants expressing RsTAL showed accumulation of higher amount of quercetin glycosides, sinapoyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives than control. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RsTAL gene in Arabidopsis enhanced the metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathway and resulted in increased accumulation of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.


Assuntos
Amônia-Liases/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/enzimologia , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia Líquida , Clonagem Molecular , Primers do DNA , Espectrometria de Massas , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Propionatos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genética
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 72(1): 35-41, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19915335

RESUMO

Infection of pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes a variety of disorders collectively referred to as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVADs). PCV2 isolates can be classified into two major types: PCV2a and PCV2b. In the present study, effects of vaccination on antibody titers in sera, PCV2 viremia, and shedding of PCV2 in feces were studied on Japanese commercial pig farms where vaccination of piglets against PCV2 was performed using commercially available vaccines. The effectiveness of vaccination against various PCV2 genotypes was also assessed. Among the 16 farms studied, 10 and 6 had been infected with PCV2a and PCV2b, respectively. PCV2a was further subdivided into PCV2a-1 and PCV2a-2. PCV2a-1 and PCV2a-2 prevailed on 6 and 4 farms, respectively, among the 10 farms infected with PCV2a. The PCV2 vaccines were effective in reducing PCV2 infection on commercial pig farms. Mean mortality rates were significantly decreased over 8 months after the start of the PCV2 vaccination program as compared to those before the start of the PCV2 vaccination program on farms infected with PCV2a-2 (20.8% vs. 12.1%) and PCV2b (26.5% vs. 13.7%). On the farms with PCV2a-1 infected pigs, there was no significant difference in the mean mortality rate before versus after the start of the vaccination program (14.7% vs. 14.1%). Mortality rate reduction with the PCV2 vaccination might depend on the genetic types of PCV2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/classificação , Genótipo , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viremia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 70(6): 603-6, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18628601

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been recognized as the causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and can be divided into two major genotypic groups. We developed a method of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCV2 open reading frame 2 for easy discrimination between the two major groups. Genotyping of PCV2 isolates from 10 Japanese commercial pig farms was performed, and the analysis revealed that both PCV2 groups and at least five RFLP types of PCV2 are prevalent in Japan. On two farms, the genotypes of the PCV2 isolates in the spring of 2007 were different from those in the autumn of 2006. One genotype may have become dominant within only six months on these farms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Primers do DNA/genética , Genótipo , Japão/epidemiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sus scrofa
12.
FEBS J ; 275(13): 3494-502, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18513325

RESUMO

Differential screening by PCR-select subtraction was carried out for cDNAs from leaves of red and green perilla, two chemovarietal forms of Perilla frutescens regarding anthocyanin accumulation. One hundred and twenty cDNA fragments were selected as the clones preferentially expressed in anthocyanin-accumulating red perilla over the nonaccumulating green perilla. About half of them were the cDNAs encoding the proteins related presumably to phenylpropanoid-derived metabolism. The cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST), PfGST1, and chalcone isomerase (CHI), PfCHI1, were further characterized. The expression of PfGST1 in an Arabidopsis thaliana tt19 mutant lacking the GST-like gene involved in vacuole transport of anthocyanin rescued the lesion of anthocyanin accumulation in tt19, indicating a function of PfGST1 in vacuole sequestration of anthocyanin in perilla. The recombinant PfCHI1 could stereospecifically convert naringenin chalcone to (2S)-naringenin. PfGST1 and PfCHI1 were preferentially expressed in the leaves of red perilla, agreeing with the accumulation of anthocyanin and expression of other previously identified genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis. These results suggest that the genes of the whole anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway are regulated in a coordinated manner in perilla.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Perilla frutescens/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Plant J ; 50(4): 678-95, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17425720

RESUMO

Members of the BAHD family of plant acyl transferases are very versatile catalytically, and are thought to be able to evolve new substrate specificities rapidly. Acylation of anthocyanins occurs in many plant species and affects anthocyanin stability and light absorption in solution. The versatility of BAHD acyl transferases makes it difficult to identify genes encoding enzymes with defined substrate specificities on the basis of structural homology to genes of known catalytic function alone. Consequently, we have used a modification to standard functional genomics strategies, incorporating co-expression profiling with anthocyanin accumulation, to identify genes encoding three anthocyanin acyl transferases from Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that the activities of these enzymes influence the stability of anthocyanins at neutral pH, and some acylations also affect the anthocyanin absorption maxima. These properties make the BAHD acyl transferases suitable tools for engineering anthocyanins for an improved range of biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Evolução Molecular , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Genes de Plantas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
14.
Plant J ; 42(2): 218-35, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15807784

RESUMO

The integration of metabolomics and transcriptomics can provide precise information on gene-to-metabolite networks for identifying the function of unknown genes unless there has been a post-transcriptional modification. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing the PAP1 gene encoding an MYB transcription factor, for the identification of novel gene functions involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. For metabolome analysis, we performed flavonoid-targeted analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and non-targeted analysis by Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron mass spectrometry with an ultrahigh-resolution capacity. This combined analysis revealed the specific accumulation of cyanidin and quercetin derivatives, and identified eight novel anthocyanins from an array of putative 1800 metabolites in PAP1 over-expressing plants. The transcriptome analysis of 22,810 genes on a DNA microarray revealed the induction of 38 genes by ectopic PAP1 over-expression. In addition to well-known genes involved in anthocyanin production, several genes with unidentified functions or annotated with putative functions, encoding putative glycosyltransferase, acyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, sugar transporters and transcription factors, were induced by PAP1. Two putative glycosyltransferase genes (At5g17050 and At4g14090) induced by PAP1 expression were confirmed to encode flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase and anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase, respectively, from the enzymatic activity of their recombinant proteins in vitro and results of the analysis of anthocyanins in the respective T-DNA-inserted mutants. The functional genomics approach through the integration of metabolomics and transcriptomics presented here provides an innovative means of identifying novel gene functions involved in plant metabolism.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flavonóis/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genômica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima
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