Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 301
Filtrar
2.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475297

RESUMO

Importance: Although metabolic surgery (defined as procedures that influence metabolism by inducing weight loss and altering gastrointestinal physiology) significantly improves cardiometabolic risk factors, the effect on cardiovascular outcomes has been less well characterized. Objective: To investigate the relationship between metabolic surgery and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Of 287 438 adult patients with diabetes in the Cleveland Clinic Health System in the United States between 1998 and 2017, 2287 patients underwent metabolic surgery. In this retrospective cohort study, these patients were matched 1:5 to nonsurgical patients with diabetes and obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30), resulting in 11 435 control patients, with follow-up through December 2018. Exposures: Metabolic gastrointestinal surgical procedures vs usual care for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of extended MACE (composite of 6 outcomes), defined as first occurrence of all-cause mortality, coronary artery events, cerebrovascular events, heart failure, nephropathy, and atrial fibrillation. Secondary end points included 3-component MACE (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and mortality) and the 6 individual components of the primary end point. Results: Among the 13 722 study participants, the distribution of baseline covariates was balanced between the surgical group and the nonsurgical group, including female sex (65.5% vs 64.2%), median age (52.5 vs 54.8 years), BMI (45.1 vs 42.6), and glycated hemoglobin level (7.1% vs 7.1%). The overall median follow-up duration was 3.9 years (interquartile range, 1.9-6.1 years). At the end of the study period, 385 patients in the surgical group and 3243 patients in the nonsurgical group experienced a primary end point (cumulative incidence at 8-years, 30.8% [95% CI, 27.6%-34.0%] in the surgical group and 47.7% [95% CI, 46.1%-49.2%] in the nonsurgical group [P < .001]; absolute 8-year risk difference [ARD], 16.9% [95% CI, 13.1%-20.4%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.55-0.69]). All 7 prespecified secondary outcomes showed statistically significant differences in favor of metabolic surgery, including mortality. All-cause mortality occurred in 112 patients in the metabolic surgery group and 1111 patients in the nonsurgical group (cumulative incidence at 8 years, 10.0% [95% CI, 7.8%-12.2%] and 17.8% [95% CI, 16.6%-19.0%]; ARD, 7.8% [95% CI, 5.1%-10.2%]; adjusted HR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.48-0.72]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity, metabolic surgery, compared with nonsurgical management, was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident MACE. The findings from this observational study must be confirmed in randomized clinical trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03955952.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(7): 1049-1055, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395295

RESUMO

The prognosis associated with prolonged intraventricular conduction on electrocardiogram (ECG) remains uncertain. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes of narrow versus prolonged intraventricular conduction on ECG stratified by QRS morphology and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status. A post-hoc analysis was performed of the randomized-control PRECISION trial. Patients with centrally adjudicated, nonpaced baseline ECGs were included. QRS duration was classified narrow (≤100 ms) versus prolonged (>100 ms) with additional categorization into left (LBBB) or right (RBBB) bundle branch block or nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD). IVCD was subclassified if left ventricular conduction delay (LVCD) was present (L-IVCD) or absent (O-IVCD). The primary outcome was adjudicated all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Of 24,081 patients randomized, 22,067 (92%) were included with follow-up 34 ± 13 months. Study patients were 63 ± 9 years, 64% female, 75% Caucasian, 23% with established CVD. The prevalence of QRS prolongation was 5.6% (1,240): 760 right bundle branch block (3.4%), 313 LBBB (1.4%), and 161 IVCD (0.7%), 95 subclassified L-IVCD (0.4%). After adjustment, LBBB and L-IVCD were similarly associated with increased all-cause (LBBB: 2.3 [1.4 to 3.8], p = 0.001; L-IVCD: 4.0 [2.1 to 7.9], p <0.001) and CV (LBBB: 3.6 [2.0 to 6.5], p <0.001; L-IVCD 3.6 [1.3 to 9.7], p = 0.001) mortality. The presence of LVCD (LBBB or L-IVCD) was associated with all-cause (2.8 [1.8 to 4.2], p <0.001) and CV (3.6 [2.2 to 6.1], p <0.001) mortality exceeding the observed risks of coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, or diabetes. The LVCD hazard persisted across QRS durations (100 to 120 vs >120 ms) and CVD status. In conclusion, LVCD, whether LBBB or L-IVCD, was strongly associated with increased mortality in patients with and at-risk for CVD.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 40(32): 2700-2709, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049589

RESUMO

AIMS : Trimethyllysine (TML) serves as a nutrient precursor of the gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and is associated with incident cardiovascular (CV) events in stable subjects. We examined the relationship between plasma TML levels and incident CV events in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS : Plasma levels of TML were quantified in two independent cohorts using mass spectrometry, and its relationship with CV events was investigated. In a Cleveland Cohort (N = 530), comprised of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and suspected ACS, TML was associated with major adverse cardiac events (MACE, myocardial infarction, stroke, need for revascularization, or all-cause mortality) over both 30 days [3rd tertile (T3), adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.01; P < 0.05] and 6 months (T3, adjusted OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.15-3.32; P < 0.05) of follow-up independent of traditional CV risk factors and indices of renal function. Elevated TML levels were also associated with incident long-term (7-year) all-cause mortality [T3, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.52, 95% CI 1.50-4.24; P < 0.001], and MACE even amongst patients persistently negative for cardiac Troponin T at presentation (e.g. 30-day MACE, T3, adjusted OR 4.49, 95% CI 2.06-9.79; P < 0.001). Trimethyllysine in combination with TMAO showed additive significance for near- and long-term CV events, including patients with 'negative' high-sensitivity Troponin T levels. In a multicentre Swiss Cohort (N = 1683) comprised of ACS patients, similar associations between TML and incident 1-year adverse cardiac risks were observed (e.g. mortality, adjusted T3 HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.28-5.85; P < 0.05; and MACE, adjusted T3 HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.31; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION : Plasma TML levels, alone and together with TMAO, are associated with both near- and long-term CV events in patients with chest pain and ACS.

6.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(2): 171-177, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite optimal treatment, type II diabetes mellitus remains associated with an increased risk for future cardiovascular events. We sought to determine the association between baseline fasting plasma insulin levels and major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and high-risk vascular disease enrolled in the ACCELERATE (Assessment of Clinical Effects of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition with Evacetrapib in Patients at a High Risk for Vascular Outcomes) trial. METHODS: We included all patients with type II diabetes mellitus who had a central laboratory measured fasting plasma insulin level drawn at baseline as part of the study protocol. Hazard ratios were generated for the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina and coronary revascularization) with increasing quartile of baseline fasting plasma insulin level. We then performed a multivariable regression adjusting for significant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Among 12,092 patients in ACCELERATE, 2042 patients with type II diabetes mellitus had a baseline fasting plasma insulin level drawn. Median follow-up was 28 months. The study population had a mean age of 66.6 years, 79.2% male and 96.2% had established coronary artery disease. During follow-up, major adverse cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 238 patients (11.6%); of these events, 177 were coronary revascularization (8.7%). We observed a statistically significant relationship between rates of revascularization and rising quartile of baseline fasting plasma insulin level which was not noted for the other individual components of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus who underwent revascularization were noted to have significantly higher baseline fasting plasma insulin levels (27.7 vs 21.4 mU/L, p-value = 0.009) although baseline haemoglobin A1c (6.63% vs 6.55%), body mass index (31.5 vs 31.1 kg/m2) and medical therapy were otherwise similar to the group not undergoing revascularization. Following multivariable regression adjusting for significant characteristics including exposure to evacetrapib, the log of baseline fasting plasma insulin level was found to be an independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular outcomes (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.69, p-value = 0.007); this was driven by need for future revascularization (hazard ratio = 1.56, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-2.00, p-value = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a contemporary population of patients with type II diabetes mellitus and high-risk vascular disease on optimum medical therapy, baseline hyperinsulinaemia was an independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular outcomes and need of future coronary revascularization. These results suggest a pathophysiological link between hyperinsulinaemia and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease among diabetics.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/mortalidade , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(8): 2181-2182, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035258
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(5): 437-443, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969323

RESUMO

Importance: Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular events, but mechanisms and therapeutic implications underlying this association are not well understood. Objective: To examine the association of intraindividual BPV, coronary atheroma progression, and clinical outcomes using serial intravascular ultrasonography. Design, Setting, and Participants: Post hoc patient-level analysis of 7 randomized clinical trials conducted from 2004 to 2016 involving 3912 patients in multicenter, international, clinic-based primary and tertiary care centers. Adult patients with coronary artery disease who underwent serial intravascular ultrasonography in the setting of a range of medical therapies were included. Data were analyzed between November 2017 and March 2019. Exposures: Visit-to-visit BPV measured using intraindividual standard deviation over 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percent atheroma volume (PAV) progression and major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent revascularization for acute coronary syndrome, and hospitalization for unstable angina). Results: Of 3912 patients, the mean (SD) age was 58 (9) years, 1093 (28%) were women, and 3633 (93%) were white . Continuous change in PAV was significantly associated with systolic BPV (ß, .049; 95% CI, 0.021-0.078; P = .001), diastolic BPV (ß, .031; 95% CI, 0.002-0.059; P = .03), and pulse pressure variability (ß, .036; 95% CI, 0.006-0.067; P = .02), without a signal for differential effect greater than or less than a mean BP of 140/90 mm Hg. The PAV progression as a binary outcome was significantly associated with systolic BPV (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; P = .02) but not diastolic BPV (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.11; P = .30) or pulse pressure variability (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.10; P = .47). Survival curves revealed a significant stepwise association between cumulative major adverse cardiovascular events and increasing quartiles of systolic BPV (Kaplan-Meier estimates for quartiles 1-4: 6.1% vs 8.5% vs 10.1% vs 12.0%, respectively; log-rank P <.001). These distinct stepwise associations were not seen with diastolic BPV or pulse pressure variability. Conclusions and Relevance: Greater BPV, particularly systolic BPV, is significantly associated with coronary atheroma progression and adverse clinical outcomes. These data suggest maintaining stable blood pressure levels may be important to further improve outcomes in patients with coronary disease.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(4): 314-320, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840024

RESUMO

Importance: Higher baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The usefulness of serial hsCRP measurements for risk stratifying patients after ACS is not well characterized. Objective: To assess whether longitudinal increases in hsCRP measurements during the 16 weeks after ACS are independently associated with a greater risk of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE), all-cause death, and cardiovascular death. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of the double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical Vascular Inflammation Suppression to Treat Acute Coronary Syndromes for 16 Weeks (VISTA-16) trial conducted between June 1, 2010, and March 7, 2012 (study termination on March 9, 2012), which included 5145 patients from 362 academic and community hospitals in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India, and North America assigned to receive varespladib or placebo on a background of atorvastatin treatment beginning within 96 hours of presentation with an ACS. The present study evaluated data from patients with available baseline and longitudinal hsCRP levels measured at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 after randomization to treatment or placebo. Statistical analysis was performed from June 15, 2018, through September 15, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were MACE (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or unstable angina with documented ischemia requiring hospitalization), cardiovascular death, and all-cause death after adjustment for baseline clinical, treatment, and laboratory characteristics, including baseline hsCRP levels. Results: Among 4257 patients in this study, 3141 (73.8%) were men and the mean age was 60.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 53.5-67.8 years). The median 16-week low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 64.9 mg/dL (IQR, 50.3-82.3 mg/dL), and the median hsCRP level was 2.4 mg/L (IQR, 1.1-5.2 mg/L). On multivariable analysis, higher baseline hsCRP level (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63]; P = .001) and higher longitudinal hsCRP level (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]; P < .001) were independently associated with MACE. Similar significant and independent associations were shown between baseline and longitudinal hsCRP levels and cardiovascular death (baseline: HR, 1.61 per SD [95% CI, 1.07-2.41], P = .02; longitudinal: HR, 1.26 per SD [95% CI, 1.19-1.34], P < .001) and between baseline and longitudinal hsCRP levels and all-cause death (baseline: HR, 1.58 per SD [95% CI, 1.07-2.35], P = .02; longitudinal: HR, 1.25 per SD [95% CI, 1.18-1.32], P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Initial and subsequent increases in hsCRP levels during 16 weeks after ACS were associated with a greater risk of the combined MACE end point, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death despite established background therapies. Serial measurements of hsCRP during clinical follow-up after ACS may help to identify patients at higher risk for mortality and morbidity.

10.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(3): e006986, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866665

RESUMO

Background The value of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) is increasingly recognized in patient-centered care. Longitudinal data collection may be challenging and cost prohibitive. Automation of PRO collection may complement routine clinical follow-up, especially for procedures aiming to improve quality of life, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Methods We aimed to develop a fully automated platform to collect PRO and evaluate its first clinical application in a prospective cohort of AF ablation. The duration of follow-up and data availability were assessed with automated PRO and routine follow-up versus routine follow-up alone (primary outcome). Quality of life and healthcare utilization (secondary outcomes) by PRO were assessed. Results Between 2013 and 2016, 2175 patients were eligible to receive 10 903 PRO assessment invitations, and the automated platform sent all invitations as programmed. More follow-up assessments were obtained with automated PRO and routine follow-up compared with routine follow-up alone (12 859 versus 10 248; P<0.0001) which allowed longer duration of follow-up (378 versus 217 days, 74% increase; P<0.0001). By automated PRO, a large number of disease-specific variables were collected and showed improvement in quality of life (baseline median AF symptom severity score AFSSS of 12 [6-18] and ranged between 2 and 3 on subsequent assessments; P<0.0001). This improvement was also true for each of the AFSSS individual components ( P<0.0001). In PRO, there was a significant reduction in AF burden (such as frequency and duration of episodes; P<0.0001) and associated healthcare utilization (including emergency visits and hospitalizations; P<0.0001) after the ablation procedures. Conclusions A fully automated system for PRO collection enhanced clinical follow-up and allowed collection of disease-specific data when applied in a prospective cohort of AF ablation.

11.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(5): 533-543, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular outcomes remain uncertain. DESIGN: We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modifiers (niacin, fibrates and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors) on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-one randomized controlled trials (154,601 patients) with a follow-up of 6 months or more and a sample size of 100 or more patients were selected using MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL database (inception January 2018). RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol modifiers had no statistically significant effect on cardiovascular mortality in terms of relative risk (RR) (RR 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.00, P = 0.05, I2 = 13%) or absolute risk (risk difference -0.0001, 95% CI -0.0014, 0.0011, P = 0.84, I2 = 28%). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol modifiers reduced the RR of myocardial infarction (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93, P < 0.001, I2 = 37%). This significant effect was derived by the use of fibrates (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.87, P < 0.001, I2 = 22%) and meta-regression analysis showed that this benefit was consistent with an absolute reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol modifiers had no effect on stroke (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.93-1.09, P = 0.94, I2 = 25%) or all-cause mortality (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.08, P = 0.48, I2 = 49%). Meta-regression analyses failed to demonstrate a significant association of pharmacologically increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with key endpoints. In studies with background statin therapy, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modifiers had no statistically significant impact on cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke or all-cause mortality ( P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modifying treatments had no significant effect on cardiovascular mortality, stroke or all-cause mortality. The beneficial effect on myocardial infarction was lost when drugs were used with statin therapy.

12.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(2): 133-143, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706731

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes individuals are at high risk for macrovascular complications: myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Recent cardiovascular outcome trials have demonstrated that agents in two antidiabetic classes (SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists) reduce major adverse cardiovascular events. However, there is strong evidence that an older and now generically available medication, the thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, can retard the atherosclerotic process (PERISCOPE and Chicago) and reduce cardiovascular events in large randomized prospective cardiovascular outcome trials (IRIS and PROactive). Pioglitazone is a potent insulin sensitizer, preserves beta-cell function, causes durable reduction in HbA1c, corrects multiple components of metabolic syndrome and improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Adverse effects (weight gain, fluid retention, fractures) must be considered, but are diminished with lower doses and are arguably outweighed by these multiple benefits. With healthcare expenses attributable to diabetes increasing rapidly, this cost-effective drug requires reconsideration in the therapeutic armamentarium for the disease.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Medicamentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Resistência à Insulina , Pioglitazona/efeitos adversos , Pioglitazona/economia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur Heart J ; 40(18): 1408-1410, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597016
14.
Diabetes Care ; 41(12): 2603-2609, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) safety of fasiglifam, a first-in-man G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A phase 3 multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled two-arm trial was intended to randomize 5,000 participants with type 2 diabetes at high CV risk to fasiglifam or placebo. The primary objective of the trial was to rule out an upper noninferiority bound >1.3 for a one-sided 97.5% confidence limit of the hazard ratio (HR) for CV composite events during treatment with fasiglifam compared with placebo. The primary outcome was the time to first occurrence of any component of the major adverse CV event composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: The study enrolled 3,207 participants but was terminated because of liver safety concerns. Increased rates of liver enzyme elevation (AST/ALT ≥3-5 × upper limit of normal [ULN]) with fasiglifam were observed. The incidence of ALT or AST ≥3 × ULN with fasiglifam compared with placebo was 2.1% vs. 0.5%, P < 0.001, and the incidence for ≥10 × ULN was 0.31% vs. 0.06%, P < 0.001. A primary CV composite outcome occurred in 40 participants, 2.5% each in the fasiglifam and placebo arms at 12 months (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67, 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Development of fasiglifam was terminated due to concerns of drug-induced liver injury. Performance of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated CV outcomes trial supported the termination of the fasiglifam clinical program.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(17): 2012-2021, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incremental low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitor evolocumab regresses coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding evolocumab to statin therapy on coronary plaque composition. METHODS: A total of 968 statin-treated coronary artery disease patients underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasound imaging at baseline and following 76 weeks of treatment with placebo or evolocumab 420 mg monthly. Plaque composition changes were determined in 331 patients with evaluable radiofrequency analysis of the ultrasound backscatter signal. RESULTS: Compared with statin monotherapy, evolocumab further reduced LDL cholesterol (33.5 mg/dl vs. 89.9 mg/dl; p < 0.0001) and induced regression of percent atheroma volume (-1.2% vs. +0.17%; p < 0.0001) and total atheroma volume (-3.6 mm3 vs. -0.8 mm3; p = 0.04). No difference was observed between the evolocumab and placebo groups in changes in calcium (1.0 ± 0.3 mm3 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mm3; p = 0.49), fibrous (-3.0 ± 0.6 mm3 vs. -2.4 ± 0.6 mm3; p = 0.49), fibrofatty (-5.0 ± 1.0 mm3 vs. -3.0 ± 1.0 mm3; p = 0.49), and necrotic (-0.6 ± 0.5 mm3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.5 mm3; p = 0.49) volumes. An inverse correlation was observed between changes in LDL cholesterol and plaque calcification (r = -0.15; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of evolocumab to a statin did not produce differential changes in plaque composition compared with statin monotherapy. This suggests that evaluation of plaque morphology using virtual histology imaging may provide no incremental information about the plaque effects of evolocumab beyond measurement of plaque burden. (GLobal Assessment of Plaque reGression With a PCSK9 antibOdy as Measured by intraVascular Ultrasound [GLAGOV]; NCT01813422).

17.
Circ Res ; 123(9): 1036-1038, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355163
18.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 8(4): 405-413, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214855

RESUMO

Background: Information regarding the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women is limited. Sex-specific responses to atherosclerosis and coronary arterial remodelling in women versus men have been hypothesized, but limited study exists. Methods: Case-matched study of 174 women with suspected ischemia referred for coronary angiography: 87 with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (no luminal diameter stenosis >20% in any coronary artery) and 87 age and ethnicity matched women with obstructive CAD. Groups were compared with regard to atheroma burden and coronary arterial remodelling assessed by coronary artery intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results: IVUS revealed more extensive atheroma with obstructive CAD vs. those without obstructive CAD, with greater percent atheroma volume (PAV) (36.1%±9.8% vs. 25.4%±9.1%, P<0.0001), total atheroma volume (TAV) (140.8±58.7 vs. 98.8±46.9 mm3, P<0.0001) and percentage of images containing plaque (70.0%±30.5% vs. 35.7%±32.6%, P<0.0001). Adjusting for risk factors, PAV (35%±1% vs. 28%±1%, P=0.0008), TAV (131±7 vs. 115±7 mm3, P=0.110) and percentage of images containing plaque (66%±4% vs. 45%±5%, P=0.0008) remained greater with obstructive CAD. Obstructive CAD was associated with smaller lumen volumes (251.9±92.8 vs. 289.7±91.8 mm3, P=0.005), but surprisingly, the external elastic membrane (EEM) volume was very similar comparing the groups (392.7±128.1 vs. 388.6±113.7 mm3, P=0.910). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women referred to angiography for suspected ischemia, have differing patterns of coronary arterial response to injury with regard to accumulation of atherosclerosis and compensatory remodelling related to the presence and absence of obstructive CAD. Preservation and cultivation of compensatory arterial remodelling may be a novel CAD therapeutic target.

20.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(10): 1281-1288, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125052

RESUMO

It is uncertain whether omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in statin-treated patients. Epanova is a mix of omega-3 free fatty acids, not requiring co-ingestion with food, which can lower triglycerides by up to 31%. STRENGTH will examine whether Epanova 4 g daily reduces the rate of cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients with hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of HDL-C at high risk for developing cardiovascular events. STRENGTH is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients had a triglyceride level ≥ 180 to <500 mg/dL and HDL-C < 42 mg/dL (men) or < 47 mg/dL (women) in the presence of either (1) established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, (2) diabetes with one additional risk factor, or (3) were other high-risk primary prevention patients, based on age and risk factor assessment. Patients should be treated with a statin, for >4 weeks, and have LDL-C < 100 mg/dL, but were also eligible if LDL-C was ≥100 mg/dL while on maximum tolerated statin therapy. The study will extend from October 30, 2014 to October 30, 2019. 13 086 patients were randomized to Epanova 4 g or placebo daily in addition to standard medical therapy. The primary efficacy outcome is time to first event of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization or hospitalization for unstable angina. The trial will continue until 1600 patients reach the primary endpoint, with a median duration of therapy of 3 years. STRENGTH will determine whether Epanova 4 g daily will reduce cardiovascular events in statin-treated high-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C levels.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA