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Phys Rev Lett ; 124(11): 117002, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242679


Momentum transport is anomalous in chiral p+ip superfluids and superconductors in the presence of textures and superflow. Using the gradient expansion of the semiclassical approximation, we show how gauge and Galilean symmetries induce an emergent curved spacetime with torsion and curvature for the quasirelativistic low-energy Majorana-Weyl quasiparticles. We explicitly show the emergence of the spin connection and curvature, in addition to torsion, using the superfluid hydrodynamics. The background constitutes an emergent quasirelativistic Riemann-Cartan spacetime for the Weyl quasiparticles which satisfy the conservation laws associated with local Lorentz symmetry restricted to the plane of uniaxial anisotropy of the superfluid (or superconductor). Moreover, we show that the anomalous Galilean momentum conservation is a consequence of the gravitational Nieh-Yan (NY) chiral anomaly the Weyl fermions experience on the background geometry. Notably, the NY anomaly coefficient features a nonuniversal ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ, with canonical dimensions of momentum. Comparison of the anomaly equation and the hydrodynamic equations suggests that the value of the cutoff parameter Λ is determined by the normal state Fermi liquid and nonrelativistic uniaxial symmetry of the p-wave superfluid or superconductor.

Phys Rev E ; 95(2-1): 022704, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28297940


The paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking encompasses the breaking of the rotational symmetries O(3) of isotropic space to a discrete subgroup, i.e., a three-dimensional point group. The subgroups form a rich hierarchy and allow for many different phases of matter with orientational order. Such spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in nematic liquid crystals, and a highlight of such anisotropic liquids is the uniaxial and biaxial nematics. Generalizing the familiar uniaxial and biaxial nematics to phases characterized by an arbitrary point-group symmetry, referred to as generalized nematics, leads to a large hierarchy of phases and possible orientational phase transitions. We discuss how a particular class of nematic phase transitions related to axial point groups can be efficiently captured within a recently proposed gauge theoretical formulation of generalized nematics [K. Liu, J. Nissinen, R.-J. Slager, K. Wu, and J. Zaanen, Phys. Rev. X 6, 041025 (2016)2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041025]. These transitions can be introduced in the model by considering anisotropic couplings that do not break any additional symmetries. By and large this generalizes the well-known uniaxial-biaxial nematic phase transition to any arbitrary axial point group in three dimensions. We find in particular that the generalized axial transitions are distinguished by two types of phase diagrams with intermediate vestigial orientational phases and that the window of the vestigial phase is intimately related to the amount of symmetry of the defining point group due to inherently growing fluctuations of the order parameter. This might explain the stability of the observed uniaxial-biaxial phases as compared to the yet to be observed other possible forms of generalized nematic order with higher point-group symmetries.

Phys Rev E ; 94(2-1): 022701, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627370


The concept of symmetry breaking has been a propelling force in understanding phases of matter. While rotational-symmetry breaking is one of the most prevalent examples, the rich landscape of orientational orders breaking the rotational symmetries of isotropic space, i.e., O(3), to a three-dimensional point group remain largely unexplored, apart from simple examples such as ferromagnetic or uniaxial nematic ordering. Here we provide an explicit construction, utilizing a recently introduced gauge-theoretical framework, to address the three-dimensional point-group-symmetric orientational orders on a general footing. This unified approach allows us to enlist order parameter tensors for all three-dimensional point groups. By construction, these tensor order parameters are the minimal set of simplest tensors allowed by the symmetries that uniquely characterize the orientational order. We explicitly give these for the point groups {C_{n},D_{n},T,O,I}⊂SO(3) and {C_{nv},S_{2n},C_{nh},D_{nh},D_{nd},T_{h},T_{d},O_{h},I_{h}}⊂O(3) for n,2n∈{1,2,3,4,6,∞}. This central result may be perceived as a road map for identifying exotic orientational orders that may become more and more in reach in view of rapid experimental progress in, e.g., nanocolloidal systems and novel magnets.