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1.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(1): 75-79, Abr. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-884397

RESUMO

Avaliações econômicas em saúde são essenciais para a tomada de decisão de gestores, visto que as inovações no setor nem sempre podem ser incorporadas conforme as expectativas dos usuários e da indústria. Logo, a análise de impacto orçamentário (AIO), uma das principais ferramentas da avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS), permite aos gestores estimar o potencial número de indivíduos elegíveis para determinada tecnologia ao longo dos anos, prever quanto será necessário gastar para incorporar a tecnologia ou, eventualmente, se haverá economia nos cofres do pagador com a inclusão dela. Com a crescente publicação de artigos científicos sobre AIO no Brasil, surge a preocupação a respeito da qualidade metodológica desses estudos. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar recomendações-chave para a elaboração de uma AIO adequada e expor a utilidade prática da AIO para a tomada de decisão de gestores de saúde por meio da análise de quatro estudos publicados. O formato de apresentação de uma AIO possibilita rápido entendimento e possui atributos que permitem evidenciar o maior valor de produtos e serviços de saúde junto aos tomadores de decisão em saúde, contribuindo para as melhores escolhas do ponto de vista clínico e econômico, nos sistemas público e privado. Porém, cabe ressaltar que alguns estudos ainda carecem de evidências de mundo real ou dados epidemiológicos para as estimativas e trabalham de maneira insuficiente as ferramentas para a redução de incertezas paramétricas.


Health economics evaluations are essential for decision makers, since innovations can not always be incorporated according to expectations of users and industry. Therefore, the Budget Impact Analysis (BIA), one of the main tools in Health Technology Assessment (HTA), allows managers to estimate the potential number of individuals eligible for a given technology over the years, to predict how much it will be necessary to spend for incorporate the technology or, eventually, whether there will be savings in the payer's coffers with the inclusion of the same. With the growing publication of scientific articles on BIA in Brazil, there is concern about the methodological quality of these studies. The objective of this review is to present key recommendations to elaborate an adequate BIA, commenting on four published studies, aiming to expose the practical utility of BIA for health managers. The presentation format of the BIA provides a quick understanding and has attributes that allows evidence of the highest value of health products and services among health decision makers, contributing to the best clinical and economic choices in public and private health systems. However, it should be noted in some studies there is still a lack of real-world evidence or epidemiological data for the estimates and insufficient using of tools to reduce parametric uncertainties.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gestão em Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 32(9): e00067516, 2016 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759793

RESUMO

Budget Impact Analyses require a set of essential information on health technology innovation, including expected rates of adoption. There is an absence of studies investigating trends, magnitude of budgetary effects and determinants of diffusion rates for health technology innovations worldwide during the last decades. The present study proposes a pilot assessment on main determinants influencing diffusion rates of pharmaceutical innovations within the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). Data from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department (DATASUS) was gathered to establish the main determinants of diffusion rates of health technology innovations in Brazil, specifically referring to pharmaceutical innovations incorporated in the Brazilian Program for Specialized Pharmaceutical Services (CEAF) at SUS. Information was retrieved on DATASUS relating to patients who had used one of the medicines incorporated into CEAF at least three years prior to the beginning of the study (2015) for treatment of each health condition available. Thus, data from patients adopting 10 different medicines were analyzed in the study. Results from the zero-one inflated beta model showed a higher influence on diffusion rates of pharmaceutical innovations due to: number of pharmaceutical competitors for treatment of the same disease available at CEAF (negative); medicine used in combination with other medication (positive); and innovative medicine within the SUS (positive). Further research on diffusion rates of health technology innovations is required, including wider scope of diseases and medications, potential confusion factors and other variables that may influence rates of adoption in different health systems.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Difusão de Inovações , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica , Brasil , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 31(8): 172017 Apr, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26375653

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.


Assuntos
Orçamentos , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes/economia , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal/economia , Brasil , Cateterismo Cardíaco/economia , Comunicação Interatrial/economia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(8): 1756-1764, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-759488

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.


O objetivo foi analisar o impacto orçamentário da incorporação do oclusor septal percutâneo para o tratamento de defeitos do septo atrial do tipo ostium secundum, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde brasileiro. Os custos foram coletados por microcusteio com base nos registros das intervenções terapêuticas (cirurgia convencional ou implante percutâneo de oclusor septal) realizadas em um hospital público federal especializado em cardiologia de alta complexidade. A análise identificou que os custos associados ao procedimento percutâneo de oclusor septal foram inferiores aos relacionados com a cirurgia convencional, a análise de sensibilidade confirmou a redução dos custos em diversos cenários e mostrou que o impacto no orçamento foi significativo a partir de uma taxa de incorporação de 30% do oclusor septal percutâneo pelo sistema de saúde (redução dos gastos em torno de 1,5 milhão de dólares por ano). O estudo indica que a adoção do implante percutâneo do oclusor septal pode representar uma economia de aproximadamente 3,5 milhões de dólares para o sistema de saúde brasileiro.


El estudio consistió en analizar el impacto presupuestario de la implementación del oclusor septal percutáneo para el tratamiento de defectos del tabique auricular del ostium secundum, desde la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud. Los costes incluidos en el modelo por la técnica de micro-coste se obtuvieron de los registros de las intervenciones terapéuticas (cirurgía convencional u oclusor septal percutáneo) en un hospital público federal, especializado en cardiología de alta complejidad. El análisis reveló que los costos asociados con el oclusor septal percutáneo fueron más bajos que los asociados con la cirugía convencional, un análisis de sensibilidad confirmó la reducción de costos en diferentes escenarios y mostró que el impacto fue significativo desde una tasa del 30% de incorporación del oclusor septal percutáneo por el sistema de salud (reducción en el gasto de alrededor de 1.5 millones de dolares por año). El estudio indica que la adopción del implante percutáneo del oclusor septal puede representar un ahorro de aproximadamente 3,5 millones de dólares anuales al sistema de salud brasileño.


Assuntos
Humanos , Orçamentos , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes/economia , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal/economia , Brasil , Cateterismo Cardíaco/economia , Comunicação Interatrial/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 60(3): 222-30, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25004267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of hospitalizations attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications within the public healthcare system in Brazil (SUS) and the mean cost paid per hospitalization. METHODS: The official database from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) was consulted from 2008 to 2010. The proportion of hospitalizations attributable to DM was estimated using attributable risk methodology. The mean cost per hospitalization corresponds to direct medical costs in nursing and intensive care, from the perspective of the SUS. RESULTS: The proportion of hospitalizations attributable to DM accounted for 8.1% to 12.2% of total admissions in the period, varying according to use of maximum (self-reported with correction factor) or minimal (self-reported) DM prevalence. The hospitalization rate was 47 to 70.8 per 10.000 inhabitants per year. The mean cost per hospitalization varied from 1.302 Brazilian Reais (BRL) to 1,315 BRL. Assuming the maximum prevalence, hospitalizations were distributed as 10.3% as DM itself, 36.6% as chronic DM-associated complications and 53.1% as general medical conditions. Advancing age was accompanied by an increase in hospitalization rates and corresponding costs, and more pronounced in male patients. CONCLUSION: The results express the importance of DM in terms of the use of health care resources and demonstrate that studies of hospitalizations with DM as a primary diagnosis are not sufficient to assess the magnitude of the impact of this disease.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Complicações do Diabetes/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 60(3): 222-230, May-Jun/2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-713060

RESUMO

Objective: to estimate the number of hospitalizations attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications within the public healthcare system in Brazil (SUS) and the mean cost paid per hospitalization. Methods: the official database from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) was consulted from 2008 to 2010. The proportion of hospitalizations attributable to DM was estimated using attributable risk methodology. The mean cost per hospitalization corresponds to direct medical costs in nursing and intensive care, from the perspective of the SUS. Results: the proportion of hospitalizations attributable to DM accounted for 8.1% to 12.2% of total admissions in the period, varying according to use of maximum (self-reported with correction factor) or minimal (self-reported) DM prevalence. The hospitalization rate was 47 to 70.8 per 10.000 inhabitants per year. The mean cost per hospitalization varied from 1.302 Brazilian Reais (BRL) to 1,315 BRL. Assuming the maximum prevalence, hospitalizations were distributed as 10.3% as DM itself, 36.6% as chronic DM-associated complications and 53.1% as general medical conditions. Advancing age was accompanied by an increase in hospitalization rates and corresponding costs, and more pronounced in male patients. Conclusion: the results express the importance of DM in terms of the use of health care resources and demonstrate that studies of hospitalizations with DM as a primary diagnosis are not sufficient to assess the magnitude of the impact of this disease. .


Objetivo: estimar o número de hospitalizações atribuíveis ao diabete melito (DM) e suas complicações no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) brasileiro e avaliar o valor médio pago por hospitalização. Métodos: foram consultados bancos de dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS), no período de 2008 a 2010. As proporções de hospitalizações atribuíveis ao DM foram estimadas por meio da metodologia do risco atribuível. O custo médio por hospitalização correspondeu aos custos diretos médicos em enfermaria e tratamento intensivo, sob a perspectiva do SUS. Resultados: hospitalizações atribuíveis ao DM corresponderam a 8,1 a 12,2% do total de internações no período, variando de acordo com a utilização de prevalência máxima (autorreferida com fator de correção) ou mínima (autorreferida) para DM. A taxa de hospitalização foi de 47 a 70,8 por 10 mil habitantes por ano. O custo médio por hospitalização variou de R$ 1.302 a R$ 1.315. Assumindo-se a prevalência máxima, as hospitalizações se (*) Fractions attributable to chronic complications and general medical conditions calculated based on the self-reported prevalence from the VIGITEL survey (**) Fractions attributable to chronic complications and general medical conditions calculated based on the self-reported data expended to include the undiagnosed distribuíram em 10,3% como DM propriamente dito, 36,6% associadas às complicações crônicas do DM e 53,1% atribuídas a condições médicas gerais. O avanço da idade foi acompanhado pelo aumento nas taxas de hospitalizações e nos custos médios correspondentes, sendo mais acentuado nos pacientes do gênero ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Complicações do Diabetes/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Prevalência
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 58(3): 294-301, 2012 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22735220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare costs and clinical benefits of three additional therapies to metformin (MF) for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was built to estimate the cost-utility ratio (cost per quality-adjusted life years [QALY]) of saxagliptine as an additional therapy to MF when compared to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. A budget impact model (BIM) was built to simulate the economic impact of saxagliptine use in the context of the Brazilian private health system. RESULTS: The acquiring medication costs for the hypothetical patient group analyzed in a time frame of three years, were R$ 10,850,185, R$ 14,836,265 and R$ 14,679,099 for saxagliptine, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, respectively. Saxagliptine showed lower costs and greater effectiveness in both comparisons, with projected savings for the first three years of R$ 3,874 and R$ 3,996, respectively. The BIM estimated cumulative savings of R$ 417,958 with the repayment of saxagliptine in three years from the perspective of a health plan with 1,000,000 covered individuals. CONCLUSION: From the perspective of private paying source, the projection is that adding saxagliptine with MF save costs when compared with the addition of rosiglitazone or pioglitazone in patients with DM2 that have not reached the HbA1c goal with metformin monotherapy. The BIM of including saxagliptine in the reimbursement lists of health plans indicated significant savings on the three-year horizon.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dipeptídeos/economia , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pioglitazona , Setor Privado , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/economia
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(3): 294-301, May-June 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-639552

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Comparar custos e benefícios clínicos de três terapias adicionais à metformina (MF) para pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2). MÉTODOS: Um modelo de simulação de eventos discretos foi construído para estimar a relação custo-utilidade (custo por QALY) da saxagliptina como uma terapia adicional à MF comparada à rosiglitazona ou pioglitazona. Um modelo de impacto orçamentário (BIM - Budget Impact Model) foi construído para simular o impacto econômico da adoção de saxagliptina no contexto do Sistema Suplementar de Saúde brasileiro. RESULTADOS: O custo de aquisição da medicação para o grupo de pacientes hipotéticos analisados, para o horizonte temporal de três anos, foi de R$ 10.850.185,00, R$ 14.836.265,00 e R$ 14.679.099,00 para saxagliptina, pioglitazona e rosiglitazona, respectivamente. Saxagliptina exibiu menores custos e maior efetividade em ambas as comparações, com economias projetadas para os três primeiros anos de -R$ 3.874,00 e -R$ 3.996,00, respectivamente. O BIM estimou uma economia cumulativa de R$ 417.958,00 com o reembolso da saxagliptina em três anos a partir da perspectiva de uma operadora de plano de saúde com 1 milhão de vidas cobertas. CONCLUSÃO: Da perspectiva da fonte pagadora privada, a projeção é de que o acréscimo de saxagliptina à MF poupe custos quando comparado ao acréscimo de rosiglitazona ou pioglitazona em pacientes com DMT2 que não atingiram a meta de hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c) com metformina em monoterapia. O BIM, para a inclusão de saxagliptina nas listas de reembolso das operadoras de planos de saúde, indicou uma economia significativa para o horizonte de 3 anos.


OBJECTIVES: To compare costs and clinical benefits of three additional therapies to metformin (MF) for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was built to estimate the cost-utility ratio (cost per quality-adjusted life years [QALY]) of saxagliptine as an additional therapy to MF when compared to rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. A budget impact model (BIM) was built to simulate the economic impact of saxagliptine use in the context of the Brazilian private health system. RESULTS: The acquiring medication costs for the hypothetical patient group analyzed in a time frame of three years, were R$ 10,850,185, R$ 14,836,265 and R$ 14,679,099 for saxagliptine, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, respectively. Saxagliptine showed lower costs and greater effectiveness in both comparisons, with projected savings for the first three years of R$ 3,874 and R$ 3,996, respectively. The BIM estimated cumulative savings of R$ 417,958 with the repayment of saxagliptine in three years from the perspective of a health plan with 1,000,000 covered individuals. CONCLUSION: From the perspective of private paying source, the projection is that adding saxagliptine with MF save costs when compared with the addition of rosiglitazone or pioglitazone in patients with DM2 that have not reached the HbA1c goal with metformin monotherapy. The BIM of including saxagliptine in the reimbursement lists of health plans indicated significant savings on the three-year horizon.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , /economia , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dipeptídeos/economia , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/economia , Setor Privado , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/economia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD001964, 2012 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22258947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgeons disagree about the merits and risks of radical lymph node clearance during gastrectomy for cancer. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate survival and peri-operative mortality after limited or extended lymph node removal during gastrectomy for cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, LILACS, Central Medical Journal Japanese Database and the Cochrane register, references from relevant articles and conference proceedings. We contacted known workers in the field. For the updated review, the Cochrane Library, M EDLINE , E MBASE and LILACS were searched from 2001 to April 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies published after 1970 which reported 5 year survival or postoperative mortality rates, and clearly defined the node dissection performed, were considered. We excluded studies which overtly included patients receiving perioperative chemotherapy, and comparisons with clear systematic treatment allocation bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised comparisons and observational studies were considered separately. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three reviewers selected trials for inclusion. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Results of trials of similar design were pooled. Meta-analysis was performed separately for randomised and non-randomised comparisons. MAIN RESULTS: Two randomised and two non-randomised comparisons of limited (D1) versus extended (D2) node dissection and 11 cohort studies of either D1 or D2 resection were analysed. Meta-analysis of randomised trials did not reveal any survival benefit for extended lymph node dissection (Risk ratio = 0.95 (95% CI 0.83 - 1.09), but showed increased postoperative mortality (RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.45 - 3.45). Pre-specified subgroup analysis suggested a possible benefit in stage T3+ tumours (RR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.42-1.10). Non-randomised comparisons showed no significant survival benefit for extended dissection (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.83 -1.02), but decreased mortality (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.93). Subgroup analysis showed apparent benefit in UICC stage II and IIIa. Observational studies of D2 resection reported much better mortality and survival than those of D1 surgery, but the settings were strikingly different. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: D2 dissection carries increased mortality risks associated with spleen and pancreas resection, and probably with inexperience and low case volumes. Randomised studies show no evidence of overall survival benefit, but possible benefit in T3+ tumours. These results may be confounded by surgical learning curves and poor surgeon compliance. Non-randomised comparisons suggest a possible survival benefit for D2 in intermediate UICC stages. Observational studies show high 5 year survival and low operative mortality after D2 dissection in experienced units, and poor results after D1 dissection in non-specialist units. Further studies, with precautions to eliminate learning curve effects, contamination and non-compliance, are needed to evaluate D2 dissection in intermediate stage gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/mortalidade , Excisão de Linfonodo/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 47(4): 329-333, Oct.-Dec. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-570517

RESUMO

O advento de novas tecnologias na saúde causou impacto nos indicadores clínicos e econômicos. Os métodos de pesquisa que incorporam conceitos da economia da saúde e epidemiologia clínica permitem avaliar a eficiência de novas tecnologias, por exemplo, através da análise de custo-efetividade. Este é um instrumento de análise de valor das intervenções em saúde. A metodologia, análise de custo-efetividade, é condição determinante da moderna prática de cuidados à saúde, pois as opções terapêuticas hoje disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) ou no sistema de saúde suplementar do Brasil passam necessariamente por tal análise, logo o sistema de saúde bem como os profissionais da saúde são levados a reexaminar os benefícios e custos de suas ações para assegurar que haja incorporação das tecnologias mais eficientes. Neste segundo artigo sobre avaliação de tecnologia em saúde reviram-se os conceitos de análise de custo-efetividade, os passos envolvidos na sua execução e o método para a análise crítica dos resultados.


New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 47(4): 329-33, 2010 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21225140

RESUMO

New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
São Paulo; Artmed; 2010. 600 p. tab, graf.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-591594

RESUMO

Considerando o constante avanço científico relacionado à área da saúde e a exigência de gerenciamento dos recursos alocados, é cada vez maior a necessidade de conhecimentos e de domínio da avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS). Este livro é uma iniciativa pioneira, que contribui para o entendimento dos métodos envolvidos na ATS de maneira objetiva e didática.


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Economia da Saúde , Sistemas de Informação , Sistema Único de Saúde
17.
Ann Hepatol ; 8(4): 339-45, 2009 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20009133

RESUMO

Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a predictor of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nevertheless, the distribution of viral load levels in chronic HBV patients in Brazil has yet to be described. This cross-sectional study included 564 participants selected in nine Brazilian cities located in four of the five regions of the country using the database of a medical diagnostics company. Admission criteria included hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity, availability of HBV viral load samples and age >or=18 years. Males comprised 64.5% of the study population. Mean age was 43.7 years. Most individuals (62.1%) were seronegative for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median serum ALT level was 34 U/L. In 58.5% of the patients HBV-DNA levels ranged from 300 to 99,999 copies/mL; however, in 21.6% levels were undetectable. Median HBV-DNA level was 2,351 copies/mL. Over 60% of the patients who tested negative for HBeAg and in whom ALT level was less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range had HBV-DNA levels > 2,000 IU/mL, which has been considered a cut-off point for indicating a liver biopsy and/or treatment. In conclusion, HBV-DNA level identified a significant proportion of Brazilian individuals with chronic hepatitis B at risk of disease progression. Furthermore, this tool enables those individuals with high HBV-DNA levels who are susceptible to disease progression to be identified among patients with normal or slightly elevated ALT.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Carga Viral , Adulto , Biópsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 46(4): 252-255, out.-dez. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-539617

RESUMO

Existe, atualmente, grande demanda para se aumentar a eficiência do ato médico e isto pode ser alcançado através de pesquisas de avaliação de tecnologia em saúde, a ATS. Esta visa, por um lado, determinar a melhor evidência de eficácia ou efetividade de um dado tratamento em saúde, por outro, determinar os custos associados com tal tratamento médico. Somente as alternativas com custo e efetividade comprovados, ou seja, que sejam eficientes, serão adotados doravante nos hospitais e sistemas de saúde público e privados. Exemplo são os custos crescentes de tratamentos com biológicos, por exemplo, em doença inflamatória intestinal ou hepatites virais, ou mesmo em oncologia. Há necessidade de se desenvolver pesquisas em ATS para a identificação não somente dos tratamentos que funcionam dos que não funcionam, mas também se os custos a eles associados compensam o seu uso. Este artigo introduz esta terminologia e os métodos para se desenvolver esses estudos.


Currently it is expected a higher efficiency of health care and this can be achieved by health technology assessment . This aims, for one side, to determine the best evidence of efficacy or effectiveness of a given treatment, and, on the other side, to determine the costs associated with this treatment. Only cost-effective alternatives, in other words, efficients, should be adopted in hospitals or public or private health care system. For instances, the increasing costs of biologics treatments in inflammatory bowel disease or hepatology or oncology. There is a need to increase the number of health technology assessment research not only to identify those treatment that works from those does not, but also whether the costs associated with each treatment compensate its use. This young researcher forum article introduce the concepts and basic methods used in health technology assessment studies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/normas , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Brasil , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas
19.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 46(4): 252-5, 2009 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20232002

RESUMO

Currently it is expected a higher efficiency of health care and this can be achieved by health technology assessment. This aims, for one side, to determine the best evidence of efficacy or effectiveness of a given treatment, and, on the other side, to determine the costs associated with this treatment. Only cost-effective alternatives, in other words, efficients, should be adopted in hospitals or public or private health care system. For instances, the increasing costs of biologics treatments in inflammatory bowel disease or hepatology or oncology. There is a need to increase the number of health technology assessment research not only to identify those treatment that works from those does not, but also whether the costs associated with each treatment compensate its use. This young researcher forum article introduce the concepts and basic methods used in health technology assessment studies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/normas , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Brasil , Humanos
20.
Pancreatology ; 9(1-2): 173-81, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19077469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreas susceptibility to alcohol is variable and only 5-10% of chronic alcohol abusers develop chronic pancreatitis; the role of genetic factors in this process is unknown. The CFTR gene encodes a protein that acts on epithelial cells and plays a key role in normal exocrine pancreatic function. METHODS: This study investigated the frequency of polymorphisms in intron 8 of the CFTR gene in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Three groups of patients were studied: group A - 68 adult alcoholics with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis; group B - 68 adult alcoholics without pancreatic disease or liver cirrhosis and group C - 104 healthy nonalcoholic adults. RESULTS: T5/T7 genotype was more frequent in group A (11.8%) than in group B (2.9%) (p = 0.0481), and there was no statistical difference when groups A and C (5.8%) were compared (p = 0.1317). The haplotype combination (TG)10-T7/(TG)11-T7 was more frequent in groups B (23.5%) and C (20.2%) than in group A (7.3%) (p = 0.0080 and 0.0162). CONCLUSION: There are differences when these three groups are compared and individuals with T5/T7 genotype might have a greater risk of developing chronic pancreatitis when they become chronic alcoholics.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pancreatite Alcoólica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético
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