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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of kidney function have uncovered hundreds of loci, primarily in populations of European ancestry. We have undertaken the first continental African GWAS of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD: We conducted GWAS of eGFR in 3288 East Africans from the Uganda General Population Cohort (GPC) and replicated in 8224 African Americans from the Women's Health Initiative. Loci attaining genome-wide significant evidence for association (p < 5x10-8) were followed up with Bayesian fine-mapping to localise potential causal variants. The predictive power of a genetic risk score (GRS) constructed from previously reported trans-ancestry eGFR lead SNPs was evaluated in the Uganda GPC. FINDINGS: We identified and validated two eGFR loci. At the GATM locus, the association signal (lead SNP rs2433603, p = 1.0x10-8) in the Uganda GPC GWAS was distinct from previously reported signals at this locus. At the HBB locus, the association signal (lead SNP rs141845179, p = 3.0x10-8) has been previously reported. The lead SNP at the HBB locus accounted for 88% of the posterior probability of causality after fine-mapping, but did not colocalise with kidney expression quantitative trait loci. The trans-ancestry GRS of eGFR was not significantly predictive into the Ugandan population. INTERPRETATION: In the first GWAS of eGFR in continental Africa, we validated two previously reported loci at GATM and HBB. At the GATM locus, the association signal was distinct from that previously reported. These results demonstrate the value of performing GWAS in continental Africans, providing a rich genomic resource to larger consortia for further discovery and fine-mapping. The study emphasizes that additional large-scale efforts in Africa are warranted to gain further insight into the genetic architecture of CKD.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Only few smaller studies have examined if impaired kidney function increases the risk of acute kidney injury in patients with acute pyelonephritis. Therefore, we estimated 30-day risk of acute kidney injury by preadmission kidney function in patients with acute pyelonephritis. Furthermore, we examined if impaired kidney function was a risk factor for development of acute kidney injury in pyelonephritis patients. METHODS: This cohort study included patients with a first-time hospitalization with pyelonephritis from 2000 to 2017. Preadmission kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30, 30-44, 45-59, 60-89, and ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2) and acute kidney injury within 30 days after admission were assessed using laboratory data on serum creatinine. The absolute 30-days risk of acute kidney injury was assessed treating death as a competing risk. The impact of eGFR on the odds of acute kidney injury was compared by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals estimated using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Among 8,760 patients with available data on preadmission kidney function, 25.8% had a preadmission eGFR <60. The 30-day risk of acute kidney injury was 16% among patients with preadmission eGFR ≥90 and increased to 22%, 33%, 42%, and 47% for patients with preadmission eGFR of 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 respectively. Compared with eGFR≥90, the adjusted ORs for the subgroups with eGFR 60-89, 45-59, 30-45, and <30 were 0.95, 1.32, 1.78, and 2.19 respectively. CONCLUSION: Acute kidney injury is a common complication in patients hospitalized with acute pyelonephritis. Preadmission impaired kidney function is a strong risk factor for development of acute kidney injury in pyelonephritis patients and more attention should be raised in prevention of pyelonephritis in patients with a low kidney function.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2938, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536532

RESUMO

Reducing the burden of late-life morbidity requires an understanding of the mechanisms of ageing-related diseases (ARDs), defined as diseases that accumulate with increasing age. This has been hampered by the lack of formal criteria to identify ARDs. Here, we present a framework to identify ARDs using two complementary methods consisting of unsupervised machine learning and actuarial techniques, which we applied to electronic health records (EHRs) from 3,009,048 individuals in England using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics admitted patient care dataset between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015 (mean age 49.7 years (s.d. 18.6), 51% female, 70% white ethnicity). We grouped 278 high-burden diseases into nine main clusters according to their patterns of disease onset, using a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm. Four of these clusters, encompassing 207 diseases spanning diverse organ systems and clinical specialties, had rates of disease onset that clearly increased with chronological age. However, the ages of onset for these four clusters were strikingly different, with median age of onset 82 years (IQR 82-83) for Cluster 1, 77 years (IQR 75-77) for Cluster 2, 69 years (IQR 66-71) for Cluster 3 and 57 years (IQR 54-59) for Cluster 4. Fitting to ageing-related actuarial models confirmed that the vast majority of these 207 diseases had a high probability of being ageing-related. Cardiovascular diseases and cancers were highly represented, while benign neoplastic, skin and psychiatric conditions were largely absent from the four ageing-related clusters. Our framework identifies and clusters ARDs and can form the basis for fundamental and translational research into ageing pathways.

4.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(1): 119-132, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that maternal obesity is associated with several structural birth defects. Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 30 to 50% of children starting kidney replacement therapy (KRT). We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and ecological study to explore the relationship between maternal obesity and CAKUT. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health, The Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science. Study quality was assessed for bias and confounding. A meta-analysis using a random effect model was carried out to obtain a summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). In the ecological study, country-level data were used to examine the correlation of secular trends in female obesity, CAKUT incidence and incidence of KRT. RESULTS: Eight epidemiological studies were included in the review-4 cohort studies and 4 case-control studies-7 of which were included in the meta-analysis. There was evidence of a positive association between obesity during pregnancy and the risk of CAKUT, with a summary OR = 1.14 (1.02-1.27). No association was seen with overweight, nor a dose response with increasing obesity. There was an increasing trend in countries' proportion of female obesity and an increasing trend in reported CAKUT incidence with specific rises seen in congenital hydronephrosis (CH) and multicystic kidney dysplasia (MCKD). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that pre-pregnancy obesity may be associated with increased risk of CAKUT at population level. Graphical abstract.

5.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 420, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with end-stage kidney disease have an increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB). Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of severe community-acquired infections. We investigated the association between CKD (prior to renal replacement therapy) and incidence of TB in UK General Practice. METHODS: Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 242,349 patients with CKD (stages 3-5) (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥3 months) between April 2004 and March 2014 were identified and individually matched (by age, gender, general practice and calendar time) to a control from the general population without known CKD. The association between CKD (overall and by stage) and incident TB was investigated using a Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes. RESULTS: The incidence of TB was higher amongst patients with CKD compared to those without CKD: 14.63 and 9.89 cases per 100,000 person-years. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, diabetes and COPD, the association between CKD and TB remained (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.85). The association may be stronger amongst those from non-white ethnic minorities (adjusted RR 2.83, 95%CI 1.32-6.03, p-value for interaction with ethnicity = 0.061). Amongst those with CKD stages 3-5, there was no evidence of a trend with CKD severity. CONCLUSIONS: CKD is associated with an increased risk of TB diagnosis in a UK General Practice cohort. This group of patients should be considered for testing and treating for latent TB.

6.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(700): e785-e792, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncoded chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poorer quality of care. AIM: To ascertain the proportion and determinants of CKD, which have not been formally recorded (Read coded), and identify differences in management and quality-of-care measures for patients with coded and uncoded CKD. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey undertaken in an ethnically diverse adult population using primary care electronic health records (EHRs) from GP clinics in Lambeth, South London, UK. METHOD: Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the association of demographic factors, selected comorbidities, deprivation, and cardiovascular disease risk management in CKD, with coding status as outcome. RESULTS: In total, the survey involved 286 162 adults, of whom 9325 (3.3%) were identified with CKD stage 3-5 (assigned as CKD based on estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] values). Of those identified with CKD, 4239 (45.5%) were Read coded, and 5086 (54.5%) were uncoded. Of those identified with CKD stage 3-5, individuals aged ≥50 years were more likely to be coded for CKD, compared with those aged <50 years. Lower levels of coding were independently associated with deprivation and black Caribbean, black African, South Asian, and non-stated ethnicities, compared with white ethnicity. Prescribed statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker medications were associated with increased odds of coded CKD. CONCLUSION: This study found that >50% of CKD was uncoded and, for those patients, quality of care was lower compared with those with coded CKD. Future research and practices should focus on areas of greater deprivation and targeted initiatives for those aged <50 years and of black African, black Caribbean, South Asian, or non-stated ethnic groups. Possible areas for improvement include diagnostic coding support, automated CKD recording, and clinical decision support (based on adjusted eGFR results) in the GP clinical records.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095841

RESUMO

Kidney disease is a recognised risk factor for poor COVID-19 outcomes. Up to 30 June 2020, the UK Renal Registry (UKRR) collected data for 2,385 in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) patients with COVID-19 in England and Wales. Overall unadjusted survival at 1 week after date of positive COVID-19 test was 87.5% (95% CI 86.1-88.8%); mortality increased with age, treatment vintage and there was borderline evidence of Asian ethnicity (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.44) being associated with higher mortality. Compared to the general population, the relative risk of mortality for ICHD patients with COVID-19 was 45.4 and highest in younger adults. This retrospective cohort study based on UKRR data supports efforts to protect this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise de Dados , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Vaccine ; 38(47): 7422-7432, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower conversion vaccination rate and a more rapid decline in antibody titers over time in dialysis patients raise concerns about the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination (PV) in this population, which has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and three Chinese databases from inception until February 29th, 2020 for interventional, cohort and case-control studies evaluating PV alone or combined with influenza vaccination (IV) on outcomes (all-cause mortality, pneumonia, cardiovascular events, antibody response and safety). Independent reviewers completed citation screening, data extraction, risk assessment, meta-analysis, and GRADE rating of the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Five cohort studies and one quasirandomized control trial enrolling 394,299 dialysis patients with high to moderate quality were included. Compared with unvaccinated individuals, those receiving PV had lower risk of all-cause mortality [Adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.79, I2 = 31.1%, GRADE low certainty] and cardiovascular events (adjusted RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93, I2 = 47.2%, GRADE low certainty) without serious adverse effect reported. Compared with no vaccination, lower all-cause mortality was observed in those receiving PV combined with IV (Adjusted RR 0.71, 95%CI 0.67-0.75, I2 = 63.3%), PV alone (Adjusted RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.94,I2 = 0%], and IV alone (Adjusted RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.73-0.79, I2 = 0%]. There was no difference between pneumococcal vaccinated patients vs non-vaccinated patients with respect to pneumonia. Immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 was weaker in polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine-23-pre-vaccinated compared with vaccine-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The use of pneumococcal vaccine especially combined with influenza vaccination is associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality but may be affected by residual confounding/healthy vaccinee bias.

9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 195, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of restarting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) after acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. There is concern that previous users do not restart ACEI/ARB despite ongoing indications. We sought to determine the risk of adverse events after an episode of AKI, comparing prior ACEI/ARB users who stop treatment to those who continue. METHODS: We conducted two parallel cohort studies in English and Swedish primary and secondary care, 2006-2016. We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for hospital admission with heart failure (primary analysis), AKI, stroke, or death within 2 years after hospital discharge following a first AKI episode. We compared risks of admission between people who stopped ACEI/ARB treatment to those who were prescribed ACEI/ARB within 30 days of AKI discharge. We undertook sensitivity analyses, including propensity score-matched samples, to explore the robustness of our results. RESULTS: In England, we included 7303 people with AKI hospitalisation following recent ACEI/ARB therapy for the primary analysis. Four thousand three (55%) were classified as stopping ACEI/ARB based on no prescription within 30 days of discharge. In Sweden, we included 1790 people, of whom 1235 (69%) stopped treatment. In England, no differences were seen in subsequent risk of heart failure (HR 1.10; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.93-1.30), AKI (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.77-1.05), or stroke (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.71-1.38), but there was an increased risk of death (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.15-1.41) in those who stopped ACEI/ARB compared to those who continued. Results were similar in Sweden: no differences were seen in risk of heart failure (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.73-1.13) or AKI (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.54-1.21). However, no increased risk of death was seen (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.78-1.13) and stroke was less common in people who stopped ACEI/ARB (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Results were similar across all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Previous ACEI/ARB users who continued treatment after an episode of AKI did not have an increased risk of heart failure or subsequent AKI compared to those who stopped the drugs.

11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(8): 1815-1823, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many countries have instituted population-wide measures for social distancing. The requirement of patients on dialysis for regular treatment in settings typically not conducive to social distancing may increase their vulnerability to COVID-19. METHODS: Over a 6-week period, we recorded new COVID-19 infections and outcomes for all adult patients receiving dialysis in a large dialysis center. Rapidly introduced control measures included a two-stage routine screening process at dialysis entry (temperature and symptom check, with possible cases segregated within the unit and tested for SARS-CoV-2), isolated dialysis in a separate unit for patients with infection, and universal precautions that included masks for dialysis nursing staff. RESULTS: Of 1530 patients (median age 66 years; 58.2% men) receiving dialysis, 300 (19.6%) developed COVID-19 infection, creating a large demand for isolated outpatient dialysis and inpatient beds. An analysis that included 1219 patients attending satellite dialysis clinics found that older age was a risk factor for infection. COVID-19 infection was substantially more likely to occur among patients on in-center dialysis compared with those dialyzing at home. We observed clustering in specific units and on specific shifts, with possible implications for aspects of service design, and high rates of nursing staff illness. A predictive epidemic model estimated a reproduction number of 2.2; cumulative cases deviated favorably from the model from the fourth week, suggesting that the implemented measures controlled transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic affected a large proportion of patients at this dialysis center, creating service pressures exacerbated by nursing staff illness. Details of the control strategy and characteristics of this epidemic may be useful for dialysis providers and other institutions providing patient care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Quarentena , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração
12.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530524

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine whether initiation of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs) is associated with a subsequent reduction in haemoglobin in the general population. METHODS: We undertook a national cohort study over a 13-year period (2004-2016), using routine primary healthcare data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We compared ACEI/ARB initiation with calcium channel blocker (CCB) initiation, to minimise confounding by indication. We included all first ACEI/ARB or CCB prescriptions in adults with at least 1 haemoglobin result in the 12 months before and 6 months after drug initiation. Our primary outcome was a ≥1 g/dL haemoglobin reduction in the 6 months after drug initiation. RESULTS: We examined 146 610 drug initiation events in 136 655 patients. Haemoglobin fell by ≥1 g/dL after drug initiation in 19.5% (16 936/86 652) of ACEI/ARB initiators and 15.9% (9521/59 958) of CCB initiators. The adjusted odds ratio of a ≥1 g/dL haemoglobin reduction in ACEI/ARB initiators vs CCB initiators was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.19). CONCLUSION: ACEI/ARBs are associated with a modest increase in the risk of a haemoglobin reduction. For every 100 patients in our study that initiated a CCB, 16 experienced a ≥1 g/dL haemoglobin decline. If the effect is causal, 3 additional patients would have experienced this outcome if they had received an ACEI/ARB. This may have implications for drug choice and monitoring for many patients in primary care. Further research could identify patients at higher risk of this outcome, who may benefit from closer monitoring.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033811, 2020 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia diagnosis in a real-world primary care setting in England. DESIGN: Matched cohort study. SETTINGS: English primary care in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: People aged ≥18 years with predialysis CKD (stages 3-5, defined as two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for 3 months) from 2004 to 2014, and people without known CKD who were matched on age, sex, general practice and calendar time in a 1:1 ratio. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: First-ever diagnosis of dementia recorded by GPs. We also examined all-cause death as a secondary outcome to discuss potential competing risk of mortality in the association between CKD and dementia diagnosis. RESULTS: In a matched cohort of 242 349 pairs with and without CKD (mean age 75.4±9.7 years, 39.3% male), the crude incidence rate of dementia diagnosis was 11.4/1000 and 9.4/1000 person-years, respectively. There was an association between CKD status and incident dementia diagnosis in the first 6 months of the follow-up (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 1.58, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.74), which attenuated after 6 months (aRR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.16). Among patients with CKD, there was no evidence of association between CKD stage and incident dementia diagnosis; compared with stage 3a, aRR (95% CI) was 1.04 (0.91 to 1.18) for stage 3b and 0.94 (0.74 to 1.20) for stages 4 or 5 in the first 6 months, and 0.97 (0.92 to 1.01) and 0.89 (0.80 to 0.98) thereafter. We found a strong association between worsening CKD stage and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: We identified a co-occurrence of detection of CKD and dementia in real-world clinical practice and a strong competing risk of mortality in the association between CKD stage and dementia, while a weak association between CKD status and dementia was suggested in the long term.

14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(5): 678-693, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405589

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to assess available epidemiological evidence of the relationship between diabetes during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT). Methods: POPLINE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library were searched to retrieve 6962 articles of which 15 case-control and 11 cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between CAKUT and diabetes during pregnancy. Results: Offspring born to mothers with any form of diabetes in pregnancy had a 50% increased risk of CAKUT compared with offspring of mothers without diabetes (relative risk [RR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.67). Compared with offspring with nondiabetic mothers, offspring of mothers with pre-existing diabetes had an almost 2-fold rate of CAKUT (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.52-2.54). Offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes had a 39% increased risk of CAKUT (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26-1.55) compared with offspring of mothers with no diabetes. The subset of studies that adjusted for body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy showed similar associations. Population attributable risks for gestational diabetes were estimated to be 3.7% of cases of CAKUT in the United States, 4% of CAKUT cases in the United Kingdom, with up to 14.4% CAKUT cases in the South Asian population in the United Kingdom. Conclusion: This study suggests that 2.0% to 3.7% of cases of CAKUT in the United States, and up to 14% of CAKUT in some populations could be eliminated if gestational diabetes was prevented or eliminated.

15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(2): 174-184, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955510

RESUMO

Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and intima-media thickening (IMT), a measure of early atherosclerosis, are intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease which are predictive of cardiovascular events. Traditionally, both were thought to result from accumulative exposure to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. However, their association with risk factors in young adults in low-income settings is unknown. We sought to investigate the association between PWV and IMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study cohort from Southern India. Male and female adults (N = 1440) aged between 20 and 24 years underwent measures of PWV and IMT. Exposure variables included smoking, body mass index (BMI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Association between outcome and exposure variables was assessed using linear regression analysis. Average values for PWV and IMT were 5.9 ± 0.6 m/s and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm. In univariable analysis, PWV associated with MAP, BMI, smoking, total cholesterol, glucose, and HOMA-IR and IMT associated with MAP, BMI, tobacco use, and HDL-cholesterol. In multivariable analysis, PWV remained strongly positively associated with MAP increasing by 0.5 m/s (P < .001) for a 10 mm Hg increase in MAP (R2  = .37). In contrast, IMT negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol (ß = -.10; P = .012, R2  = .02). There was weak evidence that PWV and IMT positively associated with BMI. In young adults from Southern India, PWV positively associated with blood pressure and IMT negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. This suggests separate etiologies for atherosclerosis and arterial stiffening in young adults.

17.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 20, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with disproportionate effects in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The optimal methods to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and therefore to determine the presence of CKD in SSA are uncertain. We plan to measure iohexol excretion to accurately determine GFR in Malawi, South Africa and Uganda. We will then assess the performance of existing equations to estimate GFR and determine whether a modified equation can better improve estimation of GFR in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The African Research on Kidney Disease (ARK) study is a three-country study embedded within existing cohorts. We seek to enrol 3000 adults > 18 years based on baseline serum creatinine. Study procedures include questionnaires on socio-demographics and established risk factors for kidney disease along with anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, blood chemistry and urine microscopy and albuminuria. We will measure GFR (mGFR) by plasma clearance of iohexol at 120, 180 and 240 min. We will compare eGFR determined by established equations with mGFR using Bland-Altman plots. We will use regression methods to estimate GFR and compare the newly derived model with existing equations. DISCUSSION: Through the ARK study, we aim to establish the optimal approach to estimate GFR in SSA. The study has the advantage of drawing participants from three countries, which will increase the applicability of the findings across the region. It is also embedded within established cohorts that have longitudinal information and serial measures that can be used to characterize kidney disease over a period of time. This will help to overcome the limitations of previous research, including small numbers, selected population sub-groups, and lack of data on proteinuria. The ARK collaboration provides an opportunity for close working partnerships across different centres, using standardized protocols and measurements, and shared bio-repositories. We plan to build on the collaboration for this study for future work on kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and welcome additional partners from across the continent.

18.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(1): 1-6, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605133

RESUMO

Based on projected numbers, approximately only 50% of those requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) receive it. Many patients who require RRT live in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to examine the changing pattern over time of entry into the RRT programme in Thailand following RRT's inclusion in the Universal Coverage Scheme. This study was an ecological study using the age-period-cohort analysis to look at dialysis registration and kidney transplant trends during RRT programme implementation. Data from 2008 to 2016 of patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were obtained from the National Health Security Office. The study found that the numbers of new patients with ESRD, aged 20-69, registered with the dialysis programme increased over time. For patients aged 20-40 years, the dialysis programme took up to 400 new patients for every 1000 new ESRD diagnoses. For kidney transplant, the rates increased slowly. The kidney transplant programme could at best treat only around 50 cases for every 1000 new ESRD diagnoses in patients aged 20-30 years. Findings of this study highlighted the importance of promoting strategies to reduce the increasing number of patients with kidney disease, to consider conservative therapy for older/frail patients, and to improve access to kidney transplantation and live-donation.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/tendências , Terapia de Substituição Renal/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tailândia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
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