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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444481

RESUMO

We report an electrochemical method for coupling biomass-derived C5/C6 compounds to value-added fuel precursors. Using only 2 % of equivalent charges, 2-methylfuran (2-MF) was oxidized to yield a cation radical, which readily reacted with 3-hexene-2,5-dione, a derivate of 2,5-dimethylfuran, to produce 3-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)hexane-2,5-dione. The product was converted to 4-ethylnonane (a component of biodiesel/jet fuel) in a single step in excellent yield. Importantly, the reaction was not sensitive to oxygen, and a trace amount of water was found to promote the reaction. Detailed mechanistic studies confirmed the proposed reaction pathways. Key to the mechanism is the radical generation that is enabled by electrochemistry. The radical is regenerated at the end of a reaction cycle to ensure chain propagation for an average of ca. 47 times, resulting in an apparent Faradaic efficiency of 4700 %.

3.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880098

RESUMO

Microglia/macrophages have been identified to be highly polarized after ischemia. Interestingly, the polarization of these microglia/macrophages varies immensely under differing disease conditions. Post-conditioning using sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, could provide long-term neuroprotection to neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the effects of sevoflurane post-conditioning (SPC) on microglia/macrophage polarization after HIBI induction in neonatal rats. Additionally, we aimed at identifying the underpinning mechanisms specifically related to autophagy and lysosomal protease enzyme, cathepsin B. To develop a HIBI model, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left common carotid artery ligation followed by 2 h of hypoxia. The role of microglia/macrophages in the neuroprotection conferred by SPC was examined by left-side intra-cerebroventricular injection with adenovirus vector carrying catB-GFP or rapamycin. The number of interleukin (IL)-1ß+ cells, cathepsin B+ cells, light chain 3B positive (LC3B+) cells among ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(Iba1+)cells to investigate microglia polarization, neuronal apoptosis to assess neuronal death in the acute phase were tested at 24 h after HIBI. Behavioral tests including suspension test, Morris water maze tests were performed to investigate the long-term effects of SPC, at 21 to 34 days post HIBI. Nissl staining and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining to assess the long-term neuronal and myelin damage were performed at 34 days after HIBI. Based on the obtained results post HIBI, we observed the cells that were positive for IL-1ß, cathepsin B, and LC3B among Iba1 positive cell population in the hippocampus were significantly decreased after SPC treatment. SPC significantly attenuated the HIBI-induced increase in neuronal apoptosis, improved long-term cognitive function, and attenuated HI-induced decrease of Nissl-positive cells and MBP expression. However, these trends were reversed by injection of adenovirus vector carrying catB-GFP and rapamycin. SPC attenuated microglia polarization towards neurotoxic phenotypes, alleviates neuronal death and axon demyelination after HIBI in neonatal rats by regulating microglia autophagy and cathepsin B expression, and therefore provided long-term cognitive, learning and memory protection.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(61): 8687-8690, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613956

RESUMO

Herein we describe an organocatalytic protocol for the asymmetric synthesis of ß,ß-diaryl ketones. Under the catalysis of a chiral phosphoric acid, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols underwent dehydration to form para-quinone methides, which reacted with ß-keto acids in 1,6-addition reactions. Upon treatment with Et3N in one-pot, decarboxylation proceeded to provide the desired chiral ketones in nearly quantitative yields with high enantioselectivities.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644280

RESUMO

O-sulfation is an important chemical code widely existing in bioactive molecules, but the scalable and facile synthesis of complex bioactive molecules carrying O-sulfates remains challenging. Reported here is a general approach to O-sulfation by the sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) reaction between aryl fluorosulfates and silylated hydroxy groups. Efficient sulfate diester formation was achieved through systematic optimization of the electronic properties of aryl fluorosulfates. The versatility of this O-sulfation strategy was demonstrated in the scalable syntheses of a variety of complex molecules carrying sulfate diesters at various positions, including monosaccharides, disaccharides, an amino acid, and a steroid. Selective hydrolytic and hydrogenolytic removal of the aryl masking groups from sulfate diesters yielded the corresponding O-sulfate products in excellent yields. This strategy provides a powerful tool for the synthesis of O-sulfate bioactive compounds.

6.
Hemodial Int ; 24(1): E13-E19, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830373

RESUMO

Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. It is still unclear whether repeated MT in a short period of time is safe and effective in patients with renal failure and atrial fibrillation (AF). We present the case of an LVO patient with AF and uremia who was successfully treated with MT for M1 segment occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and achieved a good outcome. Fifteen days after the first MT, the patient's stroke recurred; angiography at that time revealed M1 segment, and branch occlusion of the right MCA, and a second MT was performed. This patient was given oral warfarin to maintain her international normalized ratio (INR) between 2 and 3, and over a 9-month follow-up period, no further vascular events occurred. It may be safe and effective to perform repeated MTs in patients with uremia and AF who have suffered two cardiogenic strokes in a short period of time. It might be beneficial to treat a patient of this description with anticoagulant therapy after careful assessment of the patient's condition. Nephrologists and medical staff at hemodialysis centers should recognize the importance of MT for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this way, health care providers can take measures in a timely, effective manner when they encounter hemodialysis patients with AIS.


Assuntos
Diálise Renal/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680309

RESUMO

Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been found in a large number of human cancers, including colon cancer. Therefore, the implementation of potential lncRNAs biomarkers with prognostic prediction value are very much essential. GSE39582 data set was downloaded from database of Gene Expression Omnibus. Re-annotation analysis of lncRNA expression profiles was performed by NetAffx annotation files. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analyses helped select prognostic lncRNAs. Algorithm of random survival forest-variable hunting (RSF-VH) together with stepwise multivariate Cox proportional analysis were performed to establish lncRNA signature. The log-rank test was carried out to analyze and compare the Kaplan-Meier survival curves of patients' overall survival (OS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used for comparing the survival prediction regarding its specificity and sensitivity based on lncRNA risk score, followed by calculating the values of area under the curve (AUC). The single-sample GSEA (ssGSEA) analysis was used to describe biological functions associated with this signature. Finally, to determine the robustness of this model, we used the validation sets including GSE17536 and The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. After re-annotation analysis of lncRNAs, a total of 14 lncRNA probes were obtained by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analysis. Then, the RSF-VH algorithm and stepwise multivariate Cox analysis helped to build a five-lncRNA prognostic signature for colon cancer. The patients in group with high risk showed an obviously shorter survival time compared with patients in group with low risk with AUC of 0.75. In addition, the five-lncRNA signature can be used to independently predict the survival of patients with colon cancer. The ssGSEA analysis revealed that pathways such as extracellular matrix-receptor interaction was activated with an increase in risk score. These findings determined the strong power of prognostic prediction value of this five-lncRNA signature for colon cancer.

8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(6): 1652-1657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696422

RESUMO

Background The participation of clinical pharmacists in the treatment of acute pancreatitis has rarely been reported. Objective The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of intervention of clinical pharmacists on the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Setting An academic teaching hospital in Taizhou, Jiangsu, China. Method Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with acute pancreatitis were retrospectively enrolled from July 2017 to July 2018 and divided into an intervention group (n = 119) and a control group (n = 109) according to whether a clinical pharmacist was involved. No significant differences in the baseline clinical characteristics were found between the groups. Clinical pharmacists participated in drug formulation and adjustment, pharmaceutical care, and follow-up. Main outcome measure Clinical outcomes, average hospital stays, costs, incidence of adverse drug reactions, 1-month subsequent visit rate, and patient satisfaction between the two groups were measured. Results The clinical symptoms of patients in both groups were relieved after treatment. There were no significant differences between the groups in computed tomography grades after treatment, incidence of adverse drug reactions, or average hospital stays. However, the intervention group had lower total costs of hospitalization, drugs and antibiotics but higher rates of 1-month subsequent visits and satisfaction compared with the control group. Conclusion The intervention of clinical pharmacists in the treatment of acute pancreatitis can effectively reduce costs of hospitalization, drug and antibiotics and improve follow-up compliance and patient satisfaction.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , China , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Papel Profissional , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224773, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of tenofovir and entecavir in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: The Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Clinical Trials and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the comparison between tenofovir and entecavir in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) since the date of database inception to July 2019. Two researchers independently screened and evaluated the obtained studies and extracted the outcome indexes. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Early on, tenofovir had a greater ability to inhibit the hepatitis B virus, I2 = 0% [RR = 1.08, 95% CI (1.03, 1.13), P<0.01] (96 weeks). Entecavir can normalize the ALT levels earlier, I2 = 0% [RR = 0.87, 95% CI (0.77, 0.98), P = 0.02] (48 weeks). However, there was no statistically significant difference between TDF and ETV at 144 weeks. Tenofovir was as effective as entecavir in terms of HBeAg clearance and HBeAg seroconversion, I2 = 0% [RR = 1.05, 95% CI (0.68, 1.62), P = 0.82]; I2 = 69% [RR = 0.93, 95% CI (0.54, 1.61), P = 0.80]. The difference in the incidence of elevated creatine kinase levels was not statistically significant I2 = 0% [RR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.27, 1.60), P = 0.35]. CONCLUSIONS: Tenofovir and entecavir were equally effective in the treatment of patients with nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B. In addition, TDF has an advantage in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Additional RCTs and a large-sample prospective cohort study should be performed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17779, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689844

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Absence or hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare developmental anomalies. Usually, patients with ICA agenesis are asymptomatic due to collateral circulation, but they may present with seizures, headache, or transient ischemic attack. We report a patient with right ICA absence in whom "paroxysmal right eye amaurosis" was the main symptom. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 76-year-old male patient suffered from "paroxysmal right eye amaurosis for 3 years". Three years prior, the patient had suffered sudden one-minute right eye amaurosis without any obvious cause. The attack reoccurred 1-2 times/year until one week before admission when he experienced two sudden right eye amaurosis. DIAGNOSIS: Congenital absence of the right ICA was diagnosed. In this patient with congenital absence of the right ICA, the ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was compensated by the anterior communicating artery (ACOM), and the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) emerged from the carotid siphon of the contralateral ICA. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was given antiplatelet treatment consisting of aspirin and atorvastatin after admission and instructed to maintain the treatment after discharge. OUTCOMES: No symptom onset was observed during follow-up. LESSONS: Here, we report the patient's clinical manifestations and imaging findings and analyze the cause of the condition to provide a clinical reference for the study of congenital absence of the ICA.


Assuntos
Cegueira/congênito , Artéria Carótida Interna/anormalidades , Malformações Vasculares/complicações , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
11.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(12): 2652-2662, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532184

RESUMO

Base-modified aptamers that incorporate non-natural chemical moieties can achieve greatly improved affinity and specificity relative to natural DNA or RNA aptamers. However, conventional methods for generating base-modified aptamers require considerable expertise and resources. In this work, we have accelerated and generalized the process of generating base-modified aptamers by combining a click-chemistry strategy with a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based screening methodology that measures the affinity and specificity of individual aptamers at a throughput of ∼107 per hour. Our "click-particle display (PD)" strategy offers many advantages. First, almost any chemical modification can be introduced with a commercially available polymerase. Second, click-PD can screen vast numbers of individual aptamers on the basis of quantitative on- and off-target binding measurements to simultaneously achieve high affinity and specificity. Finally, the increasing availability of FACS instrumentation in academia and industry allows for easy adoption of click-PD in a broader scientific community. Using click-PD, we generated a boronic acid-modified aptamer with ∼1 µM affinity for epinephrine, a target for which no aptamer has been reported to date. We subsequently generated a mannose-modified aptamer with nanomolar affinity for the lectin concanavalin A (Con A). The strong affinity of both aptamers is fundamentally dependent upon the presence of chemical modifications, and we show that their removal essentially eliminates aptamer binding. Importantly, our Con A aptamer exhibited exceptional specificity, with minimal binding to other structurally similar lectins. Finally, we show that our aptamer has remarkable biological activity. Indeed, this aptamer is the most potent inhibitor of Con A-mediated hemagglutination reported to date.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Química Click , Citometria de Fluxo
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(32): 12493-12497, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357865

RESUMO

A novel strategy for the synthesis of main-chain polymers through radical ring-closing/ring-opening cascade polymerization is reported. Efficient radical cyclopolymerization was achieved through systematic optimization of the electronic properties of 1,6-diene structures. Fusing 1,6-diene with allylic sulfide or allylic sulfone motifs enabled a ring-closing/ring-opening cascade reaction that provides a strong driving force for the ring-opening polymerization of large macrocyclic monomers. The ability of 1,6-diene-fused allylic sulfone to undergo efficient SO2 extrusion generated a propagating alkyl radical capable of reversible deactivation. This strategy provides a general platform for the synthesis of polymers incorporating complex main-chain structures and degradable functionalities.

13.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 1691-1706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190748

RESUMO

Background: When neonatal rats suffer hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI), autophagy is over-activated in the hippocampus, and inhibition of autophagy provides neuroprotection. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible roles of autophagy and Ezh2-regulated Pten/Akt/mTOR pathway in sevoflurane post-conditioning (SPC)-mediated neuroprotection against HIBI in neonatal rats. Methods: Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left common artery ligation followed by 2 h hypoxia as described in the Rice-Vannucci model. The roles of autophagy and the Ezh2-regulated Pten/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the neuroprotection conferred by SPC were examined by left-side intracerebroventricular injection with the autophagy activator rapamycin and the Ezh2 inhibitor GSK126. Results: SPC was neuroprotective against HIBI through the inhibition of over-activated autophagy in the hippocampus as characterized by the rapamycin-induced reversal of neuronal density, neuronal morphology, cerebral morphology, and the expression of the autophagy markers, LC3B-II and Beclin1. SPC significantly increased the expression of Ezh2, H3K27me3, pAkt, and mTOR and decreased the expression of Pten induced by HI. The Ezh2 inhibitor, GSK126, significantly reversed the SPC-induced changes in expression of H3K27me3, Pten, pAkt, mTOR, LC3B-II, and Beclin1. Ezh2 inhibition also reversed SPC-mediated attenuation of neuronal loss and behavioral improvement in the Morris water maze. Conclusion: These results indicate that SPC inhibits excessive autophagy via the regulation of Pten/Akt/mTOR signaling by Ezh2 to confer neuroprotection against HIBI in neonatal rats.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Piridonas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 108, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the effect of lipid metabolism disorder on liver function in patients with malignant tumors after chemotherapy. METHOD: A total of 428 patients with malignant tumors with normal liver function in our hospital between May 2013 to June 2018 were divided into an observation group (lipid metabolism disorder, n = 265) and control group (normal lipid metabolism, n = 163). The lipid metabolism levels and liver damage of the two groups were compared before and after chemotherapy. RESULTS: No significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, tumor types, history of surgery, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; an indicator of liver function), and chemotherapy regimen were observed between the two groups. However, the observation group showed increased levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.000), triglycerides (P = 0.000), and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.01), as well as decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.000) before chemotherapy compared with the control group. Furthermore, patients with lipid metabolism disorders were more likely to develop abnormal liver function after chemotherapy. Moreover, mixed lipid metabolism disorder was more likely to cause severe liver damage after chemotherapy. Additionally, the number of patients with lipid metabolism disorders after chemotherapy (n = 367) was significantly increased compared with before chemotherapy (n = 265) (P < 0.01), indicating that chemotherapy might induce or aggravate an abnormal lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: After receiving chemotherapy, patients with malignant tumors presenting lipid metabolism disorders are more prone to liver damage and lipid metabolism disorders than patients with a normal lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia
15.
Methods ; 168: 84-93, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953758

RESUMO

This study aims to obtain water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from low-value metabolites through a simple, economical, one-step synthetic route. The urine C-dots (UCDs) and hydrothermally treated urine C-dots (HUCDs) were obtained, respectively, using straightforward Sephadex filtration method from human adults and hydrothermal reaction method. The UCDs and HUCDs emit fluorescence upon being excited with ultraviolet light with a quantum yield of 4.8% and 17.8%, respectively. TEM analysis revealed that UCDs and HUCDs had an average size of 2.5 nm and 5.5 nm, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the UCDs and HUCDs were mainly composed of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of functional groups, such as amino, hydroxyl, carboxylate and carbonyl groups onto the C-dots. The UCDs and HUCDs can be directly used for in vivo and in vitro imaging in Hela cells, Caenorhabditis elegans, onion epidermal cells and bean sprouts. The cytotoxicity study revealed that the UCDs and HUCDs were not toxic to normal rat kidney (NKR) cells with good biocompatibility. The results revealed that the C-dots derived from urine have good biocompatibility, strong fluorescence and may have potential to be a safe fluorescent probe for bio-imaging.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Urina/química , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Carbono , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rim/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nitrogênio , Cebolas , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Raios Ultravioleta , Urinálise
16.
Chemosphere ; 224: 580-587, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844589

RESUMO

This study investigates the behavior and fate of TiO2 NPs in conventional water treatment (coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation) under the influence of waterborne phosphate, focusing on the phosphate uptake rate, surface interactions, and dispersion stability and removal efficiency of TiO2 NPs. The adsorption of HPO42- ions on TiO2 NPs (i.e., surface complexation in solution) causes displacement of carbonate species. Moreover, adsorption experiments indicates that complexation of inorganic anions on the surfaces of TiO2 NPs can occur rapidly, within a 5 min time frame. This study confirmed that phosphate would affect the surface charge of the TiO2 NPs; thus, the bridging effect during coagulation may also be hindered by phosphate becoming attached to TiO2 NP surfaces. This information will contribute to nanotechnology-related water safety and water treatment technology.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Fosfatos/química , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Floculação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
18.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 18: 1533033819893667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The immune makers including CD4+CD25+ T cells, natural killer cells, and T cells subgroup were retrospectively analyzed to find the relationship between apatinib and the immune system in the patients treated with apatinib. METHOD: Forty-two patients with advanced malignant tumors orally took apatinib as treatment and 16 patients with the same situation did not take apatinib as a control group. These patients were all included in the study, and they orally received apatinib 500 mg daily as monotherapy or combination. The treatment was continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. CD4+CD25+ T cells, natural killer cells, and T cells subgroup were detected before and 1 month after therapy for all the patients. The relationship between the changing number of immune cells and progression-free survival was analyzed in this study. RESULT: For the apatinib group, the rate of CD4+CD25+ T cells significantly increased (P = .048). The median progression-free survival was 3.25 months for the 42 patients. The median progression-free survival in the patients with the rate of CD4+CD25+ T cells increased and decreased was 5.8 months and 2.9 months, respectively (P = .012). Multivariate analysis found the increased rate of CD4+CD25+ T cells was an independent prognostic factor for a longer progression-free survival. The rate of natural killer cells and T cells subgroup did not change much after apatinib therapy, and they were not independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: The rate of CD4+CD25+ T cells is very important in patients with apatinib treatment. The changing number of CD4+CD25+ T cells may be a good indicator for apatinib prognosis. Natural killer cells and T cells subgroup did not change much after apatinib, and they were not independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Neoplasias/sangue , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Appl Opt ; 57(27): 7987-7996, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462070

RESUMO

Conducting quantum key distribution (QKD) through existing optical fibers together with conventional communication signals is a viable way to expand its practical application, but weak quantum signals can be severely disrupted by co-propagating classical signals. In this paper, the suppression of four-wave mixing (FWM) noise and Raman noise is considered simultaneously for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, and the joint optimized channel allocation (JOCA) scheme is proposed. In the JOCA scheme, the quantum channels and classical channels are interleaved with each other to avoid FWM noise and optimal quantum channel positions are chosen in variable conditions according to the Raman scattering spectrum. Experimental measurements of the noise photons show that the JOCA scheme can effectively reduce the impairments on quantum signals compared with the single-target schemes. Additionally, simulation results verify that the JOCA scheme can increase the secure key generation rate and transmission distance, and that it also enables the DWDM-QKD system to tolerate higher-power classical signals and more classical channels, which improve the compatibility with a high-capacity communication system.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(10)2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322000

RESUMO

The applications of magnetron sputtering technology on the surface coating of fabrics have attracted more and more attention from researchers. Over the past 15 years, researches on magnetron sputtering coated fabrics have been mainly focused on electromagnetic shielding, bacterial resistance, hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and structural color etc. In this review, recent progress of the technology is discussed in detail, and the common target materials, technologies and functions and characterization of coated fabrics are summarized and analyzed. Finally, the existing problems and future prospects of this developing field are briefly proposed and discussed.

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