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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(11): 3101-3114, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432199

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In the soybean cultivar Raiden, both a SMV-resistance gene and a BCMV-resistance gene were fine-mapped to a common region within the Rsv1 complex locus on chromosome 13, in which two CC-NBS-LRR resistance genes (Glyma.13g184800 and Glyma.13g184900) exhibited significant divergence between resistant and susceptible cultivars and were subjected to positive selection. Both Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) can induce soybean mosaic diseases. To date, few studies have explored soybean resistance against these two viruses simultaneously. In this work, Raiden, a cultivar resistant to both SMV and BCMV, was crossed with a susceptible cultivar, Williams 82, to fine-map the resistance genes. After inoculating ~ 200 F2 individuals with either SMV (SC6-N) or BCMV (HZZB011), a segregation ratio of 3 resistant:1 susceptible was observed, indicating that for either virus, a single dominant gene confers resistance. Bulk segregation analysis (BSA) revealed that the BCMV-resistance gene is also linked to the SMV-resistance Rsv1 complex locus. Genotyping the F2 individuals with 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers across the Rsv1 complex locus then preliminarily mapped the SMV-resistance gene, Rsv1-r, between SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_13_1075 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1161 and the BCMV-resistance gene between BARCSOYSSR_13_1084 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1115. Furthermore, a population of 1009 F2 individuals was screened with markers BARCSOYSSR_13_1075 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1161, and 32 recombinant F2 individuals were identified. By determining the genotypes of these F2 individuals on multiple internal SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and assaying the phenotypes of selected recombinant F2:3 lines, both the SMV- and BCMV-resistance genes were fine-mapped to a common region ( ~ 154.5 kb) between two SNP markers: SNP-38 and SNP-50. Within the mapped region, two CC-NBS-LRR genes exhibited significant divergence between Raiden and Williams 82, and their evolution has been affected by positive selection.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Potyvirus/patogenicidade , Soja/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes Dominantes , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Soja/virologia
2.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2979, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568640

RESUMO

In many caries-promoting Streptococcus species, glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) are recognized as key enzymes contributing to the modification of biofilm structures, disruption of homeostasis of healthy microbiota community and induction of caries development. It is therefore of great interest to investigate how Gtf genes have evolved in Streptococcus. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive survey of Gtf genes among 872 streptococci genomes of 37 species and identified Gtf genes from 364 genomes of 18 species. To clarify the relationships of these Gtf genes, 45 representative sequences were used for phylogenic analysis, which revealed two clear clades. Clade I included 12 Gtf genes from nine caries-promoting species of the Mutans and Downei groups, which produce enzymes known to synthesize sticky, water-insoluble glucans (WIG) that are critical for modifying biofilm structures. Clade II primarily contained Gtf genes responsible for synthesizing water-soluble glucans (WSG) from all 18 species, and this clade further diverged into three subclades (IIA, IIB, and IIC). An analysis of 16 pairs of duplicated Gtf genes revealed high divergence levels at the C-terminal repeat regions, with ratios of the non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) to synonymous substitution rate (dS) ranging from 0.60 to 1.03, indicating an overall relaxed constraint in this region. However, among the clade I Gtf genes, some individual repeat units possessed strong functional constraints by the same criterion. Structural variations in the repeat regions were also observed, with detection of deletions or recent duplications of individual repeat units. Overall, by establishing an updated phylogeny and further elucidating their evolutionary patterns, this work enabled us to gain a greater understanding of the origination and divergence of Gtf genes in Streptococcus.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 99: 612-624, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837925

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) play multiple crucial regulating roles in cell which can regulate one third of protein-coding genes. MiRNAs participate in the developmental and physiological processes of human body, while their aberrant adjustment will be more likely to trigger diseases such as cancers, kidney disease, central nervous system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, viral infections and so on. What's worse, for the detection of miRNAs, their small size, high sequence similarity, low abundance and difficult extraction from cells impose great challenges in the analysis. Hence, it's necessary to fabricate accurate and sensitive biosensing platform for miRNAs detection. Up to now, researchers have developed many signal-amplification strategies for miRNAs detection, including hybridization chain reaction, nuclease amplification, rolling circle amplification, catalyzed hairpin assembly amplification and nanomaterials based amplification. These methods are typical, feasible and frequently used. In this review, we retrospect recent advances in signal amplification strategies for detecting miRNAs and point out the pros and cons of them. Furthermore, further prospects and promising developments of the signal-amplification strategies for detecting miRNAs are proposed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Nanoestruturas/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/tendências , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Oligonucleotídeos/genética
4.
Fungal Biol ; 120(5): 764-74, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109372

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley and is considered to be one of the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. Chitin is a critical component of the fungal cell wall and is polymerized from UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine by chitin synthase. We characterized FgCHS8, a new class of the chitin synthase gene in F. graminearum. Disruption of FgCHS8 resulted in reduced accumulation of chitin, decreased chitin synthase activity, and had no effect on conidia growth when compared with the wild-type isolate. ΔFgCHS8 had a growth rate comparable to that of the wild-type isolate in vitro. However, ΔFgCHS8 had reduced growth when grown on agar supplemented with either 0.025% SDS or 0.9 mM salicylic acid. ΔFgCHS8 produced significantly less deoxynivalenol and exhibited reduced pathogenicity in wheat spikes. Re-introduction of a functional FgCHS8 gene into the ΔFgCHS8 mutant strain restored the wild-type phenotypes. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that FgCHS8 protein was initially expressed in the septa zone, and then gradually distributed over the entire cellular membrane, indicating that FgCHS8 was required for cell wall development. Our results demonstrated that FgCHS8 is important for cell wall sensitivity to environmental stress factors and deoxynivalenol production in F. graminearum.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitina Sintase/genética , Fusarium/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/toxicidade , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/toxicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Virulência
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