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1.
Bioact Mater ; 9: 475-490, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820584

RESUMO

Sensory nerves promote osteogenesis through the release of neuropeptides. However, the potential application and mechanism in which sensory nerves promote healing of bone defects in the presence of biomaterials remain elusive. The present study identified that new bone formation was more abundantly produced after implantation of silicified collagen scaffolds into defects created in the distal femur of rats. The wound sites were accompanied by extensive nerve innervation and angiogenesis. Sensory nerve dysfunction by capsaicin injection resulted in significant inhibition of silicon-induced osteogenesis in the aforementioned rodent model. Application of extracellular silicon in vitro induced axon outgrowth and increased expression of semaphorin 3 A (Sema3A) and semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), as detected by the upregulation of signaling molecules. Culture medium derived from silicon-stimulated DRG cells promoted proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. These effects were inhibited by the use of Sema3A neutralizing antibodies but not by Sema4D neutralizing antibodies. Knockdown of Sema3A in DRG blocked silicon-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis almost completely in a femoral defect rat model, whereas overexpression of Sema3A promoted the silicon-induced phenomena. Activation of "mechanistic target of rapamycin" (mTOR) pathway and increase of Sema3A production were identified in the DRG of rats that were implanted with silicified collagen scaffolds. These findings support the role of silicon in inducing Sema3A production by sensory nerves, which, in turn, stimulates osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Taken together, silicon has therapeutic potential in orthopedic rehabilitation.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2107924, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850469

RESUMO

The visionary idea that RNA adopts non-biological roles in today's nanomaterial world has been nothing short of phenomenal. These RNA molecules have ample chemical functionality and self-assemble to form distinct nanostructures in response to external stimuli. They may be combined with inorganic materials to produce nanomachines that carry cargo to the target sites in a controlled manner and respond dynamically to environmental changes. Comparable to biological cells, programmed RNA nanomachines have the potential to replicate bone healing in vitro. Here, an RNA-biomineral nanomachine has been developed that accomplishes intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralization of collagen scaffolds to mimic bone formation in vitro. Molecular dynamics simulation indicates that noncovalent hydrogen bonding provides the energy source that initiates self-assembly of these RNA-biomineral nanomachines. Incorporation of RNA-biomineral nanomachines into collagen scaffolds in vivo creates an osteoinductive microenvironment within a bone defect that is conducive to rapid biomineralization and osteogenesis. Addition of RNA degrading enzymes into the RNA-biomineral nanomachines further creates a stop signal that inhibits unwarranted bone formation in tissues other than bone and teeth. The potential of RNA in building functional nanostructures has been underestimated in the past. The concept of RNA-biomineral nanomachines participating in physiological processes may transform the nanoscopic world of life science. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103693, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939364

RESUMO

Although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic coding for the very essence of life, these macromolecules or components thereof are not necessarily lost after a cell dies. There appears to be a link between extracellular DNA and biomineralization. Here the authors demonstrate that extracellular DNA functions as an initiator of collagen intrafibrillar mineralization. This is confirmed with in vitro and in vivo biological mineralization models. Because of their polyanionic property, extracellular DNA molecules are capable of stabilizing supersaturated calcium phosphate solution and mineralizing 2D and 3D collagen matrices completely as early as 24 h. The effectiveness of extracellular DNA in biomineralization of collagen is attributed to the relatively stable formation of amorphous liquid droplets triggered by attraction of DNA to the collagen fibrils via hydrogen bonding. These findings suggest that extracellular DNA is biomimetically significant for fabricating inorganic-organic hybrid materials for tissue engineering. DNA-induced collagen intrafibrillar mineralization provides a clue to the pathogenesis of ectopic mineralization in different body tissues. The use of DNase for targeting extracellular DNA at destined tissue sites provides a potential solution for treatment of diseases associated with ectopic mineralization.

4.
J Dent ; 116: 103888, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The humid oral environment adversely affects the interaction between a functionalised primer and dentine collagen after acid-etching. Robust adhesion of marine mussels to their wet substrates instigates the quest for a strategy that improves the longevity of resin-dentine bonds. In the present study, an etching strategy based on the incorporation of biomimetic dopamine methacrylamide (DMA) as a functionalised primer into phosphoric acid etchant was developed. The mechanism and effect of this DMA-containing acid-etching strategy on bond durability were examined. METHODS: Etchants with different concentrations of DMA (1, 3 or 5 mM) were formulated and tested for their demineralisation efficacy. The interaction between DMA and dentine collagen, the effect of DMA on collagen stability and the collagenase inhibition capacity of the DMA-containing etchants were evaluated. The effectiveness of this new etching strategy on resin-dentine bond durability was investigated. RESULTS: All etchants were capable of demineralising dentine and exposing the collagen matrix. The latter strongly integrated with DMA via covalent bond, hydrogen bond and Van der Waals' forces. These interactions significantly improve collagen stability and inhibited collagenase activity. Application of the etchant containing 5 mM DMA achieved the most durable bonding interface. CONCLUSION: Dopamine methacrylamide interacts with dentine collagen in a humid environment and improves collagen stability. The monomer effectively inactivates collagenase activity. Acid-etching with 5 mM DMA-containing phosphoric acid has the potential to prolong the longevity of bonded dental restorations without compromising clinical operation time. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of 5 mM dopamine methacrylamide-containing phosphoric acid for etching dentine does not require an additional clinical step and has potential to improve the adhesive performance of bonded dental restorations.

5.
Acta Biomater ; 136: 137-146, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571268

RESUMO

Collagen membranes crosslinked with high molecular weight polyacrylic acid (HPAA) are capable of self-mineralization via in situ intrafibrillar mineralization. These HPAA-crosslinked collagen membranes (HCM) have been shown to promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhance bone regeneration in vivo. Nevertheless, the biological triggers involved in those processes and the associated mechanisms are not known. Here, we identified the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics in HCM-mediated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Mitochondriogenesis markers were significantly upregulated when MSCs were cultured on HCM, committing the MSCs to osteogenic differentiation. The mitochondria fused to form an interconnected mitochondrial network in response to the high energy requirements. Mitochondrial fission in MSCs was also triggered by HCM; fission slightly declined at 14 days to restore the equilibrium in mitochondrial dynamics. Mitophagy, another event that regulates mitochondrial dynamics, occurred actively to remove dysfunctioned mitochondria and isolate damaged mitochondria from the rest of network. The mitophagy level of MSCs was significantly elevated in the presence of HCM. Taken together, the present findings indicate that upregulation of mitochondrial dynamics via mitochondriogenesis, fusion, fission and mitophagy is responsible for HCM-mediated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: High molecular weight polyacrylic acid (HPAA)-crosslinked collagen membrane (HCM) was found to promote in-situ bone regeneration because of it can stimulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nevertheless, the biological triggers involved in those processes and associated mechanisms are not known. This study identifies that activation of mitochondrial dynamics is centrally involved in HCM-mediated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The HCM accelerates mitochondriogenesis and regulates homeostasis of the mitochondrial network in response to the increased energy demand for osteogenic differentiation. Concomitantly, mitophagy actively occurs to remove dysfunctioned mitochondria from the rest of the mitochondrial network. Identification of the involvement of mitophagy in HCM-mediated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs opens new vistas in the application of biomimetic mineralization in bone tissue regeneration.

6.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436861

RESUMO

Tooth biomineralization is a dynamic and complicated process influenced by local and systemic factors. Abnormal mineralization in teeth occurs when factors related to physiologic mineralization are altered during tooth formation and after tooth maturation, resulting in microscopic and macroscopic manifestations. The present Review provides timely information on the mechanisms and structural alterations of different forms of pathological tooth mineralization. A comprehensive study of these alterations benefits diagnosis and biomimetic treatment of abnormal mineralization in patients.

9.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 97(9): 1261-1269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043466

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) is a common nonsurgical treatment in the management of patients with cancer. While genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) recapitulate human disease, conventional linear particle accelerator systems are not suited for state-of-the-art, imageguided targeted RT (IGRT) of these murine tumors. We employed the CyberKnife (CK; Accuray) platform for IGRT of GEMM-derived non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GEMM-derived KrasLSL-G12D/+/Trp53fl/fl -driven NSCLC flank tumors were irradiated using the CK RT platform. We applied IGRT of 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy using field sizes of 5-12.5 mm to average gross tumor volumes (GTV) of 0.9 cm3 using Xsight Spine Tracking (Accuray). RESULTS: We found that 0 mm planning target volume (PTV) margin is sufficient for IGRT of murine tumors using the CK. We observed that higher RT doses (6-8 Gy) decreased absolute cell numbers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TIL) by approximately half compared to low doses (2-4 Gy) within 1 h, but even with low dose RT (2 Gy) TIL were found to be reduced after 8-24 h. CONCLUSION: We here demonstrate that the CK RT system allows for targeted IGRT of murine tumors with high precision and constitutes a novel promising platform for translational mouse RT studies.


Assuntos
Radiocirurgia , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos
10.
Bioact Mater ; 6(12): 4255-4285, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997505

RESUMO

Marine resources have tremendous potential for developing high-value biomaterials. The last decade has seen an increasing number of biomaterials that originate from marine organisms. This field is rapidly evolving. Marine biomaterials experience several periods of discovery and development ranging from coralline bone graft to polysaccharide-based biomaterials. The latter are represented by chitin and chitosan, marine-derived collagen, and composites of different organisms of marine origin. The diversity of marine natural products, their properties and applications are discussed thoroughly in the present review. These materials are easily available and possess excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and potent bioactive characteristics. Important applications of marine biomaterials include medical applications, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery agents, anticoagulants, rehabilitation of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, bone diseases and diabetes, as well as comestible, cosmetic and industrial applications.

11.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 129-135, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834666

RESUMO

Oral-maxillofacial hard tissue is the support of maxillofacial structure and appearance, and lays the foundation for functions of oral and maxillofacial system. Once the defect occurs, it will not only affect the physiological functions such as chewing and pronunciation, but also have a significant impact on the psychological and social life of patients. However, the self-repairing capability of the oral-maxillofacial hard tissue is pretty limited, in which case, substitute materials are required for tissue repair. A huge gap exists between the physical, chemical, structural characteristics of conventional substitute materials and those of human hard tissues, resulting in poor repair effect. Based on this, scholars simulated the process of biomineralization in the development of hard tissues, to improve the structure and function of materials through biomimetic mineralization technology and enhance the repair performance of materials. The current understanding of biomineralization theory and the construction of biomimetic repair technology is still in the stage of rapid development. In recent years, a mass of innovative studies are keeping emerging. In this review, the representative advances in the repair of oral-maxillofacial hard tissues of the past five years are reviewed.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Humanos
12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(7): 2003390, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854888

RESUMO

For the past two decades, the function of intrabony nerves on bone has been a subject of intense research, while the function of bone on intrabony nerves is still hidden in the corner. In the present review, the possible crosstalk between bone and intrabony peripheral nerves will be comprehensively analyzed. Peripheral nerves participate in bone development and repair via a host of signals generated through the secretion of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, axon guidance factors and neurotrophins, with additional contribution from nerve-resident cells. In return, bone contributes to this microenvironmental rendezvous by housing the nerves within its internal milieu to provide mechanical support and a protective shelf. A large ensemble of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues works in harmony with bone marrow stromal cells in the regulation of intrabony nerves. The crosstalk between bone and nerves is not limited to the physiological state, but also involved in various bone diseases including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, heterotopic ossification, psychological stress-related bone abnormalities, and bone related tumors. This crosstalk may be harnessed in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds for repair of bone defects or be targeted for treatment of diseases related to bone and peripheral nerves.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Osso e Ossos/inervação , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia
13.
Acta Biomater ; 125: 112-125, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582360

RESUMO

Collagen membranes produced in vitro with different degrees of intrafibrillar mineralization are potentially useful for guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, highly-mineralized collagen membranes are brittle and difficult for clinical manipulation. The present study aimed at developing an intrafibrillar self-mineralization strategy for GBR membrane by covalently conjugating high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid (HPAA) on Bio-Gide® membranes (BG). The properties of the self-mineralizable membranes (HBG) and their potential to induce bone regeneration were investigated. The HBG underwent the progressive intrafibrillar mineralization as well as the increase in stiffness after immersed in supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, osteogenic medium, or after being implanted into a murine calvarial bone defect. The HBG promoted in-situ bone regeneration via stimulating osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Hippo signaling was inhibited when MSCs were cultured on the self-mineralized HBG, and in HBG-promoted MSC osteogenesis during in-situ bone regeneration. This resulted in translocation of the transcription co-activators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) into the nucleus to induce transcription of genes promoting osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Taken together, these findings indicated that HBG possessed the ability to self-mineralize in situ via intrafibrillar mineralization. The increase in stiffness of the extracellular matrix expedited in-situ bone regeneration by inactivating the Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling cascade. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes made of naturally derived collagen have been widely used in the bone defect restoration. However, application of collagen GBR membranes run into the bottleneck with the challenges like insufficient stress strength, relatively poor dimensional stability and unsatisfactory osteoinductivity. This study develops a modified GBR membrane that can undergo progressive self-mineralization and matrix stiffening in situ. Increase in extracellular matrix stiffness provides the mechanical cues required for MSCs differentiation and expedites in-situ bone regeneration by inactivating the Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling cascade.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Matriz Extracelular , Camundongos
14.
Acta Biomater ; 120: 213-223, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711082

RESUMO

Involvement of thermodynamically-stable prenucleation clusters (PNCs) in the biomineralization of collagen has been speculated since their existence was reported in mineralization systems. It has been hypothesized that intrafibrillar mineralization proceeds via nucleation of inhibitor-stabilized intermediates produced by liquid-liquid separation (aka. polymer-induced liquid precursors; PILPs). Here, the contribution of PNCs and PILPs to calcium phosphate intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen was examined in a model with a semipermeable membrane that excludes nucleation inhibitor-stabilized PILPs from reaching the collagen fibrils, using cryogenic electron microscopy of reconstituted fibrils and conventional transmission electron microscopy of collagen sponges. Molecular dynamics simulation with the Interface force field (IFF) was used to confirm the existence of PILPs with amorphous calcium phosphate and elucidate details of the dynamics. Furthermore, intrafibrillar mineralization of single collagen fibrils was experimentally observed with unstabilized PNCs when anionic/cationic polyelectrolytes were used to establish Donnan equilibrium across the semipermeable membrane. Molecular dynamics simulation verified PNC formation within the collagen intrafibrillar gap zones at the atomic scale and explained the role of external PILPs. The PILPs decrease the interfibrillar water content and increase the interfibrillar ionic concentration. Nevertheless, intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen sponges with PNCs alone was inefficacious, being constrained by competition from extrafibrillar mineral precipitation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with conventional PILP-based intrafibrillar mineralization, mineralization of collagen fibrils using unstabilized PNCs is constrained by competition from extrafibrillar mineral deposition. The narrow window of opportunity for PNCs to produce intrafibrillar mineralization provides a plausible explanation for the feasibility of nucleation inhibitor-free intrafibrillar apatite assembly during reconstitution of type I collagen.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio , Colágeno , Apatitas , Matriz Extracelular , Polímeros
15.
J Dent ; 104: 103530, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the indentation depth, storage modulus and biocompatibility of an experimental endodontic putty designed for endodontic perforation repair and direct pulp-capping (NeoPutty). The results were compared with the properties associated with the commercially available EndoSequence BC RRM Putty (ES Putty). METHODS: Indentation depth was measured by a profilometer following indentation with the 1/4 lb Gilmore needle. Elastic modulus was evaluated using a strain-controlled rheometer. The effects of eluents derived from these two putties were examined on the viability and proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs), before (1 st testing cycle) and after complete setting (2nd testing cycle). RESULTS: The ES Putty became more difficult to ident and acquired a larger storage modulus after exposure to atmospheric moisture. Biocompatibility results indicated that both putties were relatively more cytotoxic than the bioinert Teflon negative control, but much less cytotoxic than the zinc oxide-eugenol cement negative control. NeoPutty was less cytotoxic than ES putty in the 1st testing cycle, particularly with hDPSCs. Both putties exhibited more favourable cytotoxicity profiles after complete setting. CONCLUSIONS: NeoPutty has a better window of maneuverability after exposure to atmospheric moisture. From an in vitro cytotoxicity perspective, the NeoPutty may be considered more biocompatible than ES putty. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental NeoPutty is biocompatible and is capable of reducing the frustration of shortened shelf life when jar-stored endodontic putties are exposed to atmospheric moisture during repeated opening of the lid for clinical retrieval.


Assuntos
Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Compostos de Cálcio/toxicidade , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Óxidos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/toxicidade , Silicatos/toxicidade , Cimento de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol
16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(8): 202000779, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224716

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/advs.201901872.].

17.
Adv Mater ; 32(33): e2002129, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602146

RESUMO

Skin infections caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi are difficult to treat by conventional topical administration because of poor drug penetration across the stratum corneum. This results in low bioavailability of drugs to the infection site, as well as the lack of prolonged release. Emerging antimicrobial transdermal and ocular microneedle patches have become promising medical devices for the delivery of various antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral therapeutics. In the present review, skin anatomy and its barriers along with skin infection are discussed. Potential strategies for designing antimicrobial microneedles and their targeted therapy are outlined. Finally, biosensing microneedle patches associated with personalized drug therapy and selective toxicity toward specific microbial species are discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Agulhas/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Humanos , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia
18.
J Int Med Res ; 48(6): 300060520925961, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495669

RESUMO

Whether an unplanned pregnancy should be terminated during follow-up of a hydatidiform mole is controversial. We report a patient who had an unplanned pregnancy with a hydatidiform mole at 2 months after uterine curettage when the human chorionic gonadotropin level had decreased to a negative value. Hydatidiform mole was confirmed by histopathology. Uterine curettage was performed twice and regular follow-ups were performed after surgery. The patient achieved a full-term pregnancy. The Apgar score of the newborn was 10 at 1, 5, and 10 minutes, and the newborn had no malformations. We conclude that the pregnancy outcome might be good in an unplanned pregnancy when the human chorionic gonadotropin level is negative.


Assuntos
Curetagem , Mola Hidatiforme/cirurgia , Gravidez não Planejada , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Feminino , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme/diagnóstico , Mola Hidatiforme/patologia , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Miométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Miométrio/patologia , Miométrio/cirurgia , Gravidez , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
19.
Heliyon ; 6(5): e03925, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420491

RESUMO

Objectives: The present study examined a technique for reducing dentin permeability through the application of a calcium phosphate (CaP)-based desensitiser with a laser-assisted process and evaluated adhesive-dentin bond strength. Methods: Thirty dentin discs were divided into two groups according to whether the selected desensitiser (TeethMate; Kuraray Noritake) was used prior to dentin bonding. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups (n = 5): A- Adhesive (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), AL- Adhesive + Laser (Nd:YAG 60 mJ) and LAL- Laser + Adhesive + Laser. Dentin permeability values (%) were recorded before and after desensitiser application. Resin composites were placed over the bonded specimens; the latter were aged prior to microtensile bond strength evaluation. Gelatinolytic activity within the hybrid layers was examined with in-situ zymography using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data were analysed with ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). Results: Significant differences in dentin permeability were identified for all groups (p = 0.00). Both laser treatment (p = 0.182) and desensitiser application (p = 0.687) did not significantly improve dentin bond strength. Ultrastructure of the resin-dentin interface identified presence of calcium phosphate within dentinal tubules. Laser treatment did not affect hybrid layer ultrastructure. Both treatment modalities (intratubular CaP occlusion and laser) had no influence on gelatinolytic activity within hybrid layers. Conclusion: Although intratubular CaP occlusion and laser treatment were effective in reducing dentin permeability, they did not affect bond strength, interfacial ultrastructure and gelatinolytic activity within hybrid layers. Clinical relevance: Treatment of etched dentin with Nd:YAG Laser at 60 mJ does not adversely affect collagen ultrastructure and gelatinolytic activity within the hybrid layer. The application of a calcium phosphate-based desensitiser to etch dentin does not affect dentin bond strength.

20.
Adv Mater ; 32(22): e1907833, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270552

RESUMO

Microbe-mediated mineralization is ubiquitous in nature, involving bacteria, fungi, viruses, and algae. These mineralization processes comprise calcification, silicification, and iron mineralization. The mechanisms for mineral formation include extracellular and intracellular biomineralization. The mineral precipitating capability of microbes is often harnessed for green synthesis of metal nanoparticles, which are relatively less toxic compared with those synthesized through physical or chemical methods. Microbe-mediated mineralization has important applications ranging from pollutant removal and nonreactive carriers, to other industrial and biomedical applications. Herein, the different types of microbe-mediated biomineralization that occur in nature, their mechanisms, as well as their applications are elucidated to create a backdrop for future research.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Minerais/química , Vírus/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotecnologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Química Verde , Ferro/química , Fenômenos Microbiológicos , Vírus/metabolismo
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