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1.
Langmuir ; 36(26): 7706-7714, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517475

RESUMO

Magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been successfully utilized in versatile fields but are still limited by their relatively inferior long-term dispersion stability. Herein, bio-inspired passion fruit-like Fe3O4@C nanospheres were fabricated via a simple hydrothermal and calcination approach to tackle the settling challenge. The unique structures provide sufficient active interfaces for the penetration of carrier mediums, leading to preferable wettability between particles and medium oils. Compared with the bare Fe3O4 nanoparticle suspension, the resulting Fe3O4@C nanosphere-based MR fluid exhibits desirable stability and relatively low field-off viscosity even at a high particle concentration up to 35 vol %.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031783

RESUMO

In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) group VA elemental materials have attracted considerable interest from physics/chemistry and materials science communities, with particular attention paid to honeycomb blue phosphorene. To date, phosphorene is limited to its α-phase and small sizes because it can only be produced by exfoliating black phosphorus crystals. Here, we report the direct synthesis of high-quality phosphorene on a nonmetallic copper oxide substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. By combining scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the growth intermediates and electronic structures of phosphorene on Cu3O2/Cu(111). Surprisingly, the grown phosphorene has a flat honeycomb lattice, similar to graphene, which exhibits a metallic nature. We reveal that the growth mechanism and morphology of phosphorene are strongly correlated with the surface structures of prepared copper oxide, and the resulting phosphorene can be stabilized after high-temperature annealing above 600 K even in oxygen gas. The high stability is closely related to the irregular Moiré pattern and structural corrugations of phosphorene on Cu3O2/Cu(111) that efficiently relieve the surface strain. These results shed light on future fabrication of large-scale, versatile 2D structures for interconnect and device integration.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1317-1329, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945298

RESUMO

An atomic layer of tin in a buckled honeycomb lattice, termed stanene, is a promising large-gap two-dimensional topological insulator for realizing room-temperature quantum-spin-Hall effect and therefore has drawn tremendous interest in recent years. Because the electronic structures of Sn allotropes are sensitive to lattice strain, e.g. the semimetallic α-phase of Sn can transform into a three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetal under compressive strain, recent experimental advances have demonstrated that stanene layers on different substrates can also host various electronic properties relating to in-plane strain, interfacial charge transfer, layer thickness, and so on. Thus, comprehensive understanding of the growth mechanism at the atomic scale is highly desirable for precise control of such tunable properties. Herein, the fundamental properties of stanene and α-Sn films, recent achievements in epitaxial growth, challenges in high-quality synthesis, and possible applications of stanene are discussed.

4.
Adv Mater ; 32(4): e1906873, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825535

RESUMO

Controlled synthesis of 2D structures on nonmetallic substrate is challenging, yet an attractive approach for the integration of 2D systems into current semiconductor technologies. Herein, the direct synthesis of high-quality 2D antimony, or antimonene, on dielectric copper oxide substrate by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Delicate scanning tunneling microscopy imaging on the evolution intermediates reveals a segregation growth process on Cu3 O2 /Cu(111), from ordered dimer chains to packed dot arrays, and finally to monolayer antimonene. First-principles calculations demonstrate the strain-modulated band structures in antimonene, which interacts weakly with the oxide surface so that its semiconducting nature is preserved, in perfect agreement with spectroscopic measurements. This work paves the way for large-scale growth and processing of antimonene for practical implementation.

5.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10622-10630, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487147

RESUMO

Epitaxial two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with regular patterns show great promise as templates for adsorbate confinement. Prospectively, employing 2D semiconductors with reduced density of states leads to a long excited-state lifetime that allows us to directly image the dynamics of the adsorbate. We show that epitaxial blue phosphorene (blueP) on Au(111) provides such a platform to trap water molecules in the periodic nanopores without formation of strong bonds. The trapped water aggregate is tentatively assigned to a hexamer based on our scanning tunneling microscopy studies and first-principles calculations. Real-space observation of conformational switching of the hexamer induced by inelastic electrons is achieved by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy with molecular resolution. We found a localized interfacial charge rearrangement between the water hexamer and P atoms underneath that is responsible for the reversible desorption and adsorption of water molecules by changing the sample bias polarity from positive to negative, offering a promising strategy for engineering the electronic properties of blueP.

6.
Adv Mater ; 31(29): e1902606, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157463

RESUMO

Antimonene, a new semiconductor with fundamental bandgap and desirable stability, has been experimentally realized recently. However, epitaxial growth of wafer-scale single-crystalline monolayer antimonene preserving its buckled configuration remains a daunting challenge. Here, Cu(111) and Cu(110) are chosen as the substrates to fabricate high-quality, single-crystalline antimonene via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Surface alloys form spontaneously after the deposition and postannealing of Sb on two substrates that show threefold and twofold symmetry with different lattice constants. Increasing the coverage leads to the epitaxial growth of two atomic types of antimonene, both exhibiting a hexagonal lattice but with significant difference in lattice constants, which are observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal the strain-induced tunable bandgap, in agreement with the first-principles calculations. The results show that epitaxial growth of antimonene on different substrates allow the electronic properties of these films to be tuned by substrate-induced strain and stress.

7.
Small ; 15(22): e1805395, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942946

RESUMO

The future electronic application of graphene highly relies on the production of large-area high-quality single-crystal graphene. However, the growth of single-crystal graphene on different substrates via either single nucleation or seamless stitching is carried out at a temperature of 1000 °C or higher. The usage of this high temperature generates a variety of problems, including complexity of operation, higher contamination, metal evaporation, and wrinkles owing to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and graphene. Here, a new approach for the fabrication of ultraflat single-crystal graphene using Cu/Ni (111)/sapphire wafers at lower temperature is reported. It is found that the temperature of epitaxial growth of graphene using Cu/Ni (111) can be reduced to 750 °C, much lower than that of earlier reports on catalytic surfaces. Devices made of graphene grown at 750 °C have a carrier mobility up to ≈9700 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. This work shines light on a way toward a much lower temperature growth of high-quality graphene in single crystallinity, which could benefit future electronic applications.

8.
Langmuir ; 35(9): 3507-3512, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759989

RESUMO

Molecular devices have become an emergent branch of nanoscience and technology beyond traditional silicon-based electronic devices. The properties of these devices are intimately related to the molecular conformation and packing. In this article, three different conformations of melamine molecules are observed on Au(111), and a transition from the lying-down to standing-up phase with long-range order is realized in melamine chains with the assistance of hexabromobenzene (HBB). We argue that it is the expanding of HBB domains from hexagonal to the dimer phase due to surface dehalogenation that facilitates the dehydrogenation of melamine to form a standing-up conformation. Similar transitions are also accomplished on the Ag(111) surface. Our results provide an effective way to achieve standing-up molecular arrays with long-range order on relatively less active metals. This may have significant implications in fabricating organic thin film transistors.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5168, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518867

RESUMO

Lateral graphene p-n junctions are important since they constitute the core components in a variety of electronic/photonic systems. However, formation of lateral graphene p-n junctions with a controllable doping levels is still a great challenge due to the monolayer feature of graphene. Herein, by performing selective ion implantation and in situ growth by dynamic chemical vapor deposition, direct formation of seamless lateral graphene p-n junctions with spatial control and tunable doping is demonstrated. Uniform lattice substitution with heteroatoms is achieved in both the boron-doped and nitrogen-doped regions and photoelectrical assessment reveals that the seamless lateral p-n junctions exhibit a distinct photocurrent response under ambient conditions. As ion implantation is a standard technique in microelectronics, our study suggests a simple and effective strategy for mass production of graphene p-n junctions with batch capability and spatial controllability, which can be readily integrated into the production of graphene-based electronics and photonics.

10.
Nanoscale ; 10(46): 21575-21603, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457619

RESUMO

Phosphorus, one of the most abundant elements in the Earth (∼0.1%), has attracted much attention in the last five years since the rediscovery of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) in 2014. The successful scaling down of BP endows this 'old material' with new vitality, resulting from the intriguing semiconducting properties in the atomic scale limit, i.e. layer-dependent bandgap that covers from the visible light to mid-infrared light spectrum as well as hole-dominated ambipolar transport characteristics. Intensive research effort has been devoted to the fabrication, characterization, functionalization and application of BP and other phosphorus allotropes. In this review article, we summarize the fundamental properties and fabrication techniques of BP, with particular emphasis on the recent progress in molecular beam epitaxy growth of 2D phosphorus. Subsequently, we highlight recent progress in BP (opto)electronic device applications achieved via customized manipulation methods, such as interface, defect and bandgap engineering as well as forming Lego-like stacked heterostructures.

11.
Nanoscale ; 10(7): 3350-3355, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387855

RESUMO

A stable three-dimensional layered GaTeCl bulk counterpart is first known from experiment since 1980s. In this study, we propose a two-dimensional GaTeCl, the band structure of which has a tendency of intrinsic direct-to-indirect band gap transitions as a result of a decrease in the layer number, while the changes in the band gap value are minor. The GaTeCl monolayer possesses a wide indirect band gap of 3.06 eV and high hole mobility of up to 4710 cm2 V-1 s-1, which, intriguingly, can be converted into direct band-gap semiconductors under a slight tensile strain. The GaTeCl monolayer is calculated to have an ideal cleavage energy of about 32 meV per atom; therefore, the synthesis of GaTeCl monolayer through exfoliation of bulk GaTeCl is available. In this regard, we simulate a monolayer GaTeCl MOSFETs device based on first-principles method quantum transport approach. The underlying device performance could pave the way for it to be a promising candidate as a suitable FET channel material.

12.
Langmuir ; 34(1): 553-560, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268013

RESUMO

Construction of tunable and robust two-dimensional (2D) molecular arrays with desirable lattices and functionalities over a macroscopic scale relies on spontaneous and reversible noncovalent interactions between suitable molecules as building blocks. Halogen bonding, with active tunability of direction, strength, and length, is ideal for tailoring supramolecular structures. Herein, by combining low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and systematic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate novel halogen bonding involving single halogen atoms and phase engineering in 2D molecular self-assembly. On the Au(111) surface, we observed catalyzed dehalogenation of hexabromobenzene (HBB) molecules, during which negatively charged bromine adatoms (Brδ-) were generated and participated in assembly via unique C-Brδ+···Brδ- interaction, drastically different from HBB assembly on a chemically inert graphene substrate. We successfully mapped out different phases of the assembled superstructure, including densely packed hexagonal, tetragonal, dimer chain, and expanded hexagonal lattices at room temperature, 60 °C, 90 °C, and 110 °C, respectively, and the critical role of Brδ- in regulating lattice characteristics was highlighted. Our results show promise for manipulating the interplay between noncovalent interactions and catalytic reactions for future development of molecular nanoelectronics and 2D crystal engineering.

13.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(2): 855-863, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091455

RESUMO

The role of oxygen in the activation of C-H bonds in methane on clean and oxygen-precovered Cu(111) and Cu2O(111) surfaces was studied with combined in situ near-ambient-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Activation of methane at 300 K and "moderate pressures" was only observed on oxygen-precovered Cu(111) surfaces. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the lowest activation energy barrier of C-H on Cu(111) in the presence of chemisorbed oxygen is related to a two-active-site, four-centered mechanism, which stabilizes the required transition-state intermediate by dipole-dipole attraction of O-H and Cu-CH3 species. The C-H bond activation barriers on Cu2O(111) surfaces are large due to the weak stabilization of H and CH3 fragments.

14.
Small ; 13(21)2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407459

RESUMO

All-inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) and related materials are promising candidates for potential solar cells, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Here, a novel architecture made of CsPbX3 /ZnS quantum dot heterodimers synthesized via a facile solution-phase process is reported. Microscopic measurements show that CsPbX3 /ZnS heterodimer has high crystalline quality with enhanced chemical stability, as also evidenced by systematic density functional theory based first-principles calculations. Remarkably, depending on the interface structure, ZnS induces either n-type or p-type doping in CsPbX3 and both type-I and type-II heterojunctions can be achieved, leading to rich electronic properties. Photoluminescence measurement results show a strong blue-shift and decrease of recombination lifetime with increasing sulfurization, which is beneficial for charge diffusion in solar cells and photovoltaic applications. These findings are expected to shed light on further understanding and design of novel perovskite heterostructures for stable, tunable optoelectronic devices.

15.
Nano Lett ; 16(5): 3160-5, 2016 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27101021

RESUMO

The unidirectional alignment of graphene islands is essential to the synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene on Ge(110) surface, but the underlying mechanism is not well-understood. Here we report that the necessary coalignment of the nucleating graphene islands on Ge(110) surface is caused by the presence of step-pattern; we show that on the preannealed Ge(110) textureless surface the graphene islands appear nonpreferentially orientated, while on the Ge(110) surfaces with natural step pattern, all graphene islands emerge coaligned. First-principles calculations and theoretical analysis reveal this different alignment behaviors originate from the strong chemical binding formed between the graphene island edges and the atomic steps on the Ge(110) surface, and the lattice matching at edge-step interface dictates the alignment of graphene islands with the armchair direction of graphene along the [-110] direction of the Ge(110) substrate.

16.
Small ; 12(15): 2009-13, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915342

RESUMO

The synergic effects of Cu85Ni15 and the copper vapor evaporated from copper foil enabled the fast growth of a ≈300 µm bilayer graphene in ≈10 minutes. The copper vapor reduces the growth rate of the first graphene layer while the carbon dissolved in the alloy boosts the growth of the subsequently developed second graphene layer with an AB-stacking order.

17.
ACS Nano ; 9(1): 164-71, 2015 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581685

RESUMO

Nitrogen doping is one of the most promising routes to modulate the electronic characteristic of graphene. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) enables low-temperature graphene growth. However, PECVD growth of nitrogen doped graphene (NG) usually requires metal-catalysts, and to the best of our knowledge, only amorphous carbon-nitrogen films have been produced on dielectric surfaces by metal-free PECVD. Here, a critical factor for metal-free PECVD growth of NG is reported, which allows high quality NG crystals to be grown directly on dielectrics like SiO2/Si, Al2O3, h-BN, mica at 435 °C without a catalyst. Thus, the processes needed for loading the samples on dielectrics and n-type doping are realized in a simple PECVD, which would be of significance for future graphene electronics due to its compatibility with the current microelectronic processes.

18.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4431, 2014 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24651211

RESUMO

Revealing the graphene growth mechanism at the atomic-scale is of great importance for achieving high quality graphene. However, the lack of direct experimental observation and density functional theory (DFT) verification hinders a comprehensive understanding of the structure of the carbon clusters and evolution of the graphene growth on surface. Here, we report an in-situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) study of the elementary process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth via thermal decomposition of methane on Cu(110), including the formation of monodispersed carbon clusters at the initial stage, the graphene nucleation and the ripening of graphene islands to form continuous graphene film. STM measurement, supported by DFT calculations, suggests that the carbon clusters on the surface are C2H5. It is found that graphene layers can be joined by different domains, with a relative misorientation of 30°. These graphene layers can be decoupled from Cu(110) through low temperature thermal cycling.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(22): 8409-14, 2013 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23675983

RESUMO

Graphene growth on metal films via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) represents one of the most promising methods for graphene production. The realization of the wafer scale production of single crystalline graphene films requires an atomic scale understanding of the growth mechanism and the growth intermediates of CVD graphene on metal films. Here, we use in situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) to reveal the graphene growth intermediates at different stages via thermal decomposition of methane on Cu(111). We clearly demonstrate that various carbon clusters, including carbon dimers, carbon rectangles, and 'zigzag' and 'armchair'-like carbon chains, are the actual growth intermediates prior to the graphene formation. Upon the saturation of these carbon clusters, they can transform into defective graphene possessing pseudoperiodic corrugations and vacancies. These vacancy-defects can only be effectively healed in the presence of methane via high temperature annealing at 800 °C and result in the formation of vacancy-free monolayer graphene on Cu(111).

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