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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982968

RESUMO

The soil organic carbon is associated with the plant quality and the microbial community structure. In the present study, carbon fertilizers were applied to paddy soil to elucidate the relationship between soil carbon and neutral aroma substances in both tobacco and soil microbiome by transcriptome sequencing and 16S rDNA-based analysis, respectively. Our results showed that (1) the increase in soil carbon content was closely correlated with the abundance of microorganisms belonging to two classes (which could potentially affect tobacco plants), namely Gammaproteobacteria and Chloroflexia, (2) soil carbon apparently affected tobacco neutral aroma substances, and (3) soil carbon improved neutral aroma substances by affecting the transcriptional processes of sesquiterpenoid and chlorophyll biosyntheses. These results suggest that increased soil carbon-especially active organic carbon-resulted in desirable improvements in aroma substances in tobacco leaves.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224556, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671156

RESUMO

The application of biochar is one of the most useful methods for improving soil quality, which is of the utmost significance for the continuous production of crops. As there are no conclusive studies on the specific effects of biochar application on tobacco quality, this study aimed to improve the yield and quality of tobacco as a model crop for economic and genetic research in southern China, by such application. We used transcriptome sequencing to reveal the effects of applied biochar on tobacco development before and after topping. Our results showed that topping affected carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism in the tobacco plants, while straw biochar-application to the soil resulted in amino acid and lipid synthesis; additionally, it affected secondary metabolism of the tobacco plants through carbon restoration and hormonal action, before and after topping. In addition to the new insights into the impact of biochar on crops, our findings provide a basis for biochar application measures in tobacco and other crops.

3.
PeerJ ; 7: e7576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565561

RESUMO

Background: The increasing demand for food production has resulted in the use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers. This has created major environmental problems, such as increased ammonia volatilization, N2O emission, and nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soil. In particular, the utilization rate of N fertilizer is low in subtropical southern parts of China due to high rainfall. This causes not only large financial losses in agriculture, but also serious environmental pollution. Methods: In this study, 16S rDNA-based analysis and static-chamber gas chromatography were used to elucidate the effects of continuous straw biochar application on the N pool and bacteria environment in two typical soil types, purple and paddy soils, in southern China. Results: Straw biochar application (1) improved the soil N pool in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils; (2) significantly reduced the emission of N2O, with no difference in emission between 1 and 2 years of application; (3) increased the abundance of N-processing bacteria in the soil and altered the bacterial community structure; and (4) improved the tobacco yield and N use efficiency in paddy soil. These findings suggest that, in southern China, the application of straw biochar can promote N transformation in purple and paddy soils and reduce the emission of the greenhouse gas N2O.

4.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(7): 181499, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417689

RESUMO

Soil carbon reserves are the largest terrestrial carbon pools. Common agricultural practices, such as high fertilization rates and intensive crop rotation, have led to global-scale environmental changes, including decreased soil organic matter, lower carbon/nitrogen ratios and disruption of soil carbon pools. These changes have resulted in a decrease in soil microbial activity, severe reduction in soil fertility and transformation of soil nutrients, thereby causing soil nutrient imbalance, which seriously affects crop production. In this study, 16S rDNA-based analysis and static chamber-gas chromatography were used to elucidate the effects of continuous application of straw biochar on soil carbon pools and the soil microbial environments of two typical soil types (purple and paddy soils) in southern China. Application of biochar (1) improved the soil carbon pool and its activity, (2) significantly promoted the release of soil CO2 and (3) improved the soil carbon environment. Soil carbon content was closely correlated with the abundance of organisms belonging to two orders, Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, and, more specifically, to the genus Lactococcus. These results suggest that biochar affects the soil carbon environment and soil microorganism abundance, which in turn may improve the soil carbon pool.

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