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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies in acute care settings, and describe perspectives and mitigation approaches among patients, families, and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on January 01/2021, unrestricted, for published primary research records reporting any study design. We included secondary (e.g., reviews) and non-research records (e.g., commentaries), and performed manual searches in web-based resources. We excluded records that did not report primary data. Two reviewers independently abstracted data in duplicate. RESULTS: Of 7810 citations, we included 155 records. Sixty-six records (43%) were primary research; 29 (44%) case reports or case series, and 26 (39%) cohort studies; 21 (14%) were literature reviews and 8 (5%) were expert recommendations; 54 (35%) were commentary, editorial, or opinion pieces. Restricted visitation policies impacted coping and daily function (n = 31, 20%) and mental health outcomes (n = 29, 19%) of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Participants described a need for coping and support (n = 107, 69%), connection and communication (n = 107, 69%), and awareness of state of well-being (n = 101, 65%). Eighty-seven approaches to mitigate impact of restricted visitation were identified, targeting families (n = 61, 70%), patients (n = 51, 59%), and healthcare professionals (n = 40, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, families, and healthcare professionals were impacted by restricted visitation polices in acute care settings during COVID-19. The consequences of this approach on patients and families are understudied and warrant evaluation of approaches to mitigate their impact. Future pandemic policy development should include the perspectives of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221662) and a protocol peer-reviewed prior to data extraction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos , Família , Política de Saúde , Pacientes Internados , Distanciamento Físico , Visitas a Pacientes , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Comunicação , Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Telefone , Visitas a Pacientes/psicologia
2.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(10): 1474-1484, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In response to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, hospitals in Canada enacted temporary visitor restrictions to limit the spread of COVID-19 and preserve personal protective equipment supplies. This study describes the extent, variation, and fluctuation of Canadian adult intensive care unit (ICU) visitation policies before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of Canadian hospital visitation policies throughout the first wave of the pandemic. We conducted a two-phased study analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data. RESULTS: We collected 257 documents with reference to visitation policies (preCOVID, 101 [39%]; midCOVID, 71 [28%]; and lateCOVID, 85 [33%]). Of these 257 documents, 38 (15%) were ICU-specific and 70 (27%) referenced the ICU. Most policies during the midCOVID/lateCOVID pandemic period allowed no visitors with specific exceptions (e.g., end-of-life). Framework analysis revealed five overarching themes: 1) reasons for restricted visitation policies; 2) visitation policies and expectations; 3) exceptions to visitation policy; 4) patient and family-centred care; and 5) communication and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, most Canadian hospitals had public-facing visitor restriction policies with specific exception categories, most commonly for patients at end-of-life, patients requiring assistance, or COVID-19 positive patients (varying from not allowed to case-by-case). Further studies are needed to understand the consistency with which visitation policies were operationalized and how they may have impacted patient- and family-centred care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Canadá , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Política Organizacional , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitas a Pacientes
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e042251, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health technology reassessment (HTR) is a field focused on managing a technology throughout its life cycle for optimal use. The process results in one of four possible recommendations: increase use, decrease use, no change or complete withdrawal of the technology. However, implementation of these recommendations has been challenging. This paper explores knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks (TMFs) and their suitability for implementation of HTR recommendations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Purposeful sampling of international KT and HTR experts was administered between January and March 2019. METHODS: Sixteen full-spectrum KT TMFs were rated by the experts as 'yes', 'partially yes' or 'no' on six criteria: familiarity, logical consistency/plausibility, degree of specificity, accessibility, ease of use and HTR suitability. Consensus was determined as a rating of ≥70% responding 'yes'. Descriptive statistics and manifest content analysis were conducted on open-ended comments. RESULTS: Eleven HTR and 11 KT experts from Canada, USA, UK, Australia, Germany, Spain, Italy and Sweden participated. Of the 16 KT TMFs, none received ≥70% rating. When ratings of 'yes' and 'partially yes' were combined, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was considered the most suitable KT TMF by both KT and HTR experts (86%). One additional KT TMF was selected by KT experts: Knowledge to Action framework. HTR experts selected two additional KT TMFs: Co-KT framework and Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. Experts identified three key characteristics of a KT TMF that may be important to consider: practicality, guidance on implementation and KT TMF adaptability. CONCLUSIONS: Despite not reaching an overall ≥70% rating on any of the KT TMFs, experts identified four KT TMFs suitable for HTR. Users may apply these KT TMFs in the implementation of HTR recommendations. In addition, KT TMF characteristics relevant to the field of HTR need to be explored further.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Austrália , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Espanha , Suécia
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 146, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether vasopressors can be safely administered through a peripheral intravenous (PIV). Systematic review and meta-analysis methodology was used to examine the incidence of local anatomic adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration in patients of any age cared for in any acute care environment. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched without restriction from inception to October 2019. References of included studies and related reviews, as well as relevant conference proceedings were also searched. Studies were included if they were: (1) cohort, quasi-experimental, or randomized controlled trial study design; (2) conducted in humans of any age or clinical setting; and (3) reported on local anatomic adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration. Risk of bias was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials or the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for prevalence studies where appropriate. Incidence estimates were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included in the systematic review, of which 16 and 7 described adults and children, respectively. Meta-analysis from 11 adult studies including 16,055 patients demonstrated a pooled incidence proportion of adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration as 1.8% (95% CI 0.1-4.8%, I2 = 93.7%). In children, meta-analysis from four studies and 388 patients demonstrated a pooled incidence proportion of adverse events as 3.3% (95% CI 0.0-10.1%, I2 = 82.4%). Subgroup analyses did not detect any statistically significant effects associated with stratification based on differences in clinical location, risk of bias or design between studies, PIV location and size, or vasopressor type or duration. Most studies had high or some concern for risk of bias. CONCLUSION: The incidence of adverse events associated with PIV vasopressor administration is low. Additional research is required to examine the effects of PIV location and size, vasopressor type and dose, and patient characteristics on the safety of PIV vasopressor administration.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Humanos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(4): 412-420, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823122

RESUMO

Rationale: Delirium is common in the ICU and portends worse ICU and hospital outcomes. The effect of delirium in the ICU on post-hospital discharge mortality and health resource use is less well known. Objectives: To estimate mortality and health resource use 2.5 years after hospital discharge in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU. Methods: This was a population-based, propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to 1 of 14 medical-surgical ICUs from January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Delirium was measured by using the 8-point Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. The primary outcome was mortality. The secondary outcome was a composite measure of subsequent emergency department visits, hospital readmission, or mortality. Measurements and Main Results: There were 5,936 propensity score-matched patients with and without a history of incident delirium who survived to hospital discharge. Delirium was associated with increased mortality 0-30 days after hospital discharge (hazard ratio, 1.44 [95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.92]). There was no significant difference in mortality more than 30 days after hospital discharge (delirium: 3.9%, no delirium: 2.6%). There was a persistent increased risk of emergency department visits, hospital readmissions, or mortality after hospital discharge (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.17]) throughout the study period. Conclusions: ICU delirium is associated with increased mortality 0-30 days after hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Delírio/mortalidade , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 401, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health Technology Reassessment (HTR) is a process that systematically assesses technologies that are currently used in the health care system. The process results in four outputs: increase use or decrease use, no change, or de-adoption of a technology. Implementation of these outputs remains a challenge. The Knowledge Translation (KT) field enables to transfer/translate knowledge into practice. KT could help with implementation of HTR outputs. This study sought to identify which characteristics of KT theories, models, and frameworks could be useful, specifically for decreased use or de-adoption of a technology. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to ascertain the perspectives of international KT and HTR experts on the characteristics of KT theories, models, and frameworks for decreased use or de-adoption of a technology. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted from September to December 2019. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes and sub-themes were deduced from the data through framework analysis using five distinctive steps: familiarization, identifying an analytic framework, indexing, charting, mapping and interpretation. Themes and sub-themes were also mapped to existing KT theories, models, and frameworks. RESULTS: Thirteen experts from Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, Spain, and Sweden participated in the study. Three themes emerged that illustrated the ideal traits: principles that were foundational for HTR, levers of change, and steps for knowledge to action. Principles included evidence-based, high usability, patient-centered, and ability to apply to the micro, meso, macro levels. Levers of change were characterized as positive, neutral, or negative influences for changing behaviour for HTR. Steps for knowledge to action included: build the case for HTR, adapt research knowledge, assess context, select interventions, and assess impact. Of the KT theories, models, and frameworks that were mapped, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research had most of the characteristics, except ability to apply to micro, meso, macro levels. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics that need to be considered within a KT theory, model, and framework for implementing HTR outputs have been identified. Consideration of these characteristics may guide users to select relevant KT theories, models, and frameworks to apply to HTR projects.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Austrália , Canadá , Humanos , Espanha , Suécia , Reino Unido
7.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 404, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed sustained demand on health systems globally, and the capacity to provide critical care has been overwhelmed in some jurisdictions. It is unknown which triage criteria for allocation of resources perform best to inform health system decision-making. We sought to summarize and describe existing triage tools and ethical frameworks to aid healthcare decision-making during infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted a rapid review of triage criteria and ethical frameworks for the allocation of critical care resources during epidemics and pandemics. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and SCOPUS from inception to November 3, 2020. Full-text screening and data abstraction were conducted independently and in duplicate by three reviewers. Articles were included if they were primary research, an adult critical care setting, and the framework described was related to an infectious disease outbreak. We summarized each triage tool and ethical guidelines or framework including their elements and operating characteristics using descriptive statistics. We assessed the quality of each article with applicable checklists tailored to each study design. RESULTS: From 11,539 unique citations, 697 full-text articles were reviewed and 83 articles were included. Fifty-nine described critical care triage protocols and 25 described ethical frameworks. Of these, four articles described both a protocol and ethical framework. Sixty articles described 52 unique triage criteria (29 algorithm-based, 23 point-based). Few algorithmic- or point-based triage protocols were good predictors of mortality with AUCs ranging from 0.51 (PMEWS) to 0.85 (admitting SOFA > 11). Most published triage protocols included the substantive values of duty to provide care, equity, stewardship and trust, and the procedural value of reason. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes available triage protocols and ethical guidelines to provide decision-makers with data to help select and tailor triage tools. Given the uncertainty about how the COVID-19 pandemic will progress and any future pandemics, jurisdictions should prepare by selecting and adapting a triage tool that works best for their circumstances.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Críticos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Triagem/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Triagem/ética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to mitigate the global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) have largely relied on broad compliance with public health recommendations yet navigating the high volume of evolving information can be challenging. We assessed self-reported public perceptions related to COVID-19 including, beliefs (e.g., severity, concerns, health), knowledge (e.g., transmission, information sources), and behaviors (e.g., physical distancing) to understand perspectives in Canada and to inform future public health initiatives. METHODS: We administered a national online survey aiming to obtain responses from 2000 adults in Canada. Respondent sampling was stratified by age, sex, and region. We used descriptive statistics to summarize responses and tested for regional differences using chi-squared tests, followed by weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: We collected 1,996 eligible questionnaires between April 26th and May 1st, 2020. One-fifth (20%) of respondents knew someone diagnosed with COVID-19, but few had tested positive themselves (0.6%). Negative impacts of pandemic conditions were evidenced in several areas, including concerns about healthcare (e.g. sufficient equipment, 52%), pandemic stress (45%), and worsening social (49%) and mental/emotional (39%) health. Most respondents (88%) felt they had good to excellent knowledge of virus transmission, and predominantly accessed (74%) and trusted (60%) Canadian news television, newspapers/magazines, or non-government news websites for COVID-19 information. We found high compliance with distancing measures (80% reported self-isolating or always physical distancing). We identified associations between region and self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: We found that information about COVID-19 is largely acquired through domestic news sources, which may explain high self-reported compliance with prevention measures. The results highlight the broader impact of a pandemic on the general public's overall health and wellbeing, outside of personal infection. The study findings should be used to inform public health communications during COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Mídias Sociais , Televisão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Chest ; 158(6): 2358-2369, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) and ARDS is complex. Standardized management of HRF and ARDS may improve adherence to evidence-informed practice and improve outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the effect of standardized treatment compared with usual care on survival of patients with HRF and ARDS? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web-of-Science were searched (inception to 2018). Included studies were randomized clinical trials or quasi-experimental studies that examined the effect of standardized treatment (care-protocol, care-pathway, or bundle) compared with usual treatment among mechanically ventilated adult patients admitted to an ICU with HRF or ARDS. Study characteristics, pathway components, and patient outcomes were abstracted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: From 15,932 unique citations, 14 studies were included in the systematic review (three randomized clinical trials and 11 quasi-experimental studies). Twelve studies (including 5,767 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Standardized management of HRF was associated with a 23% relative reduction in mortality (relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.91; I2, 70%; P = .002). In studies targeting patients with ARDS (n = 8), a 21% pooled mortality reduction was observed (relative risk, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.88; I2, 3.1%). Standardized management was associated with increased 28-day ventilator-free days (weighted mean difference, 3.48 days; 95% CI, 2.43-4.54 days; P < .001). Standardized management was also associated with a reduction in tidal volume (weighted mean difference, -1.80 mL/kg predicted body weight; 95% CI, -2.80 to -0.80 mL/kg predicted body weight; P < .001). Meta-regression demonstrated that the reduction in mortality was associated with provision of lower tidal volume (P = .045). INTERPRETATION: When compared with usual treatment, standardized treatment of patients with HRF and ARDS is associated with increased ventilator-free days, lower tidal volume ventilation, and lower mortality. ICUs should consider the use of standardized treatment to improve the processes and outcomes of care for patients with HRF and ARDS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO; No.: CRD42019099921; URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.


Assuntos
Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Humanos , Mortalidade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade
11.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 116, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many decisions regarding health resource utilization flow through the patient-clinician interaction. Thus, it represents a place where de-implementation interventions may have considerable effect on reducing the use of clinical interventions that lack efficacy, have risks that outweigh benefits, or are not cost-effective (i.e., low-value care). The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine the effect of de-implementation interventions that engage patients within the patient-clinician interaction on use of low-value care. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from inception to November 2019. Gray literature was searched using the CADTH tool. Studies were screened independently by two reviewers and were included if they (1) described an intervention that engaged patients in an initiative to reduce low-value care, (2) reported the use of low-value care with and without the intervention, and (3) were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental designs. Studies describing interventions solely focused on clinicians or published in a language other than English were excluded. Data was extracted independently in duplicate and pertained to the low-value clinical intervention of interest, components of the strategy for patient engagement, and study outcomes. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for RCTs and a modified Downs and Black checklist for quasi-experimental studies. Random effects meta-analysis (reported as risk ratio, RR) was used to examine the effect of de-implementation interventions on the use of low-value care. RESULTS: From 6736 unique citations, 9 RCTs and 13 quasi-experimental studies were included in the systematic review. Studies mostly originated from the USA (n = 13, 59%), targeted treatments (n = 17, 77%), and took place in primary care (n = 10, 45%). The most common intervention was patient-oriented educational material (n = 18, 82%), followed by tools for shared decision-making (n = 5, 23%). Random effects meta-analysis demonstrated that de-implementation interventions that engage patients within the patient-clinician interaction led to a significant reduction in low-value care in both RCTs (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.66-0.84) and quasi-experimental studies (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.43-0.87). There was significant inter-study heterogeneity; however, intervention effects were consistent across subgroups defined by low-value practice and patient-engagement strategy. CONCLUSIONS: De-implementation interventions that engage patients within the patient-clinician interaction through patient-targeted educational materials or shared decision-making tools are effective in decreasing the use of low-value care. Clinicians and policymakers should consider engaging patients within initiatives that seek to reduce low-value care. REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/6fsxm).


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(1): 91-99, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272020

RESUMO

Rationale: Guidelines for vasopressor titration suggest a universal target-mean arterial pressure (MAP) >65 mm Hg. The implications for patients with premorbid low/high blood pressure are unknown.Objectives: To investigate the relationship between premorbid blood pressure and vasopressor duration for patients with shock.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted with shock to Calgary ICUs (June 2012-December 2018). The primary exposure was premorbid blood pressure: low (systolic <100); normal (systolic 100-139 and diastolic <90); and high (systolic ≥140 or diastolic ≥90). The primary outcome was vasopressor duration; secondary outcomes included ICU/hospital length of stay and ICU/hospital mortality. We examined associations of premorbid blood pressure with vasopressor duration and length of stay using multivariable competing risk models and mortality using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression.Measurements and Main Results: Of 3,542 admissions with shock, 177 (5.0%) had premorbid low, 2,887 (81.5%) normal, and 478 (13.5%) high blood pressure. Premorbid low admissions had lower MAPs (vs. normal or high premorbid admissions) over the duration of vasopressor use (P = 0.003) and were maintained nearest premorbid MAPs while receiving vasopressors (P < 0.001). After adjustment, premorbid low admissions had longer vasopressor use (median, 1.35 d vs. 1.04 d for normal; hazard ratio for discontinuation vs. normal, 0.78 [0.73-0.85]; P < 0.001) and premorbid high admissions had shorter use (median, 0.84 d; hazard ratio, 1.22 [1.12-1.33]; P < 0.001). Premorbid low admissions had longer adjusted length of stay and higher adjusted mortality than premorbid normal admissions.Conclusions: Premorbid blood pressure was inversely associated with vasopressor duration.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipotensão/complicações , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/complicações , Choque/mortalidade , Choque/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 20, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-value care initiatives are rapidly growing; however, it is not clear how members of the public should be involved. The objective of this scoping review was to systematically examine the literature describing public involvement in initatives to reduce low-value care. METHODS: Evidence sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases from inception to November 26, 2019, grey literature (CADTH Tool), reference lists of included articles, and expert consultation. Citations were screened in duplicate and included if they referred to the public's perception and/or involvement in reducing low-value care. Public included patients or citizens without any advanced healthcare knowledge. Low-value care included medical tests or treatments that lack efficacy, have risks that exceed benefit, or are not cost-effective. Extracted data pertained to study characteristics, low-value practice, clinical setting, and level of public involvement (i.e., patient-clinician interaction, research, or policy-making). RESULTS: The 218 included citations were predominantly original research (n = 138, 63%), published since 2010 (n = 192, 88%), originating from North America (n = 146, 67%). Most citations focused on patient engagement within the patient-clinician interaction (n = 156, 72%), using tools that included shared decision-making (n = 66, 42%) and patient-targeted educational materials (n = 72, 46%), and reported both reductions in low-value care and improved patient perceptions regarding low-value care. Fewer citations examined public involvement in low-value care policy-making (n = 33, 15%). Among citations that examined perspectives regarding public involvement in initiatives to reduce low-value care (n = 10, 5%), there was consistent support for the utility of tools applied within the patient-clinician interaction and less consistent support for involvement in policy-making. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts examining public involvement in low-value care concentrate within the patient-clinician interaction, wherein patient-oriented educational materials and shared decision-making tools have been commonly studied and are associated with reductions in low-value care. This contrasts with inclusion of the public in low-value care policy decisions wherein tools to promote engagement are less well-developed and involvement not consistently viewed as valuable. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/6fsxm).


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente
14.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 11, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Application of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models, and frameworks (TMFs) is one method for successfully incorporating evidence into clinical care. However, there are multiple KT TMFs and little guidance on which to select. This study sought to identify and describe available full-spectrum KT TMFs to subsequently guide users. METHODS: A scoping review was completed. Articles were identified through searches within electronic databases, previous reviews, grey literature, and consultation with KT experts. Search terms included combinations of KT terms and theory-related terms. Included citations had to describe full-spectrum KT TMFs that had been applied or tested. Titles/abstracts and full-text articles were screened independently by two investigators. Each KT TMF was described by its characteristics including name, context, key components, how it was used, primary target audience, levels of use, and study outcomes. Each KT TMF was also categorized into theoretical approaches as process models, determinant frameworks, classic theories, implementation theories, and evaluation frameworks. Within each category, KT TMFs were compared and contrasted to identify similarities and unique characteristics. RESULTS: Electronic searches yielded 7160 citations. Additional citations were identified from previous reviews (n = 41) and bibliographies of included full-text articles (n = 6). Thirty-six citations describing 36 full-spectrum were identified. In 24 KT TMFs, the primary target audience was multi-level including patients/public, professionals, organizational, and financial/regulatory. The majority of the KT TMFs were used within public health, followed by research (organizational, translation, health), or in multiple contexts. Twenty-six could be used at the individual, organization, or policy levels, five at the individual/organization levels, three at the individual level only, and two at the organizational/policy level. Categorization of the KT TMFs resulted in 18 process models, eight classic theories, three determinant frameworks, three evaluation frameworks, and four that fit more than one category. There were no KT TMFs that fit the implementation theory category. Within each category, similarities and unique characteristics emerged through comparison. CONCLUSIONS: A systematic compilation of existing full-spectrum KT TMFs, categorization into different approaches, and comparison has been provided in a user-friendly way. This list provides options for users to select from when designing KT projects and interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: A protocol outlining the methodology of this scoping review was developed and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018088564).


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(4): 408-420, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sepsis is a considerable health system burden. Population-based epidemiological surveillance of sepsis is limited to basic data available in administrative databases. We sought to determine if routinely collected Census data, linked to hospitalization data, can provide a broad socio-demographic profile of patients admitted to Canadian hospitals with sepsis. METHODS: Linking the 2006 long-form Canadian Census (most recent available for linkage) to the Discharge Abstract Data from 2006/2007 to 2008/2009, we created a population-based cohort of approximately 3,433,900 Canadians. Patients admitted to hospital with sepsis were identified using the Canadian Institute for Health Information administrative data definition. Age-standardized hospital admission rates for sepsis were calculated. Multivariable modelling was used to examine the relationship between Census characteristics and hospitalization with sepsis. RESULTS: Of those individuals successfully linked to the 2006 long-form Canadian Census, 10,400 patients of 18 yr and older were admitted to hospital with sepsis between the fiscal years 2006/2007 and 2008/2009. These individuals represented a weighted count of approximately 49,000 Canadians from all provinces and territories, excluding Quebec. The age-standardized rate of sepsis hospitalization was 96 cases/100,000 population. Of these, 37/100,000 cases were classified as severe sepsis. The association of Census characteristics with sepsis hospitalization varied with age. In all age-specific models, male sex, never being married, visible minority status, having functional limitations, and not being in the labour force were associated with an increased odds of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: Census data identified broad socio-demographic risk factors for admission to hospital with sepsis. Consideration should be given to incorporating Census data linked to administrative hospital data in population-based epidemiologic surveillance.


Assuntos
Censos , Sepse , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Sepse/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 26(11): 1389-1400, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread and increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs), the quality of EHRs is problematic. Efforts have been made to address reasons for poor EHR documentation quality. Previous systematic reviews have assessed intervention effectiveness within the outpatient setting or paper documentation. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions seeking to improve EHR documentation within an inpatient setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search strategy was developed based on elaborated inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four databases, gray literature, and reference lists were searched. A REDCap data capture form was used for data extraction, and study quality was assessed using a customized tool. Data were analyzed and synthesized in a narrative, semiquantitative manner. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review. Owing to high heterogeneity, quantitative comparison was not possible. However, statistically significant results in interventions and affected outcomes were analyzed and discussed. Education and implementation of a new EHR reporting system were the most successful interventions, as evidenced by significantly improved EHR documentation. DISCUSSION: Heterogeneity of interventions, outcomes, document type, EHR user, and other variables led to difficulty in measuring EHR documentation quality and effectiveness of interventions. However, the use of education as a primary intervention aligned closely with existing literature in similar fields. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions implemented to enhance EHR documentation are highly variable and require standardization. Emphasis should be placed on this novel area of research to improve communication between healthcare providers and facilitate data sharing between centers and countries.PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42017083494.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Melhoria de Qualidade
18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(10): 1263-1272, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247145

RESUMO

Rationale: Limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using a standardized screening program exist.Objectives: To describe the population-based incidence of hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS using a prospective standardized screening protocol; and to describe the mechanical ventilation practice and the mechanical power and examine their association with 28-day and 3-year survival outcomes.Methods: A prospective standardized screening program for ARDS, as a quality improvement initiative, was initiated at four adult intensive care units over a 27-month period. An ancillary analysis of this observational cohort was performed. Patients requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥24 hours underwent prospective and consecutive screening using standardized ventilator settings. Patient physiological data and outcomes were collected prospectively through an electronic clinical-information system and retrospectively analyzed to apply Berlin criteria.Results: Screened were 7,944 patients, among which 986 (12.4%) had hypoxemic respiratory failure (arterial oxygen tension to inspired fraction of oxygen ratio ≤300), and 731 (9.2%) met criteria for ARDS. Age-adjusted incidence of hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS were 37.7 and 27.6 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Patients sustaining the diagnosis of ARDS had a hospital mortality of 26.5% for mild, 31.8% for moderate, and 60.0% for severe ARDS and a 3-year mortality of 43.5% for mild, 46.9% for moderate, and 71.1% for severe ARDS. Mechanical power >22 J/min was associated with increased 28-day hospital and 3-year mortality. Determinants of mechanical power associated with lower 28-day hospital and 3-year survival included plateau pressure >30 cm H2O and driving pressure >15 cm H2O, but not tidal volumes >8 ml/kg of predicted body weight.Conclusions: Using standardized screening, a large proportion of patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure met criteria for ARDS. Increasing ARDS severity was associated with increased 28-day hospital and 3-year mortality. Increased mechanical power was associated with increased mortality. Potentially modifiable determinants of mechanical power associated with lower survival included plateau pressure and driving pressure.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta , Gasometria , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 186, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ dysfunction is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs). Original development of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was not to predict outcome, but to describe temporal changes in organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. Organ dysfunction scoring may be a reasonable surrogate outcome in clinical trials but further exploration of the impact of case mix on the temporal sequence of organ dysfunction is required. Our aim was to compare temporal changes in SOFA scores between hospital survivors and non-survivors. METHODS: We performed a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2013, to 4 multisystem adult intensive care units (ICUs) in Calgary, Canada. The primary outcome was temporal changes in daily SOFA scores during the first 14 days of ICU admission. SOFA scores were modeled between hospital survivors and non-survivors using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and were also stratified by admission SOFA (≤ 11 versus > 11). RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 20,007 patients with at least one SOFA score and was mostly male (58.2%) with a median age of 59 (interquartile range [IQR] 44-72). Median ICU length of stay was 3.5 (IQR 1.7-7.5) days. ICU and hospital mortality were 18.5% and 25.5%, respectively. Temporal change in SOFA scores varied by survival and admission SOFA score in a complicated relationship. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using admission SOFA as a predictor of hospital mortality was 0.77. The hospital mortality rate was 5.6% for patients with an admission SOFA of 0-2 and 94.4% with an admission SOFA of 20-24. There was an approximately linear increase in hospital mortality for SOFA scores of 3-19 (range 8.7-84.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Examining the clinical course of organ dysfunction in a large non-selective cohort of patients provides insight into the utility of SOFA. We have demonstrated that hospital outcome is associated with both admission SOFA and the temporal rate of change in SOFA after admission. It is necessary to further explore the impact of additional clinical factors on the clinical course of SOFA with large datasets.


Assuntos
Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/classificação , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/complicações , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(4): 468-476, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One potential way to protect patients from the physiological demands that are a consequence of fever is to aim to prevent fever and to treat it assiduously when it occurs. Our primary hypothesis was that more active fever management would increase survival among patient subgroups with limited physiological reserves such as older patients, patients with higher illness acuity, and those requiring organ support. METHODS: We conducted an individual-level patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare the outcomes of ICU patients who received more active fever management with the outcomes of patients who received less active fever management. The primary outcome variable of interest was the unadjusted time to death after randomisation. RESULTS: Of 1413 trial participants, 707 were assigned to more active fever management and 706 were assigned to less active fever management. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in the effect of more active compared with less active fever management on survival in any of the pre-specified subgroups that were chosen to identify patients with limited physiological reserves. Overall, more active fever management did not result in a statistically significant difference in survival time compared with less active fever management [hazard ratio 0.91; (95% CI 0.75-1.10), P = 0.32]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that more active fever management increases survival compared with less active fever management overall or in patients with limited physiological reserves.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Febre/fisiopatologia , Febre/prevenção & controle , Humanos
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