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J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767392


Hypertension is diagnosed and treated based on blood pressure (BP) readings obtained in the clinic setting. Positive HIV status is associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal diurnal BP patterns, diagnosed with ambulatory BP monitoring rather than the conventional method of BP measurement. Little is known about ambulatory BP profiles in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-income countries, especially within sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we compared 24-h ambulatory BP profiles of 140 HIV-positive individuals vs. profiles in 166 HIV negative individuals living in rural Uganda. HIV was well-controlled, with all HIV seropositive participants reporting use of anti-retroviral therapy, and ~123 (88%) having undetectable viral load. Most participants reported ART use duration of less than 10 years. Compared to HIV negative participants, HIV positive participants had lower median 24-h systolic BP (110.4 mmHg (IQR: 105.7, 118.7) vs 117.7 mmHg (IQR: 110.8, 129.8), p < 0.001), and 24-h diastolic BP (69.2 mmHg (IQR: 65.0, 74.9) vs. 71.9 mmHg (IQR: 67.2, 78.1), p = 0.004). Adjusted results showed greater percentage systolic nocturnal dipping among PLHIV compared to HIV negative individuals (difference = 2.70 (IQR: 0.94, 4.47), p < 0.05). Results of the adjusted Poisson regression suggested lower prevalence of 24-h and night hypertension among HIV positives compared to HIV negative, but were not statistically significant. Our data suggest that continuous 24-h BP measurements are lower in PLHIV on ART compared to HIV negative individuals.

Glob Heart ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598392


Introduction: The association between HIV status and hypertension is not well described within sub-Saharan Africa. We examined prevalence and risk factors for hypertension among HIV positive and negative individuals living in a rural district of Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in two concurrent cohorts of 600 HIV negative and 721 HIV seropositive individuals aged ≥35 years. Results: Of the 721 HIV positive participants, 59.8% were women and the median age was 44.3 years, while for HIV negative individuals, 55% were women and the median age was 47.8 years. Over 90% of HIV positive individuals were on antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/≥90 mmHg) was 33.5% in HIV negative individuals and 23.9% in HIV positive individuals. Age (adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and BMI (adjusted OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12) were associated with higher odds of hypertension. Having HIV was associated with lower odds of hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), lower systolic blood pressure (-5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: -7.4 to -2.4) and lower diastolic blood pressure (-4.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.6 to -2.5). We did not observe differences in the odds of hypertension by CD4 count, viral load or ART among HIV positive individuals in this sample. Conclusions: Hypertension was prevalent in one third of HIV negative individuals and in one fourth of HIV positive patients. While access to health information among individuals attending HIV clinics may explain observed differences, more research is needed to understand plausible biological and social mechanisms that could explain lower blood pressure among people living with HIV in Uganda.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(3): 394-398, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063647


BACKGROUND: Throughout the world, there are antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV+ individuals who maintain elevated peripheral CD4 T-cell counts, historically referred to as long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). With recent improvements in viral load (VL) detection methods to levels as low as 20 copies per milliliter, 2 subsets of LTNPs have been defined: elite controllers (ECs), with undetectable VLs for at least 6-12 months, and viremic controllers (VCs), with VLs between 200 and 2000 copies per milliliter. ECs and VCs have been extensively studied in the developed world to determine underlying mechanisms responsible for virologic control. In sub-Saharan Africa, most studies have characterized LTNPs based on immunologic criteria making it difficult to compare findings with the Western cohorts, which use virologic criteria. Here, we describe a cohort of Uganda ECs and VCs attending a large HIV ambulatory center in Kampala, Uganda, based initially on CD4 counts and confirmed by repeated VL measurements. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 14,492 HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals aged 18 years and older under care for at least 5 years with serial peripheral CD4 counts ≥500 cells/µL. Among those, we determined the frequency of individuals with VLs <2000 copies per milliliter for at least 6 months. RESULTS: We report a prevalence of 0.26% (38/14,492) of HIV controllers in the clinic. We identified 36 ECs and 2 VCs. These individuals were middle-aged with an average CD4 count of 858 ± 172 (mean ± SD, 95% confidence interval: 795 to 921). Their average duration in HIV care was 7.4 ± 2.1 years (mean ± SD, 95% confidence interval: 6.6 to 8.1). The majority of EC/VCs were women (87%, 33/38), reflecting the demographics of the urban clinic. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, this study demonstrates the frequency of EC/VCs in a large urban clinic in Uganda. Further study of these East African subjects may provide insights into how some individuals are able to control HIV in the absence of medications.

Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Carga Viral , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Uganda