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1.
Prostate ; 79(15): 1752-1761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel prednisone is a standard of care for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are a poor prognostic factor in this population; therefore, we evaluated the combination of docetaxel prednisone with pazopanib, an oral VEGF receptor inhibitor, for safety and preliminary efficacy. METHODS: This is a two-site phase 1b Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium trial of docetaxel, prednisone, and pazopanib once daily and ongoing androgen deprivation therapy and prophylactic pegfilgrastim in men with mCRPC. The primary endpoint was safety and the determination of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) through a dose-escalation and expansion design; secondary endpoints included progression-free and overall survival (OS), prostate specific antigen (PSA) declines, radiographic responses, and pharmacokinetic and plasma angiokine biomarker analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-five men were treated over six dose levels. Pegfilgrastim was added to the regimen after myelosuppression limited dose escalation. With pegfilgrastim, our target MTD of docetaxel 75 mg/m2 q3 weeks; prednisone 10 mg daily; and pazopanib 800 mg daily was reached. Eleven additional patients were accrued at this dose level for a total of 36 patients. Dose-limiting toxicities included neutropenia, syncope, and hypertension. Three deaths attributed to study treatment occurred. The objective response rate was 31%; median PFS was 14.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.1 and 22.2); and OS was 18.6 months (95% CI: 11.8 and 22.2). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of docetaxel, prednisone, and pazopanib (with pegfilgrastim) was tolerable at full doses and demonstrated promising efficacy in a relatively poor risk patients with mCRPC. Further development of predictive biomarkers may enrich for patients who receive clinical benefit from this regimen.

2.
J Surg Res ; 246: 83-92, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is essential for the repair of many congenital cardiac defects in infants but is associated with significant derangements in hemostasis and systemic inflammation. As a result, hemorrhagic complications and thrombosis are major challenges in the management of children requiring CPB or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Conventional clinical laboratory tests capture individual hemostatic derangements (low platelets, elevated fibrinogen) but fail to describe the complex, overlapping interactions among the various components of coagulation, including cellular interactions, contact activation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Given recent advances in analytic tools for identifying protein-protein interactions in the plasma proteome, we hypothesized that an unbiased proteomic analysis would help identify networks of interacting proteins for further investigation in pediatric CPB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infants up to 1 y of age were enrolled. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 1, 4, and 24 h after CPB. Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins undergoing changes in concentration after CPB, and STRING and ToppGene tools were used to identify biological networks. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis identified changes in protein concentrations. Inflammatory markers were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the same time points. RESULTS: Ten infants with cardiac anomalies requiring surgery and CPB were enrolled; no major complications were recorded (median age, 127.5 d; interquartile range, 181.25 d). Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, >1400 individual protein spots were observed, and 89 proteins demonstrated change in concentration >30% with P < 0.02 when comparing 1, 4, or 24 h to baseline. Among protein spots with significant changes in concentration after CPB, 29 were identified with mass spectrometry (33%). In our interrogation of functional associations among these differentially expressed proteins, our results were dominated by the acute phase response, coagulation, and cell signaling functional categories. Among cytokines analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IL-2, IL-8, and IL-10 were elevated at 4 h but normalized by 24 h, whereas IL-6 was persistently elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Infants manifest a robust response to CPB that includes overlapping, complex pathways. Further investigation of interactions among immune, coagulation, and cell signaling systems may lead to novel therapeutics or biomarkers useful in the management of infants requiring CPB.

3.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(4): 909-917, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444620

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RPTD), as well as the safety and tolerability of PF-03446962, a monoclonal antibody targeting activin receptor like kinase 1 (ALK-1), in combination with regorafenib in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: The first stage of this study was a standard "3 + 3" open-label dose-escalation scheme. Cohorts of 3-6 subjects were started with 120 mg of regorafenib given PO daily for 3 weeks of a 4 week cycle, plus 4.5 mg/kg of PF-03446962 given IV every 2 weeks. Doses of both drugs were adjusted according to dose-limiting toxicities (DLT). Plasma was collected for multiplexed ELISA analysis of factors related to tumor growth and angiogenesis. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were enrolled, of whom 11 were deemed evaluable. Seven subjects were enrolled at dose level 1, and four were enrolled at level - 1. Overall, three DLTs were observed during the dose-escalation phase: two in level 1 and one in level - 1. A planned dose-expansion cohort was not started due to early termination of the clinical trial. Common adverse events were infusion-related reaction, fatigue, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, abdominal pain, dehydration, nausea, back pain, anorexia, and diarrhea. One subject achieved stable disease for 5.5 months, but discontinued treatment due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen of regorafenib and PF-03446962 was associated with unacceptable toxicity and did not demonstrate notable clinical activity in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.

4.
J Neurooncol ; 144(2): 359-368, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dovitinib is an oral, potent inhibitor of FGFR and VEGFR, and can be a promising strategy in patients with recurrent or progressive glioblastoma (GBM). METHODS: This was an open label phase II study of two arms: Arm 1 included anti-angiogenic naïve patients with recurrent GBM and Arm 2 included patients with recurrent GBM that had progressed on prior anti-angiogenic therapy. Nineteen subjects were enrolled in Arm 1 and 14 subjects in Arm 2. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS-6) in Arm 1 and time to progression (TTP) in Arm 2. The secondary endpoints were toxicity, objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival. RESULTS: Patients in Arm 2 (compared to Arm 1) tended to have longer intervals from diagnosis to study entry (median 26.9 vs. 8.9 months, p = 0.002), experienced more recurrences (64%, had 3-4 prior recurrences compared to 0, p < 0.0001) and tended to be heavily pretreated (71% vs. 26-32% p = 0.04 or 0.02). 6-month PFS was 12% ± 6% for the Arm 1 and 0% for Arm 2. TTP was similar in both treatment arms (median 1.8 months Arm 1 and 0.7-1.8 months Arm 2, p = 0.36). Five patients (15%) had grade 4 toxicities and 22 patients (67%) had grade 3 toxicities. There were no significant differences between the two arms with respect to the amount of change in the levels of biomarkers from baseline. CONCLUSION: Dovitinib was not efficacious in prolonging the PFS in patients with recurrent GBM irrespective of prior treatment with anti-angiogenic therapy (including bevacizumab).

5.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237864

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent neoplastic disorder and is a main cause of tumor-related mortality as many patients progress to stage IV metastatic CRC. Standard care consists of combination chemotherapy (FOLFIRI or FOLFOX). Patients with WT KRAS typing are eligible to receive anti-EGFR therapy combined with chemotherapy. Unfortunately, predicting efficacy of CRC anti-EGFR therapy has remained challenging. Here we uncover that the EGFR-pathway component RasGRP1 acts as CRC tumor suppressor in the context of aberrant Wnt signaling. We find that RasGRP1 suppresses EGF-driven proliferation of colonic epithelial organoids. Having established that RasGRP1 dosage levels impacts biology, we focused on CRC patients next. Mining five different data platforms, we establish that RasGRP1 expression levels decrease with CRC progression and predict poor clinical outcome of patients. Lastly, deletion of one or two Rasgrp1 alleles makes CRC spheroids more susceptible to EGFR inhibition. Retrospective analysis of the CALGB80203 clinical trial shows that addition of anti-EGFR therapy to chemotherapy significantly improves outcome for CRC patients when tumors express low RasGRP1 suppressor levels. In sum, RasGRP1 is a unique biomarker positioned in the EGFR pathway and of potential relevance to anti-EGFR therapy for CRC patients.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(3): 555-561, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab provides benefit in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), yet resistance to bevacizumab often occurs. We determined if nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGF, FGF, and PDGF receptors has antitumor activity in bevacizumab-resistant recurrent EOC, tubal, and peritoneal cancer. METHODS: This phase II study evaluated nintedanib 200 mg/day until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective was 6-month progression free survival (PFS6m). Secondary objectives were response rate and toxicity. Simon two-stage optimal design was used. Baseline angiogenic plasma biomarkers were measured. RESULTS: 27 patients were enrolled evaluable for PFS; 26 were evaluable for PFS6m. The median age was 65 years (range 44-73); 89.9% had high-grade serous EOC; 70% received at least >2 prior chemotherapies; and 81% (22/27) had chemoresistant disease. With median follow up of 15.6 months (range 2-38) the PFS6m rate was 11.5% (3/26). Three participants had long duration of disease control (8-16 months). Median PFS and overall survival were 1.8 and 16 months, respectively. Response rate was 7.4% (2/27 PR). Thirty-seven percent (10/27) had stable disease, while 56% (15/27) had progressive disease. Adverse events included Grade 3 liver enzyme elevation (15%), Grade 3 diarrhea (7%), Grade 2 fatigue (7%), and Grade 2 nausea/vomiting (15%). PD patients exhibited higher levels of CD73, IL6, and VEGFD (p < 0.05) compared to PR/SD patients. IL6 was associated with worse PFS (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent nintedanib has minimal activity in an unselected bevacizumab-resistant EOC population. Nintedanib was tolerable and toxicities were manageable. Plasma CD73, IL6, and VEGFD were identified as prognostic markers for progressive disease, and IL6 was associated with worse PFS confirming similar observations made in patients treated with other anti-angiogenic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , 5'-Nucleotidase/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/sangue , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Peritoneais/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Fator D de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
7.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 29(6): 123-131, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the standard of care regimens for advanced pancreatic cancer is gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine is limited by dose-limiting hematologic toxicities especially neutropenia. Uncovering the variability of these toxicities attributed to germline DNA variation is of great importance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CALGB 80303 was a randomized study in advanced pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine with or without bevacizumab. The study protocol included genotyping of genes of gemcitabine disposition (CDA, DCTD, SLC29A1, SLC28A1, and SLC29A2), as well as a genome-wide analysis. The clinical phenotype was time to early high-grade neutropenia event accounting for progression or death or other treatment-terminating adverse events as competing for informative events. The inference was carried out on the basis of the association between genotype and cause-specific hazard of a neutropenic event. RESULTS: The primary analyses were carried out on the basis of 294 genetically estimated European pancreatic cancer patients. For CDA rs2072671 (A>C), AC and CC patients had a lower risk of neutropenia than AA patients (P=0.01, hazard ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.89). For SLC28A1 rs3825876 (G>A), AA patients have a higher risk of neutropenia than GA and GG patients (P=0.02, hazard ratio: 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.16). CDA rs2072671 was associated with increased mRNA expression in whole blood in three studies (P=2.7e-14, 6.61e-62, and 9.70e-65). In the genome-wide analysis, variants in TGFB2 were among the top hits (lowest P=1.62e-06) but had no effect in luciferase assays. CONCLUSION: This is the first genetic analysis of gemcitabine-induced neutropenia using a competing risk model in a prospective randomized clinical study has proposed a potentially novel mechanism of the protective effect of the CDA rs2072671 variant. Further confirmation is needed.

8.
Toxicol Sci ; 169(2): 534-542, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851105

RESUMO

2,3-Butanedione (DA), a component of artificial butter flavoring, is associated with the development of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), a disease of progressive airway fibrosis resulting in lung function decline. Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a consistent feature of BO across a range of clinical contexts and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine the importance of the neutrophil chemotactic cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in DA-induced lung disease using in vivo and in vitro model systems. First, we demonstrated that levels of Cinc-1, the rat homolog of IL-8, are increased in the lung fluid and tissue compartment in a rat model of DA-induced BO. Next, we demonstrated that DA increased IL-8 production by the pulmonary epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and by primary human airway epithelial cells grown under physiologically relevant conditions at an air-liquid interface. We then tested the hypothesis that DA-induced epithelial IL-8 protein occurs in an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner. In these in vitro experiments we demonstrated that epithelial IL-8 protein is blocked by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 and by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme using the small molecule inhibitor, TAPI-1. Finally, we demonstrated that DA-induced IL-8 is dependent upon ERK1/2 and Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase activation downstream of EGFR signaling using the small molecule inhibitors AG1478 and PD98059. Together these novel in vivo and in vitro observations support that EGFR-dependent IL-8 production occurs in DA-induced BO. Further studies are warranted to determine the importance of IL-8 in BO pathogenesis.

9.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 83(6): 1025-1035, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase two dose (RPTD), and toxicities of gemcitabine + dasatinib (GD) and gemcitabine + dasatinib + cetuximab (GDC) in advanced solid tumor patients. METHODS: This study was a standard phase I 3 + 3 dose escalation study evaluating two combination regimens, GD and GDC. Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in cohorts of 3-6 to either GD or GDC. Gemcitabine was dosed at 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 of 4 weeks, dasatinib was dosed in mg PO BID, and cetuximab was dosed at 250 mg/m2 weekly after a loading dose of cetuximab of 400 mg/m2. There were two dose levels for dasatinib: (1) gemcitabine + dasatinib 50 mg ± cetuximab, and (2) gemcitabine + dasatinib 70 mg ± cetuximab. Cycle length was 28 days. Standard cycle 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definitions were used. Eligible patients had advanced solid tumors, adequate organ and marrow function, and no co-morbidities that would increase the risk of toxicity. Serum, plasma, and skin biopsy biomarkers were obtained pre- and on-treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, including 21 with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Three patients received prior gemcitabine. Twenty-one patients were evaluable for toxicity and 16 for response. Four DLTs were observed: Grade (Gr) 3 neutropenia (GDC1, n = 1), Gr 3 ALT (GD2, n = 2), and Gr 5 pneumonitis (GDC2, n = 1). Possible treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in later cycles included: Gr 3-4 neutropenia (n = 7), Gr 4 colitis (n = 1), Gr 3 bilirubin (n = 2), Gr 3 anemia (n = 2), Gr 3 thrombocytopenia (n = 2), Gr 3 edema/fluid retention (n = 1), and Gr 3 vomiting (n = 3). Six of 16 patients (3 of whom were gemcitabine-refractory) had stable disease (SD) as best response, median duration = 5 months (range 1-7). One gemcitabine-refractory patient had a partial response (PR). Median PFS was 2.9 months (95% CI 2.1, 5.8). Median OS was 5.8 months (95% CI 4.1, 11.8). Dermal wound biopsies demonstrated that dasatinib resulted in a decrease of total and phospho-Src levels, and cetuximab resulted in a decrease of EGFR and ERBB2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: The MTD/RPTD of GD is gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 of 4 weeks and dasatinib 50 mg PO BID. The clinical activity of GD seen in this study was modest, and does not support its further investigation in pancreatic cancer.

10.
Blood ; 133(16): 1762-1765, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723079

RESUMO

Serum soluble chemokines/cytokines produced by Hodgkin cells and the tumor microenvironment might be of value as biomarkers in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We assessed serum thymus and activation-related chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels at baseline, time of interim fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), and after therapy in cHL patients treated on S0816, an intergroup phase 2 response-adapted study evaluating escalated therapy for interim PET (PET2)-positive patients (www.clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00822120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status was assessed, and 559 serum samples were evaluated for TARC, MDC, IL-10, and sCD163 by immunoassay. EBV positivity correlated with higher sCD163 and IL-10 levels but lower TARC levels. While baseline biomarker levels were not associated with outcome, sCD163 levels at the time of PET2 were associated with favorable progression-free survival (PFS), adjusting for PET2 status. After therapy TARC, MDC, and IL-10 correlated with PFS and overall survival (OS) on univariable analysis, which remained significant adjusting for international prognostic score. When also adjusting for end-of-therapy PET results, TARC and IL-10 remained significantly associated with shorter PFS and OS. Exploratory analysis in PET2-negative patients showed that elevated posttherapy TARC and IL-10 levels were associated with PFS. Serum cytokine levels correlate with outcome in cHL and should be investigated further in risk-adapted cHL trials.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16332, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397360

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is essential in tumor biology and is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands and receptors. Here we aimed to discover genetic variants associated with levels of circulating angiogenic proteins in cancer patients. Plasma was collected at baseline in 216 pancreatic and 114 colorectal cancer patients. Thirty-one angiogenic proteins were measured by ELISA. 484,523 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) were tested for association with plasma levels for each protein in pancreatic cancer patients. Three top-ranked hits were then genotyped in colorectal cancer patients, where associations with the same proteins were measured. The results demonstrated rs2284284 and MCP1 (P-value = 6.7e-08), rs7504372 and VEGF-C (P-value = 9.8e-09), and rs7767396 and VEGF-A (P-value = 5.8e-09) were SNP-protein pairs identified in pancreatic cancer patients. In colorectal cancer patients, only rs7767396 (A > G) and VEGF-A was validated (P-value = 5.18e-05). The AA genotype of rs7767396 exhibited 2.04-2.3 and 2.7-3.4-fold higher VEGF-A levels than those with AG and GG genotypes. The G allele of rs7767396 reduces binding of the NF-AT1 transcription factor. In conclusion, a common genetic variant predicts the plasma levels of VEGF-A in cancer patients through altered binding of NF-AT1.

12.
Oncologist ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TRC105 is an IgG1 endoglin monoclonal antibody that potentiates VEGF inhibitors in preclinical models. We assessed safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of TRC105 in combination with axitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Heavily pretreated mRCC patients were treated with TRC105 weekly (8 mg/kg and then 10 mg/kg) in combination with axitinib (initially at 5 mg b.i.d. and then escalated per patient tolerance to a maximum of 10 mg b.i.d.) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity using a standard 3 + 3 phase I design. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (median number of prior therapies = 3) were treated. TRC105 dose escalation proceeded to 10 mg/kg weekly without dose-limiting toxicity. Adverse event characteristics of each drug were not increased in frequency or severity when the two drugs were administered concurrently. TRC105 and axitinib demonstrated preliminary evidence of activity, including partial responses (PR) by RECIST in 29% of patients, and median progression-free survival (11.3 months). None of the patients with PR had PR to prior first-line treatment. Lower baseline levels of osteopontin and higher baseline levels of TGF-ß receptor 3 correlated with overall response rate. CONCLUSION: TRC105 at 8 and 10 mg/kg weekly was well tolerated in combination with axitinib, with encouraging evidence of activity in patients with mRCC. A multicenter, randomized phase II trial of TRC105 and axitinib has recently completed enrollment (NCT01806064). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: TRC105 is a monoclonal antibody to endoglin (CD105), a receptor densely expressed on proliferating endothelial cells and also on renal cancer stem cells that is implicated as a mediator of resistance to inhibitors of the VEGF pathway. In this Phase I trial, TRC105 combined safely with axitinib at the recommended single agent doses of each drug in patients with renal cell carcinoma. The combination demonstrated durable activity in a VEGF inhibitor-refractory population and modulated several angiogenic biomarkers. A randomized Phase II trial testing TRC105 in combination with axitinib in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has completed accrual.

13.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 17(10): 2248-2256, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997150

RESUMO

TRC105 is an anti-endoglin antibody currently being tested in combination with VEGF inhibitors. In the phase Ib trial, 38 patients were treated with both TRC105 and bevacizumab (BEV), and improved clinical outcomes were observed, despite the fact that 30 patients (79%) were refractory to prior anti-VEGF therapy. Plasma samples were tested for angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and on-treatment. To provide broader context of this combination biomarker study, direct cross-study comparisons were made to biomarker studies previously conducted in patients treated with either BEV or TRC105 monotherapy. Upon treatment with BEV and TRC105, pharmacodynamic changes in response to both BEV (PlGF increase) and TRC105 (soluble endoglin increase) were noted. In addition, distinct patterns of change were identified (similar, opposing, neutralizing). Similar patterns were observed when the combination elicited similar effects to those observed with monotherapy treatment (i.e., decreases of Ang-2, increases of IL6 and VCAM-1). Opposing patterns were observed when the combination led to opposing effects compared with monotherapy treatment (i.e., TGFß1, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB, PAI-1). Lastly, neutralizing patterns were observed when one drug led to increase, whereas the other drug led to decrease, and the combination elicited no overall effect on the marker (i.e., VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and IGFBP-3). Patients achieving partial responses or stable disease from the combination exhibited significantly lower expression of E-Cadherin, HGF, ICAM-1, and TSP-2 at baseline. Taken together, the novel biomarker modulations identified may deepen our understanding of the underlying biology in patients treated with BEV and TRC105 compared with either drug alone. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(10); 2248-56. ©2018 AACR.

15.
Future Oncol ; 14(24): 2507-2520, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690784

RESUMO

The first biosimilar of bevacizumab was approved by the US FDA; other potential biosimilars of bevacizumab are in late-stage clinical development. Their availability offers opportunity for increased patient access across a number of oncologic indications. The regulatory pathway for biosimilar approval relies on the totality of evidence that includes a comprehensive analytical assessment, and a clinical comparability study in a relevant disease patient population. Extrapolation of indications for a biosimilar to other eligible indications held by the originator, in the absence of direct clinical comparison, frequently forms part of the regulatory judgment. Herein, we consider the evidence required to demonstrate biosimilarity for bevacizumab biosimilars, with particular focus on the rationale for extrapolation across oncologic indications.

16.
Oncologist ; 23(7): 782-790, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase II dose (RPTD) and safety and tolerability of the ganitumab and everolimus doublet regimen followed by the ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab triplet regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Doublet therapy consisted of ganitumab at 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks; doses of everolimus were adjusted according to dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Panitumumab at 4.8 mg/kg every 2 weeks was added to the RPTD of ganitumab and everolimus. DLTs were assessed in cycle 1; toxicity evaluation was closely monitored throughout treatment. Treatment continued until disease progression or undesirable toxicity. Pretreatment and on-treatment skin biopsies were collected to assess insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) target modulation. RESULTS: Forty-three subjects were enrolled. In the doublet regimen, two DLTs were observed in cohort 1, no DLTs in cohort -1, and one in cohort -1B. The triplet combination was discontinued because of unacceptable toxicity. Common adverse events were thrombocytopenia/neutropenia, skin rash, mucositis, fatigue, and hyperglycemia. In the doublet regimen, two patients with refractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) achieved prolonged complete responses ranging from 18 to >60 months; one treatment-naïve patient with chondrosarcoma achieved prolonged stable disease >24 months. In dermal granulation tissue, the insulin-like growth factor receptor and mTOR pathways were potently and specifically inhibited by ganitumab and everolimus, respectively. CONCLUSION: The triplet regimen of ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab was associated with unacceptable toxicity. However, the doublet of ganitumab at 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks and everolimus five times weekly had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated notable clinical activity in patients with refractory NSCLC and sarcoma. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This trial evaluated the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase II dose and safety and tolerability of the ganitumab and everolimus doublet regimen followed by the ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab triplet regimen. Although the triplet regimen of ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab was associated with unacceptable toxicity, the doublet of ganitumab at 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks and everolimus at five times weekly had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated notable clinical activity in patients with refractory non-small cell lung cancer and sarcoma.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(4): 564-568, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075780

RESUMO

Importance: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (HER1) signaling depends on ligand binding and dimerization with itself or other HER receptors. We previously showed in a randomized trial that high EGFR ligand expression is predictive of panitumumab benefit in advanced colorectal cancer. Tumor expression of HER3 may further refine the RAS wild-type (wt) population benefitting from anti-EGFR agents. Objective: To examine HER3 messenger RNA expression as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for anti-EGFR therapy in a randomized clinical trial of panitumumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was a prospectively planned retrospective biomarker study of pretreatment samples from the PICCOLO trial that tested the addition of panitumumab to irinotecan therapy in patients with KRAS wt advanced colorectal cancer who experienced failure with prior fluoropyrimidine treatment. HER3 was assessed as a prognostic marker, then as a predictive biomarker in patients with RAS wt, first as a continuous variable and then as a binary (high vs low) variable. Relationship with MEK-AKT pathway mutations and EGFR ligands epiregulin and amphiregulin (EREG/AREG) were also assessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points were response rate and overall survival (OS). Results: In 308 patients (mean age at randomization, 61.6 years; 193 men) higher HER3 was weakly prognostic for OS (hazard ratio [HR] per 2-fold change, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .04) but not PFS (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.05; P = .25). Higher HER3 was predictive, being associated with prolonged PFS on irinotecan plus panitumumab (IrPan) (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.82; P < .001), but not irinotecan (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82-1.13; P = .65) in patients with RAS wt, with significant interaction between biomarker and treatment (P = .001). Similar interaction was seen for OS (P = .004). In an exploratory binary model, dividing the population at the 66th percentile, HER3 was predictive of panitumumab benefit: in patients with high HER3 expression, median PFS was 8.2 months (IrPan) vs 4.4 months (irinotecan) (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.58; P < .001). Patients with low HER3 expression gained no benefit in PFS: 3.3 months (IrPan) vs 4.3 months (irinotecan) (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.67-1.38; P = .84), with significant interaction (P = .002). The binary model was also predictive for OS, with significant interaction (P = .01). Combining HER3 and ligand data, patients with HER3-high, AREG/EREG-high tumors gained markedly from panitumumab (PFS HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.51; P < .005 and OS HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.73; P = .004). Conversely, patients with HER3-low, AREG/EREG-low tumors did not benefit (PFS HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.73-1.79; P = .57 and OS HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.92-2.26; P = .11). Conclusions and Relevance: High HER3 expression identified patients with RAS wt who gained markedly from panitumumab, and those who did not, with statistically significant biomarker-treatment interactions for PFS and OS. This finding provides insight into the mechanism of anti-EGFR agents and is of potential clinical utility.

18.
Radiology ; 285(1): 311-318, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787261

RESUMO

Purpose To identify changes in a broad panel of circulating angiogenesis factors after bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), a purely ischemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to entry into the study. Twenty-five patients (21 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 30-81 years) with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 or biopsy-proven HCC and who were undergoing TAE were enrolled from October 15, 2014, through December 2, 2015. Nineteen plasma angiogenesis factors (angiopoietin 2; hepatocyte growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor AA and BB; placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor A and D; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3; osteopontin; transforming growth factor ß1 and ß2; thrombospondin 2; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; interleukin 6 [IL-6]; stromal cell-derived factor 1; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after TAE and were compared with baseline levels by using paired Wilcoxon tests. Tumor response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Angiogenesis factor levels were compared between responders and nonresponders by mRECIST criteria by using unpaired Wilcoxon tests. Results All procedures were technically successful with no complications. Fourteen angiogenesis factors showed statistically significant changes following TAE, but most changes were transient. IL-6 was upregulated only 1 day after the procedure, but showed the largest increases of any factor. Osteopontin and VCAM-1 demonstrated sustained upregulation at all time points following TAE. At 3-month follow-up imaging, 11 patients had responses to TAE (complete response, n = 6; partial response, n = 5) and 11 patients were nonresponders (stable disease, n = 9; progressive disease, n = 2). In nonresponders, the percent change in IL-6 on the day after TAE (P = .033) and the mean percent change in osteopontin after TAE (P = .024) were significantly greater compared with those of responders. Conclusion Multiple angiogenesis factors demonstrated significant upregulation after TAE. VCAM-1 and osteopontin demonstrated sustained upregulation, whereas the rest were transient. IL-6 and osteopontin correlated significantly with radiologic response after TAE. © RSNA, 2017.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/sangue , Proteínas Angiogênicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Neuro Oncol ; 19(9): 1217-1227, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379574

RESUMO

Background: Of the 4 medulloblastoma subgroups, Group 3 is the most aggressive but the importance of angiogenesis is unknown. This study sought to determine the role of angiogenesis and identify clinically relevant biomarkers of tumor vascularity and survival in Group 3 medulloblastoma. Methods: VEGFA mRNA expression and survival from several patient cohorts were analyzed. Group 3 xenografts were implanted intracranially in nude rats. Dynamic susceptibility weighted (DSC) MRI and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) were obtained. DSC MRI was used to calculate relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and flow (rCBF). Tumor vessel density and rat vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGFA) expression were determined. Results: Patient VEGFA mRNA levels were significantly elevated in Group 3 compared with the other subgroups (P < 0.001) and associated with survival. Xenografts D283, D341, and D425 were identified as Group 3 by RNA hierarchical clustering and MYC amplification. The D283 group had the lowest rCBV and rCBF, followed by D341 and D425 (P < 0.05). These values corresponded to histological vessel density (P < 0.05), rat VEGFA expression (P < 0.05), and survival (P = 0.002). Gene set enrichment analysis identified 5 putative genes with expression profiles corresponding with these findings: RNH1, SCG2, VEGFA, AGGF1, and PROK2. SWI identified 3 xenograft-independent categories of intratumoral vascular architecture with distinct survival (P = 0.004): organized, diffuse microvascular, and heterogeneous. Conclusions: Angiogenesis plays an important role in Group 3 medulloblastoma pathogenesis and survival. DSC MRI and SWI are clinically relevant biomarkers for tumor vascularity and overall survival and can be used to direct the use of antivascular therapies for patients with Group 3 medulloblastoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cerebelares/mortalidade , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Meduloblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Meduloblastoma/mortalidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese
20.
Carcinogenesis ; 37(11): 1041-1051, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604902

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer in part due to inherent resistance to chemotherapy, including the first-line drug gemcitabine. Although low expression of the nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hCNT3 that mediate cellular uptake of gemcitabine has been linked to gemcitabine resistance, the mechanisms regulating their expression in the PDAC tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Here, we report that the matricellular protein cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) negatively regulates the nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hCNT3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CYR61 increased expression of hENT1 and hCNT3, increased cellular uptake of gemcitabine and sensitized PDAC cells to gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. In PDAC patient samples, expression of hENT1 and hCNT3 negatively correlates with expression of CYR61 . We demonstrate that stromal pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are a source of CYR61 within the PDAC tumor microenvironment. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) induces the expression of CYR61 in PSCs through canonical TGF-ß-ALK5-Smad2/3 signaling. Activation of TGF-ß signaling or expression of CYR61 in PSCs promotes resistance to gemcitabine in PDAC cells in an in vitro co-culture assay. Our results identify CYR61 as a TGF-ß-induced stromal-derived factor that regulates gemcitabine sensitivity in PDAC and suggest that targeting CYR61 may improve chemotherapy response in PDAC patients.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Proteína Rica em Cisteína 61/genética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Proteína Rica em Cisteína 61/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral
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