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2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498151

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by neurodevelopmental delays, hyperphagia, difficulties with social communication and challenging behaviours. Individuals require intensive supervision from caregivers which may negatively affect caregiver quality of life. This study used data collected in the Australasian PWS Registry (n = 50, mean age 11.2 years) to evaluate associations between child behaviours and caregiver mental well-being. Symptoms of sleep-related breathing disorder, child depression and social difficulties were associated with poorer caregiver mental and physical well-being. Growth hormone therapy use was associated with better caregiver mental and physical well-being. Optimising management of problematic behaviours and sleep disturbances have the potential to support caregivers who are the most vital network of support for individuals affected by PWS.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15896, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354175

RESUMO

Geographic variation of paediatric tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, (A/T) has been described since the 1930s until today but no studies have investigated the factors associated with this variation. This study described the geographical distribution of paediatric A/T across the state of Victoria, Australia, and investigated area-level factors associated with this variation. We used linked administrative datasets capturing all paediatric A/T performed between 2010 and 2015 in Victoria. Surgery data were collapsed by patient residence to the level of Local Government Area. Regression models were used to investigate the association between likelihood of surgery and area-level factors. We found a 10.2-fold difference in A/T rates across the state, with areas of higher rates more in regional than metropolitan areas. Area-level factors associated with geographic variation of A/T were percentage of children aged 5-9 years (IRR 1.07, 95%CI 1.01-1.14, P = 0.03) and low English language proficiency (IRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-0.99, P = 0.03). In a sub-population analysis of surgeries in the public sector, these factors were low maternal educational attainment (IRR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16, P < 0.001) and surgical waiting time (IRR 0.99635 95% CI 0.99273-0.99997, P = 0.048). Identifying areas of focus for improvement and factors associated with geographic variation will assist in improving equitable provision of paediatric A/T and decrease variability within regions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397126

RESUMO

AIM: In children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), growth hormone (GH) improves height and body composition; however, may be associated with worsening sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Some studies have reported less SDB after GH initiation, but follow-up with polysomnography is still advised in most clinical guidelines. METHODS: This retrospective, multicentre study, included children with PWS treated with GH at seven PWS treatment centres in Australia over the last 18 years. A paired analysis comparing polysomnographic measures of central and obstructive SDB in the same child, before and after GH initiation was performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The proportion of children who developed moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) was calculated with their binomial confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 112 patients with available paired data. The median age at start of GH was 1.9 years (range 0.1-13.5 years). Median obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) at baseline was 0.43/h (range 0-32.9); 35% had an obstructive AHI above 1.0/h. Follow-up polysomnography within 2 years after the start of GH was available in 94 children who did not receive OSA treatment. After GH initiation, there was no change in central AHI. The median obstructive AHI did not increase significantly (P = 0.13), but 12 children (13%, CI95% 7-21%) developed moderate/severe OSA, with clinical management implications. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of a worsening of OSA severity in 13% of children with PWS support current advice to perform polysomnography after GH initiation. Early identification of worsening OSA may prevent severe sequelae in a subgroup of children.

5.
Respirology ; 26(10): 920-937, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387937

RESUMO

The goal of this position paper on ventilatory support at home for children is to provide expert consensus from Australia and New Zealand on optimal care for children requiring ventilatory support at home, both non-invasive and invasive. It was compiled by members of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand (TSANZ) and the Australasian Sleep Association (ASA). This document provides recommendations to support the development of improved services for Australian and New Zealand children who require long-term ventilatory support. Issues relevant to providers of equipment and areas of research need are highlighted.

6.
Arch Dis Child ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is made on overnight polysomnography (PSG). Given the widespread availability of smartphone video technology, we aimed to develop and test a standardised scoring system for smartphone videos and compare these scores to PSG results. METHODS: Children aged 1-16 years undergoing PSG for suspected OSA were included. Parents were asked to take 1-2 min videos of the breathing they were concerned about. Videos were scored using a newly developed and tested tool on five components: inspiratory obstructive noises (1-4), presence of obstructive events (0-1), increased work of breathing (0-1), mouth breathing (0-1) and neck extension (0-1). Video scores and the Obstructive Apnoea Hypopnoea Index (OAHI) were compared using Spearman correlation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for different cut-off scores to achieve the best results. RESULTS: Videos from 43 children (28 men (65.1%), median age 5.7 years (range 2.6-14.0 years), median OAHI 3.8/hour (range 0-82 events/hour) were included. Nine children (20.9%) had a video score of <3, all of whom had an OAHI of ≤5 events/hour. For a video score of ≥3, sensitivity was 100%; specificity was 36%; positive predictive value was 53%; and negative predictive value 100% for moderate to severe OSA (OAHI>5 events/hour) . CONCLUSION: We have developed and validated a simple clinical tool (the Monash Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Video Score) to quantify abnormalities in breathing seen on short video recordings made on a smartphone. A low score rules out moderate-severe OSA and may be valuable in the triage of children with symptoms of OSA.

7.
Sleep Med ; 84: 352-355, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) in children can be challenging. Advancements in CPAP technology have potential to influence adherence. The aim of this study was to compare adherence rates of children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) initiated on autotitrating CPAP (APAP) with remote modem monitoring compared to a cohort started on fixed pressure CPAP alone. METHODS: Children aged over 3 years starting APAP at our centre between February 2017 and February 2020 were included. Therapy data was obtained for the initial 90 days. Data was compared to a cohort of children started on CPAP between July 2004 and September 2008. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients with a median age of 14.3 years formed the APAP group, and were significantly older than the CPAP group who had a median age of 8.6 years (p = 0.02). Co-morbid conditions were present in 51% compared with 69% in the earlier cohort (p = 0.11). No significant difference was found in any adherence parameters between the groups. The value closest to achieving a significant difference was hours used per day used, with an median of 5.2 h in the CPAP group compared with 7.0 h in the APAP group (p = 0.07). Two-way ANOVA including age group (above or below 13 years) showed that both age group and treatment group (CPAP vs APAP) were significantly associated with a difference in adherence (F = 4.41, p = 0.006), with mean hours used on days used being highest in the APAP group aged under 13 years. However no significant interaction was found between age and treatment group. CONCLUSION: Despite the convenience for patients with outpatient initiation and ability to achieve optimal pressures quickly and remotely, our results show no improvement in adherence using APAP with remote monitoring, with the possible exception of children aged under 13 years. A large randomized controlled trial would be required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
8.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which is associated with intermittent hypoxia and sleep disruption affecting daytime functioning. We aimed to compare the impact of SDB on sleep quality in children with DS compared to typically developing (TD) children with and without SDB. METHODS: Children with DS and SDB (n = 44) were age- and sex-matched with TD children without SDB (TD-) and also for SDB severity with TD children with SDB (TD+). Children underwent overnight polysomnography with sleep macro- and micro-architecture assessed using electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis, including slow-wave activity (SWA, an indicator of sleep propensity). RESULTS: Children with DS had greater hypoxic exposure, more respiratory events during REM sleep, higher total, delta, sigma, and beta EEG power in REM than TD+ children, despite the same overall frequency of obstructive events. Compared to TD- children, they also had more wake after sleep-onset and lower sigma power in N2 and N3. The DS group had reduced SWA, indicating reduced sleep drive, compared to both TD groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SDB has a greater impact on sleep quality in children with DS compared to TD children. IMPACT: SDB in children with DS exacerbates disruption of sleep quality, compared to TD children. The prevalence of SDB is very high in children with DS; however, studies on the effects of SDB on sleep quality are limited in this population. Our findings suggest that SDB has a greater impact on sleep quality in children with DS compared to TD children, and should be screened for and treated as soon as possible.

10.
Sleep Med ; 81: 466-473, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), which can have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. In adults with SDB, nocturnal dipping of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) is reduced, and this is associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular events. We aimed to compare nocturnal dipping of HR and pulse transit time (PTT) (a surrogate inverse measure of BP change) in children with DS and SDB to those of typically developing (TD) children with and without SDB. METHODS: 19 children with DS (3-18 years) were age and sex matched with 19 TD children without SDB (TD-) and with 19 TD children with matched severity of SDB (TD+). Nocturnal dipping was assessed as the percentage change in HR and PTT from wake before sleep onset to total sleep, N2, N3 and REM sleep across the night and to the first cycle of sleep. RESULTS: Children with DS exhibited reduced nocturnal dipping of HR during total sleep, N2, N3 and REM sleep and increased PTT (reduced BP dipping) in N2 sleep. Fewer children with DS exhibited a greater than 10% fall in HR between wake and N2 or REM sleep compared to TD+ children. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate significantly reduced nocturnal dipping of HR in children with DS compared to TD children matched for SDB severity, suggesting SDB has a greater cardiovascular effect in these children. Further studies are required to fully understand the mechanisms involved and to assess if treatment of SDB improves nocturnal dipping.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações
11.
Sleep Med ; 82: 29-36, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Children with Down syndrome (DS) are recommended to undergo polysomnography (PSG) by the age of four years due to the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in this group, but compliance is incomplete. To further understand referral patterns for PSG in this condition, we aimed to compare demographics, PSG results, OSA severity, behavior, daytime functioning and quality of life (QOL) between children with DS referred for sleep testing and those recruited from the community. STUDY DESIGN: Children 3-19 years with DS was included: 20 referred clinically for assessment of OSA and 24 volunteers from the community. Demographic and anthropometric data, PSG parameters, sleep-related symptoms and QOL, behavior and daytime functioning were compared between groups. RESULTS: OSA severity did not differ between groups: 50% of the clinical and 42% of the community group had moderate/severe OSA. The clinical group had a higher weight z-score, BMI z-score, waist and hip circumference and neck-to-waist ratio. Questionnaire scores for daytime functioning, behavior and QOL were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite not being referred for clinical sleep assessment, 42% of children with DS recruited from the community had moderate/severe OSA. There was no difference in the QOL, behavior, daytime functioning and sleep symptoms questionnaires although the clinical group had a higher BMI-Z score and overt signs of obesity. These findings underscore the importance of PSG screening of all children with DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polissonografia , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
12.
Sleep Med ; 78: 101-107, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421669

RESUMO

AIMS: To review the contributions of Australian and New Zealand research on adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of symptoms of obstructed breathing during sleep (sleep disordered breathing, SDB) in children. METHODS: A search of the scientific literature was conducted using the MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed and Scopus databases in August 2020. The following search string was used: (tonsillectomy OR adenoidectomy OR adenotonsillectomy) AND (paediatric OR child) AND (Australia OR New Zealand). A focused internet search was additionally conducted on Google to identify grey literature. RESULTS: Researchers from Australia and New Zealand have made important contributions to the understanding and improvement of adenotonsillectomy (AT), including its epidemiology, cost, surgical techniques and peri-operative safety. Rates of AT have fluctuated over the years, becoming the most common paediatric surgery today, with SDB becoming the most common indication. Research in Australia and New Zealand has also focussed on the impact of AT on quality of life, and behaviour, neurocognition and cardiovascular sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Australian and New Zealand researchers have played a significant role in understanding the epidemiology and improving the safety of AT. There are promising directions in research still to come, including better understanding of the reasons for geographical variation in surgery rates, developing more efficient pre-operative risk assessment tools and alternative treatment options for mild OSA.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Tonsilectomia , Adenoidectomia , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Qualidade de Vida , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia
13.
Sleep Med ; 77: 161-169, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of ventilatory control instability (i.e. loop gain) in children with Down syndrome and sleep disordered breathing. METHODS: Children (3-19 years) with Down syndrome and sleep disordered breathing (n = 14) were compared with typically developing children (n = 14) matched for age, sex and sleep disordered breathing severity. All children underwent overnight polysomnography. Spontaneous sighs were identified and a 180s analysis window (60s pre-sigh to 120s post-sigh) containing flow measurements and oxygen saturation were created. Loop gain, a measure of the sensitivity of the negative feedback loop that controls ventilation, was estimated by fitting a mathematical model of ventilatory control to the post-sigh ventilatory pattern. Results; Loop gain was significantly higher in children with Down syndrome compared to matched typically developing children (median loop gain [interquartile range]: 0.36 [0.33, 0.55] vs 0.32 [0.24, 0.38]; P = 0.0395). While children with Down syndrome also had significantly lower average oxygen saturation associated within each analysis window compared to typically developing children (mean ± standard deviation: 96.9 ± 1.3% vs 98.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.0155), loop gain was not related to polysomnographic measures of hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS: Higher loop gain in children with Down syndrome and sleep disordered breathing indicates that these children have more unstable ventilatory control, compared to age, sex and sleep disordered breathing severity matched typically developing children. This may be due to an inherent impairment in ventilatory control in children with Down syndrome contributing to their increased risk of sleep disordered breathing which may inform alternative treatment options for this population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Criança , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Humanos , Hipóxia , Polissonografia , Respiração , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações
14.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in typically developing (TD) children is associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. As children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for SDB, we aimed to compare the cardiovascular effects of SDB in children with DS to those of TD children with and without SDB. METHODS: Forty-four children with DS (3-19 years) were age and sex matched with 44 TD children without SDB (TD-) and with 44 TD children with matched severity of SDB (TD+). Power spectral density was calculated from ECG recordings, for low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), total power and the LF/HF ratio. RESULTS: Children with DS had lower HF power, and higher LF/HF during sleep and when awake. There were no differences between groups for LF power. SpO2 nadir, average SpO2 drop and SpO2 > 4% drop were larger in the DS group compared to the TD+ group (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate significantly reduced parasympathetic activity (reduced HF power) and increased LF/HF (a measure of sympathovagal balance) in children with DS, together with greater exposure to hypoxia, suggesting SDB has a greater effect in these children that may contribute to an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. IMPACT: Sleep disordered breathing in children with Down syndrome exacerbates impaired autonomic control and increases exposure to hypoxia, compared to typically developing children. In typically developing children sleep disordered breathing has adverse effects on autonomic cardiovascular control. The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is very high in children with Down syndrome; however, studies on the effects on cardiovascular control are limited in this population. This study supports screening and early treatment of sleep disordered breathing in children with Down syndrome.

15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 138: 110313, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with recurrent dips in oxygen saturation (SpO2) during sleep are known to be at increased risk of post-operative airway compromise after adenotonsillectomy (AT). We aimed to determine the extent of desaturation on the first post-operative night in children known to have recurrent desaturation pre-operatively and to compare the extent of desaturation in that group with results in children known to have normal oximetry recordings pre-operatively. METHODS: Prospective sequential recruitment of 57 children who had overnight oximetry performed on the first night after adenotonsillectomy was undertaken, including 28 with a McGill Oximetry Score (MOS) of 2-4 pre-operatively (high risk group) and 29 with a normal/inconclusive pre-operative MOS (low risk group). Oximetry parameters (mean SpO2, SpO2 nadir, and rates of SpO2 dips below 90% and dips of ≥4%) were compared to the pre-operative oximetry result. Demographic and clinical factors, and the occurrence of post-operative complications, were derived from the medical record. RESULTS: In the high risk group, the MOS improved in 23/28 children, but remained abnormal in 82%. Conversely, in the low risk group 26/29 (90%) had a normal post-operative oximetry. The remaining 3, all of whom had severe OSA on pre-operative polysomnography, had a lowered baseline SpO2 post-operatively. Mean SpO2 was slightly lower post-operatively in both groups. In the high risk group, all other SpO2 measures improved post-operatively. Respiratory adverse events were more common in the high risk group as expected (39% compared to 3% in the low risk group, p = 0.001). An adverse event requiring clinical intervention was significantly more likely if the post-operative oximetry was abnormal (result unknown to the treating team), occurring in 73% of children with an abnormal compared with 32% of children with a normal post-operative oximetry (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Most children with an abnormal oximetry pre-operatively continued to have an abnormal oximetry on the first night after AT, albeit somewhat improved. While adverse events were more frequent in children with an abnormal post-operative oximetry, half (54%) did not suffer a clinical respiratory adverse event despite having repetitive desaturations on downloadable oximetry. These findings support close clinical observation of children at high risk of complications post-operatively, especially those with abnormal oximetry pre-operatively, rather than focusing on recurrent dips in SpO2 on post-operative oximetry downloads in the absence of clinically evident complications.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Oximetria , Tonsilectomia , Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos
16.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(10): 1655-1661, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515344

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) require treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This study aimed to determine whether automatic respiratory indices from a CPAP device accurately predict manually determined respiratory indices derived from overnight polysomnography (PSG) in children. METHODS: Consecutive children undergoing manual CPAP titration PSG using a ResMed VPAP ST-A (S9) were included. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), apnea index (AI), and hypopnea index (HI) from automatic analysis of the CPAP device for that night (AHICPAP, AICPAP, and HICPAP) were compared with manually derived respiratory indices (RDIPSG, OAHIPSG, AIPSG, and HIPSG) using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. RESULTS: Forty-six children (32 boys; median age, 13.5 years; range, 4.6-20.0 years) were included. There was no difference between RDIPSG and AHICPAP (P = .6) nor between HIPSG and HICPAP (P = .2). AIPSG was significantly lower than AICPAP (mean difference -1.3 events/hr, P < .001). AIPSG and AICPAP were strongly correlated (r² = .72, P < .01), but the CPAP machine overestimated the number of apneas at higher AIs. OAHIPSG was significantly lower than AHICPAP (P = .003) but strongly correlated (r² = .87, P < .01). The CPAP device significantly underestimated the number of hypopneas at higher indices. Using the manually scored OAHIPSG of ≥5 events/hr to define significant residual OSA, the AHICPAP had a high specificity (0.95) but low sensitivity (0.20). CONCLUSIONS: The ResMed S9 respiratory indices are not accurate enough to guide treatment decisions in children; in particular, they do not rule out the presence of residual OSA in children that remain symptomatic on CPAP. A low AHICPAP is reassuring in the context of a stable patient but may miss ongoing hypopneas.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
17.
Respirology ; 25(11): 1174-1182, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The contribution of non-anatomical factors, such as ventilatory control instability (i.e. LG), to the pathogenesis of obstructive SDB in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between LG and severity of SDB, demographic, anthropometric and anatomical characteristics in a clinically representative cohort of children. METHODS: Children (aged 3-18 years) with various severities of SDB (n = 110) and non-snoring controls (n = 36) were studied. Children were grouped according to their OAHI. Anthropometric and upper airway anatomical characteristics were measured. Spontaneous sighs were identified on polysomnography and LG, a measure of the sensitivity of the negative feedback loop that controls ventilation, was estimated by fitting a mathematical model of ventilatory control to the post-sigh ventilatory pattern. RESULTS: There was no difference in LG between controls and any of the SDB severity groups. However, LG was significantly lower in children with larger tonsils (tonsil grade 4) compared with children with smaller tonsils (tonsil grade 1) (median LG (range): 0.25 (0.20-0.42) vs 0.32 (0.25-0.44); P = 0.009) and in children with a modified Mallampati score of class III/IV compared with class I (0.28 (0.24-0.33) vs 0.37 (0.27-0.44); P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: A direct relationship was not found between the severity of paediatric SDB and LG. However, an altered ventilatory control sensitivity may contribute to SDB in a subgroup of children depending on their degree of anatomical compromise of the airway.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Antropometria/métodos , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Polissonografia/métodos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Ronco , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ventilação Pulmonar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Ronco/etiologia , Ronco/fisiopatologia
18.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 36: 128-135, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217050

RESUMO

The concept of personalised medicine is likely to revolutionise the treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnoea as a result of recent advances in the understanding of disease heterogeneity by identifying clinical phenotypes, pathophysiological endotypes, biomarkers and treatable traits. Children with the condition show a similar level of heterogeneity and paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea would also benefit from a more targeted approach to diagnosis and management. This review aims to summarise the adult literature on the phenotypes and endotypes of obstructive sleep apnoea and assess whether a similar approach may also be suitable to guide the development of new diagnostic and management approaches for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea.

19.
Sleep Med ; 67: 147-155, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In adults there is a distinct gender difference in the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), however there have been limited studies examining the effects of gender in children with SDB. We aimed to compare the effects of gender on severity of SDB, blood pressure, sleep and respiratory characteristics, quality of life, behavior and executive function. METHODS: We included 533 children aged 3-18 years, who underwent standard pediatric overnight polysomnography (PSG) between 2004 and 2016. Blood pressure was recorded prior to each study. Quality of life, behavior and executive function were assessed with parental questionnaires. Children were grouped by gender and SDB severity based on their obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) into non-snoring controls, Primary Snoring (PS) (OAHI≤1 event/h), Mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (OAHI>1-≤5 events/h) and moderate/severe (MS) OSA (OAHI>5 events/h) and data compared with 2-way ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 298 boys and 235 girls were studied. There were no differences in age, BMI z-score, SDB severity sleep characteristics or blood pressure between genders. Diastolic blood pressure was elevated in females with MS OSA compared to males (P < 0.05). Quality of life, behavior and executive function scores were all elevated in the SDB groups compared to controls. Females with MS OSA exhibited more internalizing behavioral problems compared to males (59.2 ± 2.4 vs. 51.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to studies in adults, we identified no gender differences in the severity or consequences of SDB in children, other than females with moderate-severe OSA exhibiting more internalizing problems and higher diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Criança , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Fatores Sexuais , Ronco/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Respirology ; 25(2): 214-220, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Frequent central apnoeas are sometimes observed in healthy children; however; the pathophysiology of an elevated central apnoea index (CAI) is poorly understood. A raised CAI may indicate underlying ventilatory control instability (i.e. elevated loop gain, LG) or a depressed ventilatory drive. This pilot study aimed to compare LG in otherwise healthy children with an elevated CAI to healthy controls. METHODS: Polysomnographic recordings from children (age > 6 months) without obstructive sleep apnoea and with a CAI > 5 events/h (n = 13) were compared with age and gender-matched controls with a CAI < 5 events/h (n = 13). Spontaneous sighs were identified during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and breath-breath measurements of ventilation were derived from the nasal pressure signal. A standard model of ventilatory control (gain, time constant and delay) was used to calculate LG by transforming ventilatory fluctuations seen in response to a sigh into a ventilatory-drive signal that best matches observed ventilation. RESULTS: The high CAI group had an elevated LG (median = 0.36 (interquartile range, IQR = 0.35-0.53) vs 0.28 (0.23-0.36); P ≤ 0.01). There was no difference in either the time constant (P = 0.63) or delay (P = 0.29) between groups. Elevated LG observed in the high CAI group remained after accounting for degree of hypoxia (average oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during each analysable window) experienced (0.40 (0.30-0.53) vs 0.25 (0.23-0.37); P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: An elevated CAI in otherwise healthy children is associated with a raised LG compared to matched controls with a low CAI, irrespective of level of hypoxia. This relative ventilatory instability helps explain the high CAI and may ultimately be able to help guide diagnosis and management in patients with high CAI.


Assuntos
Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/etiologia , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pressão Parcial , Projetos Piloto , Polissonografia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Respiração , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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