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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148396, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465046

RESUMO

Droughts represent one of the most severe abiotic stress factors that could result in great crop yield loss. Numerous vegetation indices have been proposed for monitoring the vegetation condition under stress and assessing drought impacts on yield loss. However, the understanding and comparison between traditional vegetation indices (VIs) and the newly emerging satellite Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring vegetation condition is still limited especially under drought stress and at multiple spatial scales. In this study, the potential of satellite observation SIF for monitoring corn response to drought was investigated based on the 2012 drought in the US Corn Belt. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used here to quantify drought. We found that all SPEI were above -1, except for July (-1.27), August (-1.39) and September (-1.14) in 2012, indicating the severity of this drought. We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of SIF, SIFyield, VIs (e.g., NDVI and EVI) and SPEI. Results indicated that SIFyield was sensitive to drought and SIF captured the stress more accurately both at the regional and state scales for the US Corn Belt. Quantitatively, SIFyield had a high correlation with SPEI (r = 0.987, p < 0.05) over the entire Corn Belt, and it indicated losses in response to drought approximately one month earlier than SIF/NDVI/EVI. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that SIF could be trusted as an effective indicator to study the relationship between GPP (R2 ≥ 0.8664, p < 0.01) under drought conditions across the Corn Belt. This study highlighted the advantage of using satellite SIF observations to monitor the drought stress on crop growth especially GPP at regional scale.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Secas , Fluorescência , Estações do Ano , Zea mays
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114771

RESUMO

Prior evaluations of the relationship between COVID-19 and weather indicate an inconsistent role of meteorology (weather) in the transmission rate. While some effects due to weather may exist, we found possible misconceptions and biases in the analysis that only consider the impact of meteorological variables alone without considering the urban metabolism and environment. This study highlights that COVID-19 assessments can notably benefit by incorporating factors that account for urban dynamics and environmental exposure. We evaluated the role of weather (considering equivalent temperature that combines the effect of humidity and air temperature) with particular consideration of urban density, mobility, homestay, demographic information, and mask use within communities. Our findings highlighted the importance of considering spatial and temporal scales for interpreting the weather/climate impact on the COVID-19 spread and spatiotemporal lags between the causal processes and effects. On global to regional scales, we found contradictory relationships between weather and the transmission rate, confounded by decentralized policies, weather variability, and the onset of screening for COVID-19, highlighting an unlikely impact of weather alone. At a finer spatial scale, the mobility index (with the relative importance of 34.32%) was found to be the highest contributing factor to the COVID-19 pandemic growth, followed by homestay (26.14%), population (23.86%), and urban density (13.03%). The weather by itself was identified as a noninfluential factor (relative importance < 3%). The findings highlight that the relation between COVID-19 and meteorology needs to consider scale, urban density and mobility areas to improve predictions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tempo (Meteorologia) , COVID-19 , Humanos , Características de Residência , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura , População Urbana
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17136, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748625

RESUMO

Extreme flooding over southern Louisiana in mid-August of 2016 resulted from an unusual tropical low that formed and intensified over land. We used numerical experiments to highlight the role of the 'Brown Ocean' effect (where saturated soils function similar to a warm ocean surface) on intensification and it's modulation by land cover change. A numerical modeling experiment that successfully captured the flood event (control) was modified to alter moisture availability by converting wetlands to open water, wet croplands, and dry croplands. Storm evolution in the control experiment with wet antecedent soils most resembles tropical lows that form and intensify over oceans. Irrespective of soil moisture conditions, conversion of wetlands to croplands reduced storm intensity, and also, non-saturated soils reduced rain by 20% and caused shorter durations of high intensity wind conditions. Developing agricultural croplands and more so restoring wetlands and not converting them into open water can impede intensification of tropical systems that affect the area.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133536, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374498

RESUMO

In the first two decades of the 21st century, 79 global big cities have suffered extensively from drought disaster. Meanwhile, climate change has magnified urban drought in both frequency and severity, putting tremendous pressure on a city's water supply. Therefore, tackling the challenges of urban drought is an integral part of achieving the targets set in at least 5 different Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, the current literatures on drought have not placed sufficient emphasis on urban drought challenge in achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This review is intended to fill this knowledge gap by identifying the key concepts behind urban drought, including the definition, occurrence, characteristics, formation, and impacts. Then, four sub-categories of urban drought are proposed, including precipitation-induced, runoff-induced, pollution-induced, and demand-induced urban droughts. These sub-categories can support city stakeholders in taking drought mitigation actions and advancing the following SDGs: SDG 6 "Clean water and sanitation", SDG 11 "Sustainable cities and communities", SDG 12 "Responsible production and consumption", SDG 13 "Climate actions", and SDG 15 "Life on land". To further support cities in taking concrete actions in reaching the listed SDGs, this perspective proposes five actions that city stakeholders can undertake in enhancing drought resilience and preparedness:1) Raising public awareness on water right and water saving; 2) Fostering flexible reliable, and integrated urban water supply; 3) Improving efficiency of urban water management; 4) Investing in sustainability science research for urban drought; and 5) Strengthening resilience efforts via international cooperation. In short, this review contains a wealth of insights on urban drought and highlights the intrinsic connections between drought resilience and the 2030 SDGs. It also proposes five action steps for policymakers and city stakeholders that would support them in taking the first step to combat and mitigate the impacts of urban droughts.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7301, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086196

RESUMO

Even though it is known that urbanization affects rainfall, studies vary regarding the magnitude and location of rainfall change. To develop a comprehensive understanding of rainfall modification due to urbanization, a systematic meta-analysis is undertaken. The initial search identified over 2000 papers of which 489 were carefully analyzed. From these papers, 85 studies from 48 papers could be used in a quantitative meta-analysis assessment. Results were analyzed for case studies versus climatological assessments, observational versus modeling studies and for day versus night. Results highlight that urbanization modifies rainfall, such that mean precipitation is enhanced by 18% downwind of the city, 16% over the city, 2% on the left and 4% on the right with respect to the storm direction. The rainfall enhancement occurred approximately 20-50 km from the city center. Study results help develop a more complete picture of the role of urban processes in rainfall modification and highlight that rainfall increases not only downwind of the city but also over the city. These findings have implications for urban flooding as well as hydroclimatological studies. This meta-analysis highlights the need for standardizing how the results are presented in future studies to aid the generalization of findings.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Meteorologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva , Urbanização , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inundações/prevenção & controle , Meteorologia/métodos , Meteorologia/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fotoperíodo , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3918, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500451

RESUMO

While satellite data provides a strong robust signature of urban feedback on extreme precipitation; urbanization signal is often not so prominent with station level data. To investigate this, we select the case study of Mumbai, India and perform a high resolution (1 km) numerical study with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for eight extreme rainfall days during 2014-2015. The WRF model is coupled with two different urban schemes, the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (WRF-SUCM), Multi-Layer Urban Canopy Model (WRF-MUCM). The differences between the WRF-MUCM and WRF-SUCM indicate the importance of the structure and characteristics of urban canopy on modifications in precipitation. The WRF-MUCM simulations resemble the observed distributed rainfall. WRF-MUCM also produces intensified rainfall as compared to the WRF-SUCM and WRF-NoUCM (without UCM). The intensification in rainfall is however prominent at few pockets of urban regions, that is seen in increased spatial variability. We find that the correlation of precipitation across stations within the city falls below statistical significance at a distance greater than 10 km. Urban signature on extreme precipitation will be reflected on station rainfall only when the stations are located inside the urban pockets having intensified precipitation, which needs to be considered in future analysis.

7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44552, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28294189

RESUMO

Understanding drought from multiple perspectives is critical due to its complex interactions with crop production, especially in India. However, most studies only provide singular view of drought and lack the integration with specific crop phenology. In this study, four time series of monthly meteorological, hydrological, soil moisture, and vegetation droughts from 1981 to 2013 were reconstructed for the first time. The wheat growth season (from October to April) was particularly analyzed. In this study, not only the most severe and widespread droughts were identified, but their spatial-temporal distributions were also analyzed alone and concurrently. The relationship and evolutionary process among these four types of droughts were also quantified. The role that the Green Revolution played in drought evolution was also studied. Additionally, the trends of drought duration, frequency, extent, and severity were obtained. Finally, the relationship between crop yield anomalies and all four kinds of drought during the wheat growing season was established. These results provide the knowledge of the most influential drought type, conjunction, spatial-temporal distributions and variations for wheat production in India. This study demonstrates a novel approach to study drought from multiple views and integrate it with crop growth, thus providing valuable guidance for local drought mitigation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Índia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/tendências , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(17): 9736-45, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482620

RESUMO

Despite significant effort to quantify the interdependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.7%-2.7% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to fresh surface water, 30% to fresh groundwater, and 12% to nonfresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%), and wastewater treatment (18%). While the United States was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970s until the 2000s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água , Água Doce , Água Subterrânea , Abastecimento de Água
9.
Environ Pollut ; 210: 261-70, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774191

RESUMO

Many streams worldwide are affected by heavy metal contamination, mostly due to past and present mining activities. Here we present a meta-analysis of 38 studies (reporting 133 cases) published between 1978 and 2014 that reported the effects of heavy metal contamination on the decomposition of terrestrial litter in running waters. Overall, heavy metal contamination significantly inhibited litter decomposition. The effect was stronger for laboratory than for field studies, likely due to better control of confounding variables in the former, antagonistic interactions between metals and other environmental variables in the latter or differences in metal identity and concentration between studies. For laboratory studies, only copper + zinc mixtures significantly inhibited litter decomposition, while no significant effects were found for silver, aluminum, cadmium or zinc considered individually. For field studies, coal and metal mine drainage strongly inhibited litter decomposition, while drainage from motorways had no significant effects. The effect of coal mine drainage did not depend on drainage pH. Coal mine drainage negatively affected leaf litter decomposition independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for wood decomposition, but sample size was low. Considering metal mine drainage, arsenic mines had a stronger negative effect on leaf litter decomposition than gold or pyrite mines. Metal mine drainage significantly inhibited leaf litter decomposition driven by both microbes and invertebrates, independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for microbially driven decomposition, but sample size was low. Overall, mine drainage negatively affects leaf litter decomposition, likely through negative effects on invertebrates.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Mineração , Águas Residuárias/química
10.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0142073, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26544045

RESUMO

This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee "Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change" under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the 'infrastructure impacts" are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC's survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the 'perception' of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these 'perception' averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Prova Pericial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribuição , Engenharia
11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 11261, 2015 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26158774

RESUMO

Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983-2012, we find that topsoil (0-50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p < 0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m(3) m(-3) per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Água/química , China , Fertilizantes , Estações do Ano
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 408(16): 3240-50, 2010 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20478612

RESUMO

Acidification of freshwaters is a global phenomenon, occurring both through natural leaching of organic acids and through human activities from industrial emissions and mining. The West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, has both naturally acidic and acid mine drainage (AMD) streams enabling us to investigate the response of fish communities to a gradient of acidity in the presence and absence of additional stressors such as elevated concentrations of heavy metals. We surveyed a total of 42 streams ranging from highly acidic (pH 3.1) and high in heavy metals (10 mg L(-)(1) Fe; 38 mg L(-)(1) Al) to circum-neutral (pH 8.1) and low in metals (0.02 mg L(-)(1) Fe; 0.05 mg L(-)(1) Al). Marked differences in pH and metal tolerances were observed among the 15 species that we recorded. Five Galaxias species, Anguilla dieffenbachii and Anguillaaustralis were found in more acidic waters (pH<5), while bluegill bullies (Gobiomorphus hubbsi) and torrentfish (Cheimarrichthys fosteri) were least tolerant of low pH (minimum pH 6.2 and 5.5, respectively). Surprisingly, the strongest physicochemical predictor of fish diversity, density and biomass was dissolved metal concentrations (Fe, Al, Zn, Mn and Ni) rather than pH. No fish were detected in streams with dissolved metal concentrations >2.7 mg L(-)(1) and nine taxa were only found in streams with metal concentrations <1 mg L(-)(1). The importance of heavy metals as critical drivers of fish communities has not been previously reported in New Zealand, although the mechanism of the metal effects warrants further study. Our findings indicate that any remediation of AMD streams which seeks to enable fish recolonisation should aim to improve water quality by raising pH above approximately 4.5 and reducing concentrations of dissolved Al and Fe to <1.0 mg L(-)(1).


Assuntos
Ácidos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Água Doce , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 75(11): 3455-60, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19363070

RESUMO

We examined the bacterial communities of epilithic biofilms in 17 streams which represented a gradient ranging from relatively pristine streams to streams highly impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). A combination of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis with multivariate analysis and ordination provided a sensitive, high-throughput method to monitor the impact of AMD on stream bacterial communities. Significant differences in community structure were detected among neutral to alkaline (pH 6.7 to 8.3), acidic (pH 3.9 to 5.7), and very acidic (pH 2.8 to 3.5) streams. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the acidic streams were generally dominated by bacteria related to the iron-oxidizing genus Gallionella, while the organisms in very acidic streams were less diverse and included a high proportion of acidophilic eukaryotes, including taxa related to the algal genera Navicula and Klebsormidium. Despite the presence of high concentrations of dissolved metals (e.g., Al and Zn) and deposits of iron hydroxide in some of the streams studied, pH was the most important determinant of the observed differences in bacterial community variability. These findings confirm that any restoration activities in such systems must focus on dealing with pH as the first priority.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/microbiologia , Poluição Química da Água , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Algas/química , DNA de Algas/genética , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Rios/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
14.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 58(9): 1215-22, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18817114

RESUMO

The southeastern portion of North Carolina features a dense crop and animal agricultural region; previous research suggests that this agricultural presence emits a significant portion of the state's nitrogen (i.e., oxides of nitrogen and ammonia) emissions. These findings indicate that transporting air over this region can affect nitrogen concentrations in precipitation at sites as far as 50 mi away. The study combined nitrate nitrogen isotope data with back-trajectory analysis to examine the relationship between regional nitrogen emission estimates independent of pollutant concentration information. In 2004, the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to determine potential sources of nitrogen in rainwater collected at an urban receptor site in Raleigh, NC. The delta 15N isotope ratio signatures of each sample were used to further differentiate between sources of the rainwater nitrate. This study examined the importance of pollution sources, including animal agricultural activity, and meteorology on rainfall chemistry as well as the implications in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) formation. Samples that transited the dense crop and animal (swine) agricultural region of east-southeastern North Carolina (i.e., the source region) had lower delta 15N isotope ratios in the nitrate ion (average = -2.1 +/- 1.7 per thousand) than those from a counterpart nonagricultural region (average = 0.1 +/- 3 per thousand.) An increase in PM2.5 concentrations in the urban receptor site (yearly average = 15.1 +/- 5.8 microg/m3) was also found to correspond to air transport over the dense agricultural region relative to air that was not subjected to such transport (yearly average = 11.7 +/- 5.8 microg/m3).


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Chuva/química , Análise de Variância , Atmosfera , Isótopos/análise , Estados Unidos
15.
J Environ Qual ; 37(2): 515-20, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18389937

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that human activities accelerate the production of reactive nitrogen on a global scale. Increased nitrogen emissions may lead to environmental impacts including photochemical air pollution, reduced visibility, changes in biodiversity, and stratospheric ozone depletion. In the last 50 yr, emissions of ammonia (NH3), which is the most abundant form of reduced reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere, have significantly increased as a result of intensive agricultural management and greater livestock production in many developed countries. These agricultural production practices are increasingly subject to governmental regulations intended to protect air resources. It is therefore important that an accurate and robust agricultural emission factors database exist to provide valid scientific support of these regulations. This paper highlights some of the recent work that was presented at the 2006 Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality in Washington, D.C. regarding NH3 emissions estimates and emission factors from agricultural sources in the U.S. and Europe. In addition, several best management practices are explored as the scientific community attempts to maximize the beneficial use of reactive nitrogen while simultaneously minimizing negative environmental impacts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Amônia/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Amônia/química , Estados Unidos
16.
Environ Manage ; 39(2): 213-25, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17160511

RESUMO

When native grassland catchments are converted to pasture, the main effects on stream physicochemistry are usually related to increased nutrient concentrations and fine-sediment input. We predicted that increasing nutrient concentrations would produce a subsidy-stress response (where several ecological metrics first increase and then decrease at higher concentrations) and that increasing sediment cover of the streambed would produce a linear decline in stream health. We predicted that the net effect of agricultural development, estimated as percentage pastoral land cover, would have a nonlinear subsidy-stress or threshold pattern. In our suite of 21 New Zealand streams, epilithic algal biomass and invertebrate density and biomass were higher in catchments with a higher proportion of pastoral land cover, responding mainly to increased nutrient concentration. Invertebrate species richness had a linear, negative relationship with fine-sediment cover but was unrelated to nutrients or pastoral land cover. In accord with our predictions, several invertebrate stream health metrics (Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera density and richness, New Zealand Macroinvertebrate Community Index, and percent abundance of noninsect taxa) had nonlinear relationships with pastoral land cover and nutrients. Most invertebrate health metrics usually had linear negative relationships with fine-sediment cover. In this region, stream health, as indicated by macroinvertebrates, primarily followed a subsidy-stress pattern with increasing pastoral development; management of these streams should focus on limiting development beyond the point where negative effects are seen.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Água Doce , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos , Invertebrados
17.
Environ Pollut ; 130(2): 287-99, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15158041

RESUMO

The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Nova Zelândia , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Microbiologia da Água
18.
J Environ Qual ; 32(5): 1820-8, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14535325

RESUMO

New Zealand's freshwater ecosystems are subject to microbial contamination from a predominantly agricultural landscape. This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution of the human pathogen Campylobacter in the lower Taieri River, South Island (New Zealand). Enumeration of thermophilic Campylobacter from river samples was performed using a most probable number (MPN) method. Seasonal variation in Campylobacter levels was evident, with higher median levels detected in summer, when human exposure through recreational water use is maximal. Campylobacter levels varied significantly among the 10 sampling sites, increasing below a major tributary entering the river and then showing a downstream decrease. These changes probably resulted from inputs from adjacent farms and instream Campylobacter losses (settling, death). Two main peaks in the flux of Campylobacter were observed, one in winter and one in summer. A decrease in notified cases of campylobacteriosis in the human population was observed when levels of Campylobacter at the main recreational bathing site on the river were low. Continuing land use change and intensification in New Zealand may lead to further increases in microbial contamination of freshwaters, and an associated increase in waterborne enteric diseases such as campylobacteriosis.


Assuntos
Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Saúde Pública , Recreação , Agricultura , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Dinâmica Populacional , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água
19.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 360(1797): 1705-19, 2002 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12460493

RESUMO

Our paper documents that land-use change impacts regional and global climate through the surface-energy budget, as well as through the carbon cycle. The surface-energy budget effects may be more important than the carbon-cycle effects. However, land-use impacts on climate cannot be adequately quantified with the usual metric of 'global warming potential'. A new metric is needed to quantify the human disturbance of the Earth's surface-energy budget. This 'regional climate change potential' could offer a new metric for developing a more inclusive climate protocol. This concept would also implicitly provide a mechanism to monitor potential local-scale environmental changes that could influence biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Planeta Terra , Ecossistema , Geografia , Efeito Estufa , Modelos Teóricos , Política Pública
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