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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 943, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gambia has one of the lowest survival rates for breast cancer in Africa. Contributing factors are late presentation, delays within the healthcare system, and decreased availability of resources. We aimed to characterize the capacity and geographic location of healthcare facilities in the country and calculate the proportion of the population with access to breast cancer care. METHODS: A facility-based assessment tool was administered to secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and private medical centers and clinics in The Gambia. GPS coordinates were obtained, and proximity of service availability and population analysis were performed. Distance thresholds of 10, 20, and 45 km were chosen to determine access to screening, pathologic diagnosis, and surgical management. An additional population analysis was performed to observe the potential impact of targeted development of resources for breast cancer care. RESULTS: All 102 secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and private medical centers and clinics in The Gambia were included. Breast cancer screening is mainly performed through clinical breast examination and is available in 52 facilities. Seven facilities provide pathologic diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer. The proportion of the Gambian population with access to screening, pathologic diagnosis, and surgical management is 72, 53, and 62%, respectively. A hypothetical targeted expansion of resources would increase the covered population to 95, 62, and 84%. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the Gambian population does not have access to pathologic diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer within the distance threshold utilized in the study. Mapping and population analysis can identify areas for targeted development of resources to increase access to breast cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
2.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and its clinical outcomes have been poorly studied in Africa. METHOD: Using the PROLIFICA cohort, we compared the prevalence of OBI between HBsAg-negative healthy adults screened from the general population (controls) and HBsAg-negative patients with advanced liver disease (cases) and estimated the population attributable fraction for the effect of OBI on advanced liver disease. RESULTS: OBI prevalence was significantly higher among the cases (15/82, 18.3%) than in the control group (31/330, 9.4%, p=0.03). Among participants with OBI, pre-S2 mutations were detected in 5/31 (16.1%) controls and 3/14 (21.4%) cases (p=0.7).After adjusting for age, sex, and anti-HCV serology, OBI was significantly associated with advanced liver disease [OR: 2.8 (95% CI: 1.3-6.0), p=0.006]. In HBsAg-negative people, the proportions of advanced liver disease cases attributable to OBI and HCV were estimated at 12.9% (7.5-18.1%) and 16.9% (15.2-18.6%), respectively. CONCLUSION: OBI is endemic and an independent risk factor of advanced liver disease in The Gambia, West Africa. This implies that HBsAg-negative people with liver disease should be systematically screened for OBI. Moreover, the impact of infant hepatitis B immunization to prevent end-stage liver disease might be higher than previous estimates based solely on HBsAg-positivity.

3.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(7): 1003-1010, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749097

RESUMO

The clinical utility of quantifying hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels in African subjects with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been poorly documented. From a multicentre cohort of 944 HBV-infected African patients, we aimed to assess whether qHBsAg alone can accurately identify i) those in a HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection phase at low risk of liver disease progression and ii) those in need of antiviral therapy according to the 2017 EASL guidelines. We analysed 770 HBV mono-infected treatment-naïve patients, mainly males (61%) from West Africa (92%), median age 35 years (IQR: 30-44), median HBV DNA: 95.6 IU/ml (10.0-1,300.0), median qHBsAg 5,498 IU/ml (1,171-13,000) and HBeAg-pos 38 (5%). A total of 464/770 (60.2%) patients were classified as HBeAg-negative chronic infection (median age 36 years (31-46), median ALT 23 IU/l (18-28), median HBV-DNA 33.5 IU/ml (3.8-154.1), median LSM 4.8 kPa (4.1-5.8)) and qHBsAg levels had poor accuracy to identify these subjects with an AUROC at 0.58 (95%CI: 0.54-0.62), sensitivity 55.0% and specificity 55.6%; 118/770 (15.3%) patients were eligible for treatment according to the 2017 EASL criteria. qHBsAg correlated poorly with HBV DNA and had poor accuracy to select patients for antiviral therapy with an AUROC at 0.54 (0.49-0.60), sensitivity 46.6% and specificity 46.9%. In African treatment-naïve HBV-infected subjects, the clinical utility of qHBsAg to identify subjects in HBeAg-negative infection phase or subjects eligible for antiviral therapy seems futile. Whether qHBsAg levels can be used as a predictor of long-term liver complications in Africa needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Adulto , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Front Oncol ; 10: 971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656081

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and despite recent immunotherapeutic advances there remains a need for improved diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools. UL-16 binding protein 1 (ULBP1) is a ligand of the activatory receptor Natural Killer cell Group 2 receptor D (NKG2D) and is found as a cell-surface protein on some malignant cells including on human hepatocellular carcinomas. We aimed to explore the biological and clinical significance of NKG2D ligands in the circulation of patients with HCC. We measured ULBP1 in the serum of two retrospective cohorts of patients with HCC from the PROLIFICA cohort in The Gambia (n = 43) and from a tertiary care setting in the UK (n = 72) by sandwich ELISA. Exosome isolation by size exclusion was used to compare ULBP1 concentration in exosomes and as free protein. Survival analysis was performed and multiple linear regression and Poisson regression were used to assess the independent effect of ULBP1 concentration. ULBP1 was raised in both cohorts with HCC regardless of the underlying liver disease, and was not associated with markers of cirrhosis such as platelet count or serum albumin. ULBP1 was present predominantly as free protein rather than bound to exosomes. Serum ULBP1 > 2000 pg/ml was associated with a significantly reduced survival in both cohorts (hazard ratios in Gambian and UK cohorts 2.37 and 2.1, respectively). The effect remained significant after adjustment for BCLC staging (p = 0.03). These data suggest that ULBP1 merits further investigation as a prognostic marker in HCC in diverse settings and should also be explored as a therapeutic target.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(7): 1442-1452, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, it is essential to scale up testing and treatment. However, conventional tools to assess treatment eligibility, particularly nucleic acid testing (NAT) to quantify HBV DNA, are hardly available and affordable in resource-limited countries. We therefore assessed the performance of a novel immunoassay, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), as an inexpensive (US$ <15/assay) alternative to NAT to diagnose clinically important HBV DNA thresholds (≥2000, ≥20 000, and ≥200 000 IU/mL) and to select patients for antiviral therapy in Africa. METHODS: Using a well-characterized cohort of treatment-naive patients with chronic HBV infection in The Gambia, we evaluated the accuracy of serum HBcrAg to diagnose HBV DNA levels and to indicate treatment eligibility determined by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, based on reference tests (HBV DNA, hepatitis B e antigen, alanine aminotransferase, liver histopathology, and/or FibroScan). RESULTS: A total of 284 treatment-naive patients were included in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity, and specificity of serum HBcrAg were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.93), 83.3%, and 83.9%, respectively, to diagnose HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL; and 0.94 (95% CI, .88-.99), 91.4%, and 93.2% for ≥200 000 IU/mL. A simplified treatment algorithm using HBcrAg without HBV DNA showed high AUROC (0.91 [95% CI, .88-.95]) with a sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 85.8%. CONCLUSIONS: HBcrAg might be an accurate alternative to HBV DNA quantification as a simple and inexpensive tool to identify HBV-infected patients in need of antiviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , África , DNA Viral , Gâmbia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
6.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(5): 431-439, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115326

RESUMO

Despite the existence of an effective vaccine, HBV infects 257 million people worldwide and is the cause of the majority of HCC. With an annual mortality rate of 887 000 patients in 2015, this cancer is the second deadliest. Low-income countries such as ones in sub-Saharan Africa are the most at risk due to the limited access to healthcare. To overcome this and born from an international research collaboration within an EU project, the Prolifica study aimed at evaluating a screen-and-treat program to prevent HBV complications, and more particularly HCC. Based on communities, facilities and hospitals HBsAg+ detection, the study lasted from 2011 to 2016. From the "cost effectiveness" feasibility of such a program to the development of simple scores for antiviral treatment, Prolifica uncovered data of crucial importance in a region with low HBV infection awareness, transmissions modes and prevention means which could have impacts on public health policies.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Pobreza
7.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(6): 738-749, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661282

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is high in The Gambia, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the main cause. People coinfected with HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV) have an even greater risk of HCC and cirrhosis. Using a new HDV quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay, we evaluated the association between HDV infection and HCC or cirrhosis among participants in The Gambia Liver Cancer Study. In this case-control study, cases had HCC (n = 312) or cirrhosis (n = 119). Controls (n = 470) had no clinical evidence of liver disease and normal serum alpha-foetoprotein. Participants were previously tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); we tested HBsAg+ specimens by HDV Q-MAC, western blot and RNA assays. We evaluated separate cut-offs of the Q-MAC assay for predicting anti-HDV and RNA positivity. Q-MAC correctly identified 29/29 subjects who were western blot-positive (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 99.4%) and 16/17 who were RNA-positive (sensitivity = 94.1%, specificity = 100%). Compared to controls, cases more often had HBV monoinfection (HBsAg+/HDV RNA-; 54.1% vs 17.0%; odds ratio [OR] = 6.28; P < 0.001) or HBV-HDV coinfection (HBsAg+/HDV RNA+; 3.9% vs 0%; P < 0.001). Risk estimates (for HCC or cirrhosis) based on HDV antibody status and adjusted for covariates (demographics, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, anti-HCV and aflatoxin B1 exposure) yielded consistent results for both HBV monoinfection (adjusted OR = 8.29; 95% confidence interval = 5.74-11.98) and HBV-HDV coinfection (adjusted OR = 30.66; 95% confidence interval = 6.97-134.95). In this Gambian population, HDV Q-MAC had high sensitivity and specificity for both anti-HDV and HDV RNA. HDV infection contributed to the high risk of HCC in The Gambia.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite D/complicações , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
J Hepatol ; 69(4): 776-784, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, it is essential to scale up antiviral treatment through decentralized services. However, access to the conventional tools to assess treatment eligibility (liver biopsy/Fibroscan®/HBV DNA) is limited and not affordable in resource-limited countries. We developed and validated a simple score to easily identify patients in need of HBV treatment in Africa. METHODS: As a reference, we used treatment eligibility determined by the European Association for the Study of the Liver based on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver histology and/or Fibroscan and HBV DNA. We derived a score indicating treatment eligibility by a stepwise logistic regression using a cohort of chronic HBV infection in The Gambia (n = 804). We subsequently validated the score in an external cohort of HBV-infected Africans from Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Europe (n = 327). RESULTS: Out of several parameters, two remained in the final model, namely HBV e antigen (HBeAg) and ALT level, constituting a simple score (treatment eligibility in Africa for the hepatitis B virus: TREAT-B). The score demonstrated a high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) in the validation set. The score of 2 and above (HBeAg-positive and ALT ≥20 U/L or HBeAg-negative and ALT ≥40 U/L) had a sensitivity and specificity for treatment eligibility of 85% and 77%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the World Health Organization criteria based on the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and ALT were 90% and 40%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A simple score based on HBeAg and ALT had a high diagnostic accuracy for the selection of patients for HBV treatment. This score could be useful in African settings. LAY SUMMARY: Limited access to the diagnostic tools used to assess treatment eligibility (liver biopsy/Fibroscan/hepatitis B virus DNA) has been an obstacle to the scale up of hepatitis B treatment programs in low- and middle-income countries. Using the data from African patients with chronic HBV infection, we developed and validated a new simple diagnostic score for treatment eligibility, which only consists of hepatitis B virus e antigen and alanine aminotransferase level. The diagnostic accuracy of the score for selecting patients for HBV treatment was high and could be useful in African settings.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 53: 119-128, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414631

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer (EC) in many transitioning countries, with an enigmatic and geographically distinct etiology, and consistently elevated incidence rates in many Eastern and Southern African countries. To gain epidemiological insights into ESCC patterns across the continent, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of male-to-female (M:F) sex ratios of EC age-standardised (world) incidence rates in Africa according to geography, time and age at diagnosis. Data from 197 populations in 36 countries were included in the analysis, based on data from cancer registries included in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Cancer in Africa and Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa reports, alongside a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature. A consistent male excess in incidence rates overall (1.7; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.0), and in the high-risk Eastern (1.6; 95% CI: 1.4, 1.8) and Southern (1.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.0) African regions was observed. Within the latter two regions, there was a male excess evident in 30-39 year olds that was not observed in low-risk regions. Despite possible referral biases affecting the interpretability of the M:F ratios in place and time, the high degree of heterogeneity in ESCC incidence implies a large fraction of the disease is preventable, and directs research enquiries to elucidate early-age exposures among young men in Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Gen Med ; 10: 401-408, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158688

RESUMO

The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the "Global South" nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the "Global North", formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization. Medical exploitation has its roots in the socioeconomic interactions of a postcolonial world, and solutions to reducing exploitation require a deeper understanding of these societal models of globalization. We explore the fundamental causes of imbalance and suggest solutions. Reflecting on the globalization model, there must be an effort to empower the Global South nations to direct and govern their own health care systems efficiently on the basis of equality.

11.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179025, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compliance with WHO guidelines on HBV screening and treatment in HIV-coinfected patients is often challenging in resource limited countries and has been poorly assessed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, we assessed physician's compliance with WHO guidelines on HIV-HBV coinfection in the largest HIV clinic in The Gambia, and the hepatic outcomes in HIV-HBV coinfected patients as compared to randomly selected HIV-monoinfected controls. RESULTS: 870 HIV-infected patients regularly seen in this clinic agreed to participate in our study. Only 187 (21.5%, 95% CI 18.8-24.3) had previously been screened for HBsAg, 23 (12.3%, 95% CI 8.0-17.9) were positive of whom none had liver assessment and only 6 (26.1%) had received Tenofovir. Our HBV testing intervention was accepted by all participants and found 94/870 (10.8%, 95% CI 8.8-13.1) positive, 78 of whom underwent full liver assessment along with 40 HBsAg-negative controls. At the time of liver assessment, 61/78 (78.2%) HIV-HBV coinfected patients received ART with 7 (11.5%) on Tenofovir and 54 (88.5%) on Lamivudine alone. HIV-HBV coinfected patients had higher APRI score compared to controls (0.58 vs 0.42, p = 0.002). HBV DNA was detectable in 52/53 (98.1%) coinfected patients with 14/53 (26.4%) having HBV DNA >20,000 IU/L. 10/12 (83.3%) had at least one detectable 3TC-associated HBV resistance, which tended to be associated with increase in liver fibrosis after adjusting for age and sex (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compliance with HBV testing and treatment guidelines is poor in this Gambian HIV programme putting coinfected patients at risk of liver complications. However, the excellent uptake of HBV screening and linkage to care in our study suggests feasible improvements.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gâmbia , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 22(45): 9880-9897, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28018096

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and usually develops over many years, as a result of chronic inflammation and scarring, resulting in end-stage liver disease and its complications. The progression of disease is characterised by ongoing inflammation and consequent fibrosis, although hepatic steatosis is increasingly being recognised as an important pathological feature of disease, rather than being simply an innocent bystander. However, the current gold standard method of quantifying and staging liver disease, histological analysis by liver biopsy, has several limitations and can have associated morbidity and even mortality. Therefore, there is a clear need for safe and non-invasive assessment modalities to determine hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. This review covers key mechanisms and the importance of fibrosis and steatosis in the progression of liver disease. We address non-invasive imaging and blood biomarker assessments that can be used as an alternative to information gained on liver biopsy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 4(8): e559-67, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of immunisation for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the 1990s, HBV-related morbidity and mortality remain high in sub-Saharan Africa. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic people with chronic HBV infection should reduce the disease burden. We therefore assessed the feasibility of a screen-and-treat programme for HBV infection in The Gambia, west Africa, and estimated the proportion of HBV-infected people who had significant liver disease in need of treatment. METHODS: Between Dec 7, 2011, and Jan 24, 2014, individuals living in randomly selected communities in western Gambia were offered hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening via a point-of-care test. The test was also offered to potential blood donors attending the central hospital in the capital, Banjul. HBsAg-positive individuals were invited for a comprehensive liver assessment and were offered treatment according to international guidelines. We defined linkage to care as visiting the liver clinic at least once. Eligibility for treatment was judged in accordance with the 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. FINDINGS: HBsAg screening was accepted by 5980 (weighted estimate 68·9%, 95% CI 65·0-72·4) of 8170 adults from 27 rural and 27 urban communities and 5559 (81·4%, 80·4-82·3) of 6832 blood donors. HBsAg was detected in 495 (8·8%, 7·9-9·7) individuals in communities and 721 (13·0%, 12·1-13·9) blood donors. Prevalence was higher in men (239 [10·5%, 8·9-12·1] of 2328 men vs 256 [7·6%, 6·5-8·7] of 3652 women; p=0·004) and middle-aged participants. Linkage to care was high in the communities, with 402 (81·3%) of 495 HBsAg-positive individuals attending the clinic. However, only 300 (41·6%) of 721 HBsAg-positive people screened at the blood bank linked into care. Of those who attended the clinic, 18 (4·4%, 2·5-7·7) patients from the communities and 29 (9·7%, 6·8-13·6) from the blood bank were eligible for treatment. Male sex was strongly associated with treatment eligibility (odds ratio 4·35, 1·50-12·58; p=0·007). INTERPRETATION: HBV infection remains highly prevalent in The Gambia. The high coverage of community-based screening, good linkage into care, and the small proportion of HBsAg carriers who need treatment suggest that large-scale screening and treatment programmes are feasible in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: European Commission (FP7).


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antivirais , Doadores de Sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 4(8): e568-78, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa, absence of widespread screening and poor access to treatment leads to most people remaining undiagnosed until later stages of disease when prognosis is poor and treatment options are limited. We examined the cost-effectiveness of community-based screening and early treatment with antiviral therapy for HBV in The Gambia. METHODS: In this economic evaluation, we combined a decision tree with a Markov state transition model to compare a screen and treat intervention consisting of adult community-based screening using a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) rapid test and subsequent HBV antiviral therapy versus current practice, in which there is an absence of publicly provided screening or treatment for HBV. We used data from the PROLIFICA study to parameterise epidemiological, primary screening, and cost information, and other model parameter inputs were obtained from a literature search. Outcome measures were cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted; cost per life-year saved; and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) between current practice and the screen and treat intervention. Costs were assessed from a health provider perspective. Costs (expressed in 2013 US$) and health outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. FINDINGS: In The Gambia, where the prevalence of HBsAg is 8·8% in people older than 30 years, adult screening and treatment for HBV has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $540 per DALY averted, $645 per life-year saved, and $511 per QALY gained, compared with current practice. These ICERs are in line with willingness-to-pay levels of one times the country's gross domestic product per capita ($487) per DALY averted, and remain robust over a wide range of epidemiological and cost parameter inputs. INTERPRETATION: Adult community-based screening and treatment for HBV in The Gambia is likely to be a cost-effective intervention. Higher cost-effectiveness might be achievable with targeted facility-based screening, price reductions of drugs and diagnostics, and integration of HBV screening with other public health interventions. FUNDING: European Commission.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Modelos Econômicos , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gâmbia , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 16(1): 329-38, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27358650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-methods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses encountered. METHODS: In a three-day course, healthcare professionals were surveyed on endoscopic resources and capacity and were taught through active observation of live cases, case discussion, simulator experience and didactics. Before and after didactics, multiple-choice exams as well as questionnaires were administered to assess for course efficacy. Also, a case series of 23 patients needing upper GI endoscopy was done. RESULTS: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an EGD and none could perform an ERCP, while waiting time for emergency endoscopy in urban populations was at least one day. In assessing improvement in medical knowledge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI course with simulation and didactics improves gastrointestinal knowledge amongst participants.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/educação , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , África Ocidental , Competência Clínica , Progressão da Doença , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Listas de Espera
16.
World J Hepatol ; 8(10): 471-84, 2016 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057305

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy and now the second commonest global cause of cancer death. HCC tumorigenesis is relatively silent and patients experience late symptomatic presentation. As the option for curative treatments is limited to early stage cancers, diagnosis in non-symptomatic individuals is crucial. International guidelines advise regular surveillance of high-risk populations but the current tools lack sufficient sensitivity for early stage tumors on the background of a cirrhotic nodular liver. A number of novel biomarkers have now been suggested in the literature, which may reinforce the current surveillance methods. In addition, recent metabonomic and proteomic discoveries have established specific metabolite expressions in HCC, according to Warburg's phenomenon of altered energy metabolism. With clinical validation, a simple and non-invasive test from the serum or urine may be performed to diagnose HCC, particularly benefiting low resource regions where the burden of HCC is highest.

17.
Gut ; 65(8): 1369-76, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26109530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simple and inexpensive non-invasive fibrosis tests are highly needed but have been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using liver histology as a gold standard, we developed a novel index using routine laboratory tests to predict significant fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection in The Gambia, West Africa. We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the novel index, Fibroscan, aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and Fib-4 in Gambian patients with CHB (training set) and also in French and Senegalese CHB cohorts (validation sets). RESULTS: Of 135 consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHB who had liver biopsy, 39% had significant fibrosis (Metavir fibrosis stage ≥F2) and 15% had cirrhosis (F4). In multivariable analysis, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and platelet count were independent predictors of significant fibrosis. Consequently, GGT-to-platelet ratio (GPR) was developed. In The Gambia, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the GPR was significantly higher than that of APRI and Fib-4 to predict ≥F2, ≥F3 and F4. In Senegal, the AUROC of GPR was significantly better than Fib-4 and APRI for ≥F2 (0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.86) and better than Fib-4 and Fibroscan for ≥F3 (0.93, 0.87 to 0.99). In France, the AUROC of GPR to diagnose ≥F2 (0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.85) and F4 (0.87, 0.76 to 0.98) was equivalent to that of APRI and Fib-4. CONCLUSIONS: The GPR is a more accurate routine laboratory marker than APRI and Fib-4 to stage liver fibrosis in patients with CHB in West Africa. The GPR represents a simple and inexpensive alternative to liver biopsy and Fibroscan in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Cirrose Hepática , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , gama-Glutamiltransferase , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , gama-Glutamiltransferase/análise , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
18.
Gut ; 65(12): 2007-2016, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural history of chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Data are required to inform WHO guidelines that are currently based on studies in Europe and Asia. METHODS: Between 1974 and 2008, serosurveys were repeated in two Gambian villages, and an open cohort of treatment-naive chronic HBV carriers was recruited. Participants were followed to estimate the rates of hepatitis B e (HBeAg) and surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 2012-2013, a comprehensive liver assessment was conducted to estimate the prevalence of severe liver disease. RESULTS: 405 chronic carriers (95% genotype E), recruited at a median age of 10.8 years, were followed for a median length of 28.4 years. Annually, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) cleared HBeAg and 1.0% (0.8% to 1.2%) cleared HBsAg. The incidence of HCC was 55.5/100 000 carrier-years (95% CI 24.9 to 123.5). In the 2012-2013 survey (n=301), 5.5% (95% CI 3.4% to 9.0%) had significant liver fibrosis. HBV genotype A (versus E), chronic aflatoxin B1 exposure and an HBsAg-positive mother, a proxy for mother-to-infant transmission, were risk factors for liver fibrosis. A small proportion (16.0%) of chronic carriers were infected via mother-to-infant transmission; however, this population represented a large proportion (63.0%) of the cases requiring antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of HCC among chronic HBV carriers in West Africa was higher than that in Europe but lower than rates in East Asia. High risk of severe liver disease among the few who are infected by their mothers underlines the importance of interrupting perinatal transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Liver Int ; 35(10): 2318-26, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity. METHODS: The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases recruited from hospitals (n = 72) and two HBsAg-positive control groups without HCC: population-based controls from a community HBV screening (n = 392) and hospital-based controls (n = 63). RESULTS: HCC risk decreased with increasing birth order in the population-based case-control analysis. Using first birth order as the reference, the odds ratios were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.36), 0.52 (0.17-1.56), 0.57 (0.16-2.05) and 0.14 (0.03-0.64) for second, third, fourth and greater than fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might reduce the incidence of HCC in The Gambia.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Portador Sadio/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 53(4): 1156-63, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631805

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Point-of-care tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could be an ideal tool for a large-scale HBV screening/treatment program in SSA. Using data from the PROLIFICA (Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa) program, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of three point-of-care tests (Determine, Vikia, and Espline) for the detection of HBsAg in the field or a laboratory setting in the Gambia. In the field, we used finger-prick whole blood for the Determine and Vikia tests and dried blood spots for the reference standard test (AxSYM HBsAg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]). In the laboratory we used serum for the Determine, Espline, and reference test (Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay). Of 773 participants recruited at the community and 227 known chronic HBV carriers (1,000 subjects in total), 293 were positive for HBsAg. The sensitivity and specificity of the Determine test were 88.5% and 100% in the field and 95.3% and 93.3% in the laboratory setting, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 99.8% for the Vikia test (in the field) and 93.9% and 94.7% for the Espline test (in the laboratory). There was no evidence that one kit was better than another. Most of the patients with false-negative results (18/19) were classified as inactive chronic carriers. In summary, the three point-of-care tests had acceptable ranges of diagnostic accuracy. These tests may represent accurate, rapid, and inexpensive alternatives to serology testing for the screening of HBV infection at field level in SSA.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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