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BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 292, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752637


BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) End TB strategy aims to reduce mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) to less than 5% by 2035. However, mortality due to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains particularly high. Globally, almost 20% of patients started on MDR-TB treatment die during the course of treatment every year. We set out to examine the risk factors for mortality among a cohort of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the national MDR-TB cohort. We defined cases as patients who died from any cause during the course of MDR-TB treatment. We selected two controls for each case from patients alive and on MDR-TB treatment at the time that the death occurred (incidence-density sampling). We matched the cases and controls on health facility at which they were receiving care. We performed conditional logistic regression to identify the risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Data from 198 patients (66 cases and 132 controls) started on MDR-TB treatment from January 1 to December 31, 2016, was analyzed for this study. Cases were similar to controls in age/sex distribution, occupation and history of TB treatment. However, cases were more likely to be HIV infected while controls were more likely to have attained secondary level education. On multivariate regression analysis, co-infection with HIV (aOR 1.9, 95% CI [1.1-4.92] p = 0.05); non-adherence to MDR-TB treatment (aOR 1.92, 95% CI [1.02-4.83] p = 0.04); age over 50 years (aOR 3.04, 95% CI [1.13-8.20] p = 0.03); and having no education (aOR 3.61, 95% CI [1.1-10.4] p = 0.03) were associated with MDR-TB mortality. CONCLUSION: To mitigate MDR-TB mortality, attention must be paid to provision of social support particularly for older persons on MDR-TB treatment. In addition, interventions that support treatment adherence and promote early detection and management of TB among HIV infected persons should also be emphasized.

BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411


BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.