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1.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 16: 100468, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701042

RESUMO

Many people with HIV (PWH) experience chronic pain that limits daily function and quality of life. PWH with chronic pain have commonly been prescribed opioids, sometimes for many years, and it is unclear if and how the management of these legacy patients should change in light of the current US opioid epidemic. Guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain (CDCG), provide recommendations for the management of such patients but have yet to be translated into easily implementable interventions; there is also a lack of strong evidence that adhering to these recommendations improves patient outcomes such as amount of opioid use and pain levels. Herein we describe the development and preliminary testing of a theory-based intervention, called TOWER (TOWard SafER Opioid Prescribing), designed to support HIV primary care providers in CDCG-adherent opioid prescribing practices with PWH who are already prescribed opioids for chronic pain. TOWER incorporates the content of the CDCG into the theoretical and operational framework of the Information Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health-related behavior. The development process included elicitation research and incorporation of feedback from providers and PWH; testing is being conducted via an adaptive feasibility clinical trial. The results of this process will form the basis of a large, well-powered clinical trial to test the effectiveness of TOWER in promoting CDCG-adherent opioid prescribing practices and improving outcomes for PWH with chronic pain.

2.
J Neurovirol ; 25(4): 551-559, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098925

RESUMO

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is common among patients with HIV-associated autonomic neuropathies (HIV-AN) and may be associated with increased bacterial translocation and elevated plasma inflammatory biomarkers. Pyridostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which has been used to augment autonomic signaling. We sought preliminary evidence as to whether pyridostigmine could improve proximal gastrointestinal motility, reduce SIBO, reduce plasma sCD14 (a marker of macrophage activation and indirect measure of translocation), and reduce the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα in patients with HIV-AN. Fifteen participants with well-controlled HIV, HIV-AN, and SIBO were treated with 8 weeks of pyridostigmine (30 mg PO TID). Glucose breath testing for SIBO, gastric emptying studies (GES) to assess motility, plasma sCD14, IL-6, and TNFα, and gastrointestinal autonomic symptoms were compared before and after treatment. Thirteen participants (87%) experienced an improvement in SIBO following pyridostigmine treatment; with an average improvement of 50% (p = 0.016). There was no change in gastrointestinal motility; however, only two participants met GES criteria for gastroparesis at baseline. TNFα and sCD14 levels declined by 12% (p = 0.004) and 19% (p = 0.015), respectively; there was no significant change in IL-6 or gastrointestinal symptoms. Pyridostigmine may ameliorate SIBO and reduce levels of sCD14 and TNFα in patients with HIV-AN. Larger placebo-controlled studies are needed to definitively delineate how HIV-AN affects gastrointestinal motility, SIBO, and systemic inflammation in HIV, and whether treatment improves clinical outcomes.

3.
AIDS ; 32(9): 1147-1156, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals drives disease progression and the development of comorbidities, despite viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy. Here, we sought evidence that vagal dysfunction, which occurs commonly as part of HIV-associated autonomic neuropathy, could exacerbate inflammation through gastrointestinal dysmotility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and alterations in patterns of soluble immune mediators. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: Forty participants on stable combined antiretroviral therapy with gastrointestinal symptoms, and no causes for vagal or gastrointestinal dysfunction other than HIV, underwent autonomic testing, hydrogen/methane breath testing for SIBO, and gastric emptying scintigraphy. A panel of 41 cytokines, high-mobility group box 1, and markers of bacterial translocation (lipopolysaccharide) and monocyte/macrophage activation (sCD14 and sCD163) were tested in plasma. RESULTS: We found that participants with vagal dysfunction had delayed gastric emptying and higher prevalence of SIBO. SIBO was associated with IL-6, but not sCD14; lipopolysaccharide could not be detected in any participant. We also found alteration of cytokine networks in participants with vagal dysfunction, with stronger and more numerous positive correlations between cytokines. In the vagal dysfunction group, high mobility group box 1 was the only soluble mediator displaying strong negative correlations with other cytokines, especially those cytokines that had numerous other strong positive correlations. CONCLUSION: The current study provides evidence that the vagal component of HIV-associated autonomic neuropathy is associated with changes in immune and gastrointestinal function in individuals with well treated HIV. Further study will be needed to understand whether therapies targeted at enhancing vagal function could be of benefit in HIV.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Alça Cega/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Nervo Vago/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Translocação Bacteriana/imunologia , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Innov Clin Neurosci ; 15(1-2): 28-32, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497577

RESUMO

Objective: Open-label data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) might improve lower-extremity strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated myelopathy (HIVM), a rare but debilitating neurologic complication of HIV. We sought to determine the feasibility of testing the efficacy of IVIG for HIVM more rigorously. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial of IVIG for HIVM, using dynamometry as an outcome measure (Clinical Trial No. NCT01561755). Setting: The study took place in an academic medical center in New York, New York Participants: Only 12 participants were enrolled in four years; critical impediments to the study were the rarity of patients with new HIVM diagnoses and prior exposure to IVIG in patients with an established diagnosis. Measurements: Dynamometry of hip flexion, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion were measured; the HIV Dementia Motor Score (HDMS); and the two-minute timed walk test were utilized. Results: Recruitment was the major feasibility issue. Dynamometry was generally well-tolerated, had good test-retest reliability (r=0.71-0.86, p<0.02 for all muscle groups), and good inter-item reliability as judged by the correlations between the muscle groups (r=0.76-0.81, p=0.001-0.005). Dynamometry was valid and clinically meaningful based on its correlations with the HDMS and the two-minute timed walk test. Conclusion: We conclude that an adequately powered clinical trial of IVIG for HIVM would likely require a prolonged recruitment period and multiple participating sites. Lower limb dynamometry is a useful outcome measure for HIVM, which might also be useful in other HIV-related gait disorders.

5.
Behav Med ; 43(2): 108-119, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26651852

RESUMO

Treatment guidelines for chronic pain recommend nonpharmacologic modalities as part of a comprehensive management plan. Chronic pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS, but there is little data to guide the choice of nonpharmacologic therapies in this complex population. We performed a mixed-methods feasibility study of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) versus health education control with 32 inner city, HIV-infected participants. Outcome measures included: the Brief Pain Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, HIV Symptoms Index, autonomic function testing, and audiotaped focus groups. Post-intervention, participants reported modest improvements in pain measures and perceived stress, but no effect of group assignment was observed. At 3-month follow-up, 79% of MBSR participants were still practicing, and pain intensity was improved, whereas in the control group pain intensity had worsened. Qualitative analysis revealed a strong sense of community in both groups, but only MBSR was perceived as useful for relaxation and pain relief.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Atenção Plena/métodos , Autocuidado , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 50(3): 381-6, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25912277

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The extent to which patients take chronic pain medications as prescribed is not well studied, and there are no generally agreed-upon measures. The Quantitative Analgesic Questionnaire (QAQ) is a new instrument designed to comprehensively document patient-reported medication use, generate scores to quantify it (by individual drug, class, and/or overall), and compare it (qualitatively and/or quantitatively) to the regimen as prescribed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the development and preliminary validation of the QAQ. METHODS: The QAQ was studied in a convenience sample of 149 HIV-infected participants. RESULTS: We found that the QAQ scores computed for participants' chronic pain medication regimens were valid based on their correlation with 1) patient-reported pain intensity (r = 0.38; P < 0.001) and 2) experienced pain management physicians' independent quantification of the regimens (r = 0.89; P < 0.001). The QAQ also demonstrated high interrater reliability (r = 0.957; P < 0.001). Detailed examination of the QAQ data in a subset of 34 participants demonstrated that the QAQ revealed suboptimal adherence in 44% of participants and contained information that would not have been gleaned from review of the medical record alone in 94%, including use of over-the-counter medications and quantification of "as needed" dosing. The QAQ also was found to be useful in quantifying change in the medication regimen over time, capturing a change in 50% of the participants from baseline to eight week follow-up. CONCLUSION: The QAQ is a simple tool that can facilitate understanding of patient-reported chronic pain medication regimens, including calculation of percent adherence and generation of quantitative scores suitable for estimating and tracking change in medication use over time.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Autorrelato , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 103(3): e47-8, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24447805

RESUMO

Pruritus is a risk factor for self-injury behavior (SIB) in sensory polyneuropathies. Although diabetes patients have elevated risk for pruritus, there are no reports of SIB in diabetic neuropathy. We present the case of a diabetes patient with neuropathy, whose pruritus induced SIB, resulted in partial amputation of a toe.


Assuntos
Amputação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Prurido/complicações , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Dedos do Pé/cirurgia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prurido/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/cirurgia
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