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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639719

RESUMO

Significant evidence has emerged that a high volume of sprinting during training is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injuries in professional soccer players. Training load has been reported as a modifiable risk factor for successive injury in soccer. Sprint workload measures and non-contact injuries were recorded weekly in twenty-one professional soccer players over a one season period. Odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) were calculated based on the weeks of high and low load of total distance (TD), high-speed distance (HSD), sprint distance (SPD). and repeated sprints (RS). The Poisson distribution estimated the interval time between the last injury and the new injury. The weeks with high-load levels increased the risk of non-contact injury associated with TD (OR: 4.1; RR: 2.4), HSD (OR: 4.6; RR: 2.6), SPD (OR: 6.9; RR: 3.7), and RS (OR: 4.3; RR: 2.7). The time between injuries was significantly longer in weeks of low-load in TD (rate ratio time (RRT) 1.5 vs. 4.2), HSD (RRT: 1.6 vs. 4.6), and SPD (RRT: 1.7 vs. 7.7) compared to weeks of high-load. The findings highlight an increased risk of non-contact injuries during high weekly sprint workloads. Possibly, TD, HSD, and SPD measured via a wearable inertial measurement unit could be modeled to track training and to reduce non-contact injuries. Finally, the interval time between the last injury and the new injury at the high-load is shorter than the low-load.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502586

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the between-match and between-halves match variability of various Global Positioning System (GPS) variables and metabolic power average (MPA) in competitions, based on the match results obtained by professional soccer players over a full season. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on thirteen outfield players competing in the Iranian Premier League. The measures selected for analysis included total duration, accelerations in zones (AccZ1, 2, and 3), decelerations in zones (DecZ1, 2, and 3), and MPA collected by the Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit (WIMU). The GPS manufacturer set the thresholds for the variables analyzed as follows: AccZ1 (<2 m·s-2); AccZ2 (2 to 4 m·s-2); AccZ3 (>4 m·s-2); DecZ1 (<-2 m·s-2); DecZ2 (-2 to -4 m·s-2); DecZ3 (>-4 m·s-2). The results revealed significant differences between wins and draws for the duration of the match and draws compared to wins for the first- half duration (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.36 [-0.43, 1.12]), (p ≤ 0.05; ES = -7.0 [-8.78, -4.78], respectively. There were significant differences on AccZ1 during the first-half between draws and defeats (p ≤ 0.05; ES = -0.43 [-1.32, 0.46]), for AccZ3 in the second-half between draws and defeats (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 1.37 [0.48, 2.25]). In addition, there were significant differences between wins and draws (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.22 [-0.62, 1.10]), and wins and defeats for MPA in the first- half (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.34 [-0.65, 1.22]). MPA showed further differences between draws and defeats in the second- half (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.57 [-0.22, 1.35]). Descriptive analysis revealed differences between the first and second half for wins in AccZ2 (p = 0.005), DecZ2 (p = 0.029), and MPA (p = 0.048). In addition, draws showed significant differences between the first and second half in duration, AccZ1, AccZ2, and DecZ2 (p = 0.008), (p = 0.017), (p = 0.040), and (p = 0.037) respectively. Defeats showed differences between the first and second half in AccZ1, AccZ3, and MPA (p = 0.001), (p = 0.018), and (p = 0.003) respectively. In summary, the study reveals large variations between the match duration, accelerometer variables, and MPA both within and between matches. Regardless of the match outcome, the first half seems to produce greater outputs. The results should be considered when performing a half-time re-warm-up, as this may be an additional factor influencing the drop in the intensity markers in the second half in conjunction with factors such as fatigue, pacing strategies, and other contextual variables that may influence the results.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Aceleração , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501999

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a match lost and a match won on post-competitive heart rate variability (HRV) in semi-professional female soccer athletes. A total of 13 players, with a mean age of 23.75 (5.32), from the Cáceres Women Football Club of the Spanish Second National Division participated in our study. They were evaluated in two microcycles which correspond to a match lost and a match won. For each microcycle, baseline and post-competitive measures were collected. Results indicate that HRV was significantly reduced before a match lost and won. Significant differences in HRV variables were observed when compared the lost match, and the match won. Results highlight the importance and usefulness of analyzing the HRV as an indicator of post-competitive fatigue in semiprofessional soccer players. Therefore, a competition's results could be considered a relevant variable to consider when programming training load.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360294

RESUMO

Aging is a global phenomenon affecting numerous developed and developing countries. During this process, the functional state of the body, especially the cognitive state, declines. This research investigated the impact of virtual reality exercises on the cognitive status and dual-task performance in the elderly of Tabriz city, Iran. Forty men with a mean age of 71.5 were selected and assigned to either the experimental (n = 20) or control groups (n = 20). Both groups completed the Mini-Mental State Examination for cognitive status. The pre-test was performed through the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) along with a countdown of numbers. Then, the experimental group practiced virtual driving for six weeks, while the control group received no treatment. After the treatment, both groups completed the post-test. At each stage, the test was performed as a dual motor task as well. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test and the independent sample t-test to show the intra-group and inter-group differences, respectively. The results showed a significant improvement in the cognitive status and dual-task performance of the elderly men after the six-week training period, which was also significant compared to the control group. Virtual reality driving can be used to improve the cognitive status and dual task performance of elderly men.


Assuntos
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Realidade Virtual , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Cognição , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360295

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the intragroup differences in weekly training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) between starter and non-starter male professional soccer players at accelerometry based variables throughout the periods of a season. TM and TS of different accelerations and decelerations zones for twenty-one players were followed for forty-eight weeks. Regardless of group, players obtained the highest mean TM (starters = 3.3 ± 0.6, non-starters = 2.2 ± 1.1, in arbitrary unit, AU) and TS (starters = 1288.9 ± 265.2, non-starters = 765.4 ± 547.5, AU) scores in the pre-season for accelerations at Zone 1 (<2 m/s2). The results also indicated that both groups exhibited similar TM and TS scores in accelerations at Zones 2 (2 to 4 m/s2) and 3 (>4 m/s2) across the entire season. While the starters showed the highest TM and TS scores at deceleration Zone 1 (<-2 m/s2) in the end-season, the non-starters exhibited the highest scores at the deceleration Zone 1 in pre-season. It seems that in pre-season, coaches applied higher levels of training with greater emphasis on deceleration for non-starters. This tendency was reduced over time for non-starters, while starters presented higher values of deceleration Zone 1. These results highlight the variations in TM and TS across the different periods of a full season according to match starting status among professional soccer players, and the results suggest that non-starter players should receive higher levels of load to compensate for non-participation in matches throughout a soccer season.


Assuntos
Futebol , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 566: 204-210, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214757

RESUMO

Different exercise patterns, neurotransmitters, and some genes have numerous effects on learning and memory. This research aims to investigate the long-term effects of submaximal aerobic exercise on spatial memory (SM), passive avoidance learning (PAL), levels of serum relaxin-3, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), RLN3 gene, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67 genes) in the brainstem of adult male Wistar rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: aerobic exercise groups, performed on a treadmill running (TR), for 5 weeks (Ex5, n = 10), 10 weeks (Ex10, n = 10), involuntary running wheel group for 5 weeks (IRW5, n = 10), sham (Sh, n = 10) and control (Co, n = 10). Consequently, SM, PAL, serum relaxin-3, GABA, and GAD65/67 and RLN3 genes were measured by ELISA and PCR. Ex5, Ex10 and IRW5 improved significantly SM (p ≤ 0.05), PAL (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased significantly relaxin-3 (p ≤ 0.001). RLN3 in the brain also decreased. However, it was not significant. GABA and GAD65/GAD67 increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in Ex5, Ex10 compared to Sh and Co. Aerobic exercise enhanced SM and PAL in Ex compared to Co and Sh. However, duration and type of exercise affected the level of enhancement. The serum relaxin-3 and RLN3 gene displayed reverse functions compared to GABA and GAD65/67 genes in Ex. Therefore, the changes of neurotransmitters in serum relaxin-3, GABA, and their genes: RLN3 and GAD65/67 respectively, influenced learning and memory meaningfully.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200791

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis is now present in more than 200 countries. It started in December 2019 and has, so far, led to more than 149, 470,968 cases, 3,152,121 deaths, and 127,133,013 survivors recovered by 28 April 2021. COVID-19 has a high morbidity, and mortality of 2%, on average, whereas most people are treated after a period of time. Some people who recover from COVID-19 are left with 20 to 30% decreased lung function. In this context, exercise focused on skeletal muscle with minimal lung involvement could potentially play an important role. Regular exercise protects against diseases associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. This long-term effect of exercise may be ascribed to the anti-inflammatory response elicited by an acute bout of exercise, which is partly mediated by muscle-derived myokines. The isometric training system seems to have this feature, because this system is involved with the skeletal muscle as the target tissue. However, no studies have examined the effect of exercise on the treatment and recovery of COVID-19, and, more importantly, "muscle-lung cross-talk" as a mechanism for COVID-19 treatment. It is suggested that this theoretical construct be examined by researchers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas , Humanos , Pulmão , Músculo Esquelético
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199573

RESUMO

Soccer is a popular team sport and highly demanding activity that requires high effort and long-term training plans. The goals of this study were to compare the accelerations, decelerations and metabolic power between official and friendly full matches, between the first and second halves of the matches, and between both halves of official and friendly matches. Twelve professional soccer players (age, 28.6 ± 2.7 years; height, 182.1 ± 8.6 cm; body mass, 75.3 ± 8.2 kg; BMI, 22.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2) participated in this study. A total of 33 official and 10 friendly matches were analyzed from the Iranian Premier League. All matches were monitored using GPSPORTS systems Pty Ltd. The following variables were selected: total duration of the matches, metabolic power, accelerations Zone1 (<2 m·s-2) (AccZ1), accelerations Zone2 (2 to 4 m·s-2) (AccZ2), accelerations Zone3 (>4 m·s-2) (AccZ3), decelerations Zone1 (<-2 m·s-2) (DecZ1), decelerations Zone2 (-2 to -4 m·s-2) (DecZ2) and decelerations Zone3 (>-4 m·s-2) (DecZ3). The major finding was shown in metabolic power, where higher values occurred in friendly matches (p < 0.05 with small effect size). Furthermore, total duration, AccZ3, DecZ1, DecZ2, and DecZ3 were revealed to be higher in official matches, while AccZ1 and AccZ2 were higher in friendly matches. The second half of the official matches revealed higher values for total duration compared to friendly matches (p < 0.05, moderate effect size). In conclusion, this study observed higher values of metabolic power in friendly matches compared to official matches. AccZ3, DecZ1, DecZ2, and DecZ3 were higher in official matches, while AccZ1 and AccZ2 were higher in friendly matches.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Aceleração , Adulto , Desaceleração , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281074

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical guidance (PG) frequency on learning a tracking task in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy (CP). For this purpose, 25 children, aged 7-15 years with CP affecting the left side of the body, who were classified in levels II-III of Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS) and levels III-IV of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were recruited from 10 clinical centers. A pre-test including two blocks of 12 trials of the tracking task without any PG was performed by all participants, after that they were assigned into five homogenous groups (with 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of PG) through blocked randomization according to their age. All participants involved in an intervention consisted of eight sessions (four blocks of 12 trials in each session) practicing a tracking task. The 0% PG group received no PG, the 25% PG group received PG for three trials, the 50% PG group received PG for six trials, the 75% PG group received PG for nine trials, and the 100% PG group received PG for all twelve trials. PG consisted of placing the experimenter's hand around the child's less-involved hand guiding to stay on the track and complete the task. Learning was inferred by acquisition and delayed retention tests. The results showed that the higher frequency of PG led to more accurate performance during practice phase. However, the group that received 75% PG had significantly better performance compared to the other groups in the retention phase. It is concluded that optimum level of PG, about 75% of trials, can be helpful for learning a tracking task in children with spastic hemiplegic CP, supporting the challenge point framework.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Criança , Mãos , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Espasticidade Muscular , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 42, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines are a marker of non-functional over reaching, and betaine has been shown to reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of betaine supplementation on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukins-1 beta (IL-1ß), - 6 (IL-6) and the complete blood cell (CBC) count in professional youth soccer players during a competitive season. METHODS: Twenty-nine soccer players (age, 15.5 ± 0.3 years) were randomly divided into two groups based on playing position: betaine group (BG, n = 14, 2 g/day) or placebo group (PG, n = 15). During the 14-week period, training load was matched and well-being indicators were monitored daily. The aforementioned cytokines and CBC were assessed at pre- (P1), mid- (P2), and post- (P3) season. RESULTS: Significant (p < 0.05) group x time interactions were found for TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. These variables were lower in the BG at P2 and P3 compared to P1, while IL-1ß was greater in the PG at P3 compared to P1 (p = 0.033). The CBC count analysis showed there was significant group by time interactions for white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). WBC demonstrated increases at P3 compared to P2 in PG (p = 0.034); RBC was less at P3 compared to P1 in BG (p = 0.020); Hb was greater at P2 compared to P1, whilst it was less at P3 compared to P3 for both groups. MCHC was greater at P3 and P2 compared to P1 in BG, whereas MCHC was significantly lower at P3 compared to P2 in the PG (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The results confirmed that 14 weeks of betaine supplementation prevented an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and WBC counts. It seems that betaine supplementation may be a useful nutritional strategy to regulate the immune response during a fatiguing soccer season.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Método Duplo-Cego , Índices de Eritrócitos , Hemoglobinometria , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compare training load (TL) preceding a home versus away match in a top-class elite European team during the 2015-2016 season. METHODS: Twenty elite outfield soccer players with a mean ± SD age, height and body mass of 25.9 ± 4.6 years, 183.1 ± 6.6 cm and 78.6 ± 6.6 kg, respectively, participated in this study. Total distance covered, high-speed running distance (HSRD), average speed (AvS), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) multiplied by training duration (s-RPE) and Hooper index (HI) were collected. Data from 24 weeks were analyzed through match-day minus/plus approach (MD-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, MD + 1). RESULTS: All external TL variables indicated a decrease from MD-5 until MD-1 and then an increase to MD + 1 (p < 0.01). HI decreased from MD-5 to MD-1, but s-RPE increased until MD-3 and then decreased until MD + 1. When comparing TL data that preceded home matches versus away matches, for MD-5, HSRD and muscle soreness exhibited higher values when away match neared (p < 0.05). For MD-4 and MD-3, total distance, HSRD and AvS exhibited higher values closer to an away match than a home match (p < 0.05). For MD-1, total distances covered were higher closer to a home match than an away match (p < 0.01). For MD + 1, all HI items and AvS were higher when an away match was played (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms and provides evidence regarding the influence on internal and external TL data preceding home and away matches from a team that played in European competitions.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Humanos , Mialgia , Esforço Físico , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922250

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the correlations among weekly (w) acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), training strain (wTS), sleep quality (wSleep), delayed onset muscle soreness (wDOMS), fatigue (wFatigue), stress (wStress), and Hooper index (wHI) in pre-, early, mid-, and end-of-season. Twenty-one elite soccer players (age: 16.1 ± 0.2 years) were monitored weekly on training load and well-being for 36 weeks. Higher variability in wAW (39.2%), wFatigue (84.4%), wStress (174.3%), and wHI (76.3%) at the end-of-season were reported. At mid-season, higher variations in wSleep (59.8%), TM (57.6%), and TS (111.1%) were observed. Moderate to very large correlations wAW with wDOMS (r = 0.617, p = 0.007), wFatigue, wStress, and wHI were presented. Similarly, wCW reported a meaningful large association with wDOMS (r = 0.526, p < 0.001); moderate to very large associations with wFatigue (r = 0.649, p = 0.005), wStress, and wHI. Moreover, wTM presented a large correlation with wSleep (r = 0.515, p < 0.001); and a negatively small association with wStress (r = -0.426, p = 0.003). wTS showed a small to large correlation with wSleep (r = 0.400, p = 0.005) and wHI; also, a large correlation with wDOMS (r = 0.556, p = 0.028) and a moderate correlation with wFatigue (r = 0.343, p = 0.017). Wellness status may be considered a useful tool to provide determinant elite players' information to coaches and to identify important variations in training responses.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adolescente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mialgia , Estações do Ano , Carga de Trabalho
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923120

RESUMO

The aim of the present systematic review was to assess and provide an up-to-date analysis of the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents. Thus, an electronic search of the literature, in two well-known databases (PubMed and Web of Science), was performed until February 2021 (without date restriction). PRISMA guideline methodology was employed and data regarding the HRQoL were extracted from eligible studies. Articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) children and/or adolescent population (4 to 19 years old); (b) HRQoL as a main assessment; (c) German, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English language; and (d) pre-pandemic and during pandemic HRQoL data. Following the initial search, 241 possible related articles were identified. A total of 79 articles were identified as duplicates. Moreover, 129 articles were removed after reading the title and abstract. Of the remaining 33 articles, 27 were removed since they were not focused on children or adolescents (n = 19), articles did not report pre- and post- pandemic HRQoL values (n = 6), articles were not focused on HRQoL (n = 6), and one article was an editorial. Finally, six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and, therefore, were included in the systematic review. A total of 3177 children and/or adolescents during COVID-19 were included in this systematic review. Three articles showed that COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the HRQoL of children and adolescents, and another did not report comparison between pre- and during COVID-19 pandemic, although a reduction in the HRQoL can be observed. Nevertheless, two articles did not find significant changes and another one did not report p-values. Regarding sex differences, only two studies analyzed this topic, observing no differences between girls and boys in the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on HRQoL. Taking into account these results, this systematic review might confirm that COVID-19 has a negative impact on the HRQoL of children and/or adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801592

RESUMO

The association between asymmetries in jump and change of direction (COD) with physical performance in several sports show inconclusive results. The purposes of this study were to: (1) measure inter-limb asymmetries in three distinct groups in adolescent female soccer players and, (2) to determine the association between inter-limb asymmetries and physical performance in different age groups. Fifty-four players were distributed in three age groups: U-18, U-16 and U-14. All of them performed a series of jumps, sprints and change of direction speed tests. Asymmetries were assessed as the percentage difference between limbs, with the equation: 100/Max value (right and left) * in value (right and left) * -1 + 100. Mean inter-limb asymmetries were 2.91%, 4.82% and 11.6% for 180° COD, single leg hop and single leg countermovement jump tests respectively, but higher percentages of asymmetries were observed in many players individually. U-18 and U-16 showed significant differences on 180° left COD compared to U-14. Effect size (ES): 0.80 and 0.74, respectively; U-18 presented differences on single left leg hop test compared to U-14, ES: -0.72; U-16 also showed differences on 40 m speed compared to U-14, ES 0.87 (All p < 0.05). Jumping and COD physical tests show asymmetries in adolescent female soccer players, but these asymmetries do not interfere with physical performance. The largest asymmetry was observed in the single leg countermovement jump, and no asymmetries between groups were found. Due to the high variability in the direction of asymmetries, it is recommended to consider players' individual asymmetries for designing specific training programs.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Desempenho Físico Funcional
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917536

RESUMO

The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the weekly acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), and strain (wTS) across the preparation season (PS), and (2) to analyze the variations of wAW, wCW, wACWR, wTM, and training strain (wTS) between periods of PS (early-, mid-, and end). Ten elite young wrestlers were monitored daily during the 32 weeks of the season. Internal loads were monitored using session rating of perceived exertion, and weekly workload measures of wACWR, wTM, and wTS were also calculated. Results revealed that the greatest differences were found between early- and mid-PS for wAW (p = 0.004, g = 0.34), wCW (p = 0.002, g = 0.90), wTM (p = 0.005, g = 0.39), and wTS (p = 0.009, g = -1.1), respectively. The wACWR showed significant differences between early- and end-PS (p ≤ 0.001, g = -0.30). We concluded that wAW, wCW, and wTM are slightly lower during the first weeks of the PS. The wTM remained relatively high during the entire season, while wAW and wCW remained balanced throughout the PS. The greatest workload changes seem to happen from the early to mid-PS season.


Assuntos
Carga de Trabalho , Adolescente , Humanos , Estações do Ano
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672740

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to compare the external workload in win, draw and defeat matches and to compare first and second halves in the Iranian Premier League. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on thirteen outfield players (age, 28.6 ± 2.7 years; height, 182.1 ± 8.6 cm; body mass, 75.3 ± 8.2 kg; BMI, 22.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2) competing in the Iranian Premier League. High-speed activities selected for analysis included total duration of matches, total distance, average speed, high-speed running distance, sprint distance, maximal speed and GPS-derived body load data. In general, there were higher workloads in win matches when compared with draw or defeat for all variables; higher workloads in the first halves of win and draw matches; higher total distance, high-speed running distance and body load in the second half in defeat matches. Specifically, lower average speed was found in matches with a win than with draw or defeat (p < 0.05). Sprint distance was higher in the first half of win than defeat matches and high-speed running distance was lower in draw than defeat matches (all, p < 0.05). In addition, first half presented higher values for all variables, regardless of the match result. Specifically, high-speed running distance was higher in the first half of matches with a win (p = 0.08) and total distance was higher in the first half of matches with a draw (p = 0.012). In conclusion, match result influences the external workload demands and must be considered in subsequent training sessions and matches.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adulto , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano
17.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 20, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Betaine supplementation may enhance body composition outcomes when supplemented chronically during an exercise program. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betaine supplementation on development-related hormones, body composition, and anthropometrics in professional youth soccer players during a competitive season. METHODS: Twenty-nine players (age, 15.45 ± 0.25 years) were matched based upon position and then randomly assigned to a betaine group (2 g/day; n = 14, BG) or placebo group (PG, n = 15). All subjects participated in team practices, conditioning, and games. If a subject did not participate in a game, a conditioning protocol was used to ensure workload was standardized throughout the 14-week season. Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, cortisol, height, weight, and body composition were assessed at pre-season (P1), mid-season (P2) and post-season (P3). Anthropometric variables were also measured following a one-year follow-up (F). RESULTS: Significant (p < 0.05) group x time interactions were found for testosterone and testosterone to cortisol ratio (T/C). Both variables were greater in BG at P2 and P3 compared to P1, however, the testosterone was less in the PG at P3 compared to P2. There was no significant group by time interactions for GH, IGF-1, lean body mass, or body fat. There was a significant (p < 0.05) group x time interaction in height and weight at F, with the greater increases in BG compared to PG. CONCLUSION: Betaine supplementation increased testosterone levels and T/C ratio in youth professional soccer players during a competitive season. Betaine supplementation had no negative effects on growth (height and weight) and may attenuate reductions in testosterone due to intense training during puberty.


Assuntos
Atletas , Betaína/farmacologia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Futebol , Adolescente , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/farmacologia , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to quantify training and match load in elite young soccer players over the course of an entire season. METHODS: Using a longitudinal design, session-rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) and its metrics [weekly acute workload (wAW), acute to chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony and training strain] were examined in twenty-one elite young soccer players (mean±standard deviation; age, 16.1±0.2 years; height, 176.8±5.6 cm; body mass, 67.3±5.7 kg; BMI, 21.5±1.4 kg/m2; VO2max, 47.6±3.8 ml.kg-1.min-1) during the whole season containing 4 meso-cycles: Pre-season (Pre-S), Earlyseason (Ear-S), Mid-season (Mid-S), and End-season (End-S). RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance examined variations in s-RPE load data across the 4 meso-cycles and 1-week of micro-cycle. Analyzing data revealed the End-S had a significant greater wAW compared to Early-S (p = 0.002, g = 0.96) and Mid-S (p < 0.001, g = 1.09). However, no differences between in-season periods were observed in wACWR (p = 0.524). The within-week variations revealed significant lower wAW in pre-match a day (MD-1) (p < 0.001), 1 day after match (MD+1) (p < 0.001) and 2 days after match (MD+2) (p < 0.001) compared to match day (MD) for overall team analysis. Additionally, analyses by playing position showed that fullbacks have a significant lower AW in MD+2 compared to MD (p < 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: The periodization of training load indicated variations across the whole season in young elite players. The weekly micro-cycle perceived load could be identified as follows; there are higher training loads on MD-3 and MD-2 which was similar to intensities experienced by players throughout the match play and, furthermore, lower overall WL on the MD+1 and MD+2 in order to ensure the optimal recovery of the players.

19.
Children (Basel) ; 8(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669542

RESUMO

Physical environmental factors affect the developmental process of children. Thus, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the two intervention models of affordances on the motor proficiency and social maturity of children. A semi-experimental research design with a pretest-posttest design and two groups were used, adopting the convenience method. Two groups of 15 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) engaged in 12 weeks of nature school or kindergarten. The Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency and the Vineland social maturity scale were used. The results of a mixed ANOVA showed that natural outdoor activity has a greater positive effect on motor proficiency and social maturity than kindergarten activities. Intra-group analysis also showed that both groups had progressed, but the nature school group made more progress. These results were discussed and interpreted based on the types of environmental affordances, Gibson's theory, Bronfenbrenner theory, and child-friendly environment. It was suggested that natural environmental stimulations play a critical role in optimal child motor and social development during the early stages of life.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525533

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the variations of acute load (AL), acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR), training monotony (TM), and training strain (TS) of accelerometry-based GPS measures in players who started in three matches (S3M), two matches (S2M), and one match (S1M) during congested weeks. Nineteen elite professional male players from a Portuguese team (age: 26.5 ± 4.3 years) were monitored daily using global positioning systems (GPSs) over a full season (45 weeks). Accelerometry-derived measures of high metabolic load distance (HMLD), high accelerations (HA), and high decelerations (HD) were collected during each training session and match. Seven congested weeks were classified throughout the season, and the participation of each player in matches played during these weeks was codified. The workload indices of AL (classified as ACWR, TM, and TS) were calculated weekly for each player. The AL of HMLD was significantly greater for S2M than S1M (difference = 42%; p = 0.002; d = 0.977) and for S3M than S1M (difference = 44%; p = 0.001; d = 1.231). Similarly, the AL of HA was significantly greater for S2M than S1M (difference = 25%; p = 0.023; d = 0.735). The TM of HD was significantly greater for S2M than S3M (difference = 25%; p = 0.002; d = 0.774). Accelerometry-based measures were dependent on congested fixtures. S2M had the greatest TS values, while S3M had the greatest TM.


Assuntos
Futebol , Acelerometria , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estações do Ano , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
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