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1.
Lancet HIV ; 6(12): e878-e884, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624011

RESUMO

The term HIV controller refers to the small proportion of individuals infected with HIV who can spontaneously control viraemia to maintain very low viral loads. One major unresolved question is whether HIV controllers should receive antiretroviral therapy, given that international guidelines recommend treatment for all individuals who are infected with HIV. Differences in the definitions of a controller (in terms of the viral-load cutoff and the duration of viral control) and contrasting reports on CD4 T-cell decline, chronic immune activation, the cardiovascular risk, and loss of viral control in controllers have prevented the development of a consensus view.

3.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episodic Angioedema with eosinophilia (EAE, Gleich's syndrome) is a rare disorder consisting of recurrent episodes of angioedema, hypereosinophilia and frequent elevated serum Immunoglobin M. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter nationwide study regarding the clinical spectrum and therapeutic management of patients with EAE in France. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included with a median age at diagnosis of 41 years [5-84]. The median duration of each crisis was 5.5 days [1-90] with swelling affecting mainly the face and the upper limbs. Total serum IgM levels were increased in 20 patients (67%). Abnormal T-cell immunophenotypes were detected in 12 patients (40%) among which 5 (17%) showed evidence of clonal TCR γ gene rearrangement. Median follow-up duration was 53 months [31-99]. The presence of an abnormal T-cell population was the sole factor associated with a shorter time to flare (hazard ratio 4.15 [CI 95% 1.18-14.66; p=0.02). At last follow-up, 3 patients (10%) were able to withdraw all treatments and 11 (37%) were in clinical and biological remission with less than 10 mg of daily prednisone. CONCLUSION: EAE is a heterogeneous condition that encompasses several disease forms. Although patients usually respond well to glucocorticoids, those with evidence of abnormal T-cell phenotype have a shorter time to flare.

5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(1): e25221, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV controllers (HIC) maintain viraemia at low levels without antiretroviral treatment and have small HIV reservoirs. Nevertheless, they are heterogeneous regarding their risk of infection progression. The study of reservoirs can help elucidate this control. This study aimed to explore the factors implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV infection that are potentially associated with HIV reservoirs and their dynamics in HIC. METHODS: Individuals living with HIV included in the ANRS-CODEX cohort with at least two HIV-DNA measurements between 2009 and 2016 were selected. The total HIV-DNA levels had been quantified prospectively from blood samples. Mixed-effect linear models estimated the HIV-DNA dynamics over time. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range (IQR)) HIV-DNA level was 1.5 (1.3 to 1.9) log copies/million peripheral blood mononuclear cells at inclusion (n = 202 individuals). These low levels showed heterogeneity among HIC. Lower levels were then associated with the protective HLA-B*27/B*57 alleles and/or lower HIV-RNA level at inclusion, negative hepatitis C virus serology, lower HIV-suppressive capacity of specific CD8 T cells and lower levels of immune activation and inflammation. Interestingly, mathematical modelling of the dynamics of HIV-DNA over time (840 measurements) showed that the number of infected cells decreased in 46% of HIC (follow-up: 47.6 months) and increased in 54% of HIC. A multivariate analysis indicated that HLA-B*27/B*57 alleles, a low level of HIV-RNA and a low level of HIV-DNA at inclusion were markers independently associated with this decrease. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer new insights into the mechanisms of long-term control in HIC. In half of HIC, the decrease in HIV-DNA level could be linked to tighter viral control and progressive loss of infected cells. These findings allow the identification of HIC with a low risk of progression who may not need treatment.

6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(7): e25144, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987877

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) transformed HIV-1 from a deadly disease into a chronic infection, but does not cure HIV infection. It also does not fully restore HIV-induced gut damage unless administered extremely early after infection. Additional biomarkers are needed to evaluate the capacity of therapies aimed at HIV remission/cure to restore HIV-induced intestinal immune damage and limit chronic inflammation. Herein, we aimed to identify a systemic surrogate marker whose levels would reflect gut immune damage such as intestinal Th17 cell loss starting from primary HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Biomarker discovery approaches were performed in four independent cohorts, covering HIV-1 primary and chronic infection in 496 naïve or cART-treated patients (Amsterdam cohort (ACS), ANRS PRIMO, COPANA and CODEX cohorts). The concentration and activity of soluble Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (sDPP4) were quantified in the blood from these patients, including pre- and post-infection samples in the ACS cohort. For quantification of DPP4 in the gut, we utilized two non-human primate models, representing pathogenic (macaque) and non-pathogenic (African green monkey) SIV infection. Four gut compartments were analysed in each animal model (ileum, jejunum, colon and rectum) for quantification of DPP4, RORC and TBX21 gene expression in sorted CD4+ cells. To analyse if sDPP4 levels increase when Th17 cells were restored, we quantified sDPP4 in plasma from SIV-infected macaques treated with IL-21. RESULTS: We showed that sDPP4 levels were strongly decreased in primary HIV-1 infection. Strikingly, sDPP4 levels in primary HIV-1 infection predicted time to AIDS. They were not increased by cART in chronic HIV-1 infection (median 36 months on cART). In the gut of SIV-infected non-human primates, DPP4 mRNA was higher in CD4+ than CD4- leucocytes. DPP4 specifically correlated with RORC expression, a Th17 marker, in CD4+ cells from the intestine. We further demonstrated that sDPP4 activity levels were increased in animals treated with IL-21 and that this increase was associated with restoration of the Th17 compartment and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, DPP4 mRNA levels in small intestine CD4+ cells positively correlated with circulating DPP4 activity. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence that blood sDPP4 levels could be useful as a correlate for HIV-induced intestinal damage.

7.
Patient Educ Couns ; 101(11): 1934-1941, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of brief training in motivational interviewing (MI) from a non-specialist professional for medical students. METHODS: Students (n = 20) received three four-hour sessions of MI training over one week. They interviewed caregivers acting as patients in two standardised medical situations, six weeks before and three weeks after training. Global scores from the MITI-3.1.1 code, including "MI- Spirit", were attributed to the audiotaped interviews by two independent coders, blind the pre- or post-training status of the interview. Secondary outcomes were: caregivers' perception of students' empathy (CARE questionnaire), students' evaluation of self-efficacy to engage in a patient-centred relationship (SEPCQ score), and students' satisfaction with their own performance (analogue scale). RESULTS: MI-Spirit score increased significantly after training (p < 0.0001, effect size 1.5). Limited improvements in CARE score (p = 0.034, effect size 0.5) and one of the SEPCQ dimensions (sharing information and power with the patient; p = 0.047, effect size 0.5) were also noted. Students' satisfaction score was unaffected (p = 0.69). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that brief MI training can improve communication skills in medical students. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Such an intervention is feasible and could be generalised during medical studies.

8.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 40: 99-112, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555233

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research. Type I IFN has antiviral activity, which, before the presence of efficient anti-HIV drugs, has led to the testing of IFN-based therapeutic strategies during the early years of the pandemic. A historical overview of the results and its limitations that were put into light are reviewed here. In addition, several lessons could be drawn. For instance, the efficacy of the IFN-I depends on the timing of its administration and the context. Thus, the persistence of an endogenous IFN-signature, such as that generally observed in viremic patients, seems to be associated with a lower efficacy of IFN. Based on the lessons from previous trials, and in the context of cART and research for a cure, type I Interferon has regained interest and novel therapeutic approaches are currently tested in combination with cART, some with disappointing, other with encouraging results with regard to a reduction in the size of the HIV reservoir and/or delays in viral rebound after cessation of cART. Additional strategies are currently developed in addition to improve the antiviral function of the IFN-I, by using for instance other IFN subtypes than IFN-Iα2. In parallel, the development of innovative strategies aimed at counteracting the excessive activation of the IFN-pathways have been continued and their results are reviewed here as well. Altogether, the use of IFN-I in anti-HIV therapies has gone through distinct phases and many lessons could be drawn. Novel combinations are currently be tested that might provide interesting results.

9.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 45(4): 575-581, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856429

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to quantify the association between the CRP value and 18F-FDG PET vascular positivity in Takayasu arteritis (TAK) through a structured dedicated systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2016, the PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for articles specifically dealing with the assessment of vascular inflammation using 18F-FDG PET and CRP biomarkers in TAK. Inclusion criteria for the qualitative analysis were (1) 18F-FDG PET used to assess the disease activity, (2) The use of the ACR criteria for the diagnosis of TAK, (3) No case mixed vasculitis (i.e., no giant cell arteritis), and (4) CRP concentration and clinical disease activity available. For the meta-analysis, PET-positive and PET-negative subgroups with the corresponding CRP concentrations were generated based on per patient data. The standard mean difference, which represents the effect of the CRP concentrations on the 18F-FDG PET vascular uptake, was computed for all studies, and then the results were pooled together. RESULTS: Among the 33 initial citations, nine complete articles including 210 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a significant correlation between the 18F-FDG PET and CRP concentration, one provided a trend towards association and three did not find any association between the two biomarkers. Six studies found a significant association between 18F-FDG PET and clinical disease activity, one found a trend towards association and the last two studies did not evaluate this correlation. The meta-analysis (121 patients) provided the following results: Standard Mean Deviation = 0.54 [0.15;0.92]; Chi2 = 3.35; I2 = 0%; Test for overall effect: Z = 2.70 (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The CRP concentration only moderately reflects the 18F-FDG PET vascular positivity in TAK, suggesting dissociated information. Standardized longitudinal prospective studies are necessary to assess the value of 18F-FDG PET as an independent biomarker for subtle vascular wall inflammation detection.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(2): ofx064, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus controllers (HICs) form a heterogeneous group of patients with regard to formal definitions, immunologic characteristics, and changes over time in viral load. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The HICs with undetectable viral load ([uHICs] ie, for whom a viral load had never been detected with routine assays; n = 52) were compared with 178 HICs with blips during the follow up (bHICs). Clinical characteristics, ultrasensitive HIV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) and HIV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads, HIV1-Western blot profiles, and immune parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: Relative to bHICs, uHICs had significantly lower ultrasensitive plasma HIV-RNA loads (P < .0001) and HIV-DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P = .0004), higher CD4+ T-cell count (P = .04) at enrollment, and lower T-cell activation levels. Between diagnosis and inclusion in the cohort, the CD4+ T-cell count had not changed in uHICs but had significantly decreased in bHICs. Twenty-one percent of the uHICs lacked specific anti-HIV immunoglobulin G antibodies, and these individuals also had very low levels of HIV-DNA. Half of the uHICs had a protective human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele (-B57/58/B27), a weak CD8+ T-cell response, and very small HIV-DNA reservoir. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that an interesting HIC phenotype combines protective HLA alleles, low level of HIV blood reservoirs, and reduced immune activation. Prospective studies aimed at evaluating the benefit of combined antiretroviral therapy in HICs might take into account the identification of uHICs and bHICs.

11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 58(12): 2875-2879, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593791

RESUMO

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic disorder that associates dysplastic and proliferative features. Tissue inflammatory disorders occur in a fraction of CMML patients during the course of their disease. Here, we describe the occurrence of eosinophil-rich tissue inflammation, including eosinophilic pneumonia, chondritis, and cystitis, in CMML patients. Whole exome sequencing of leukemic cells did not identify a recurrent genetic abnormality among these three patients who were clinically improved by local or oral corticosteroids. Hypomethylating drugs were subsequently added in two of them, allowing decreasing corticosteroid doses and further treating their hematopoietic malignancy.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/patologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/patologia , Infiltração Leucêmica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Medula Óssea/patologia , Análise Citogenética , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/genética , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
JAMA Dermatol ; 153(7): 681-685, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28564695

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents (anti-TNF) in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis is lacking. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis in a large observational study. Design, Setting, and Participants: STAT (Sarcoidosis Treated with Anti-TNF) is a French retrospective and prospective multicenter observational database that receives data from teaching hospitals and referral centers, as well as several pneumology, dermatology, and internal medicine departments. Included patients had histologically proven sarcoidosis and received anti-TNF between January 2004 and January 2016. We extracted data for patients with skin involvement at anti-TNF initiation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Response to treatment was evaluated for skin and visceral involvement using the ePOST (extra-pulmonary Physician Organ Severity Tool) severity score (from 0 [not affected] to 6 [very severe involvement]). Epidemiological and cutaneous features at baseline, efficacy, steroid-sparing, safety, and relapses were recorded. The overall cutaneous response rate (OCRR) was defined as complete (final cutaneous ePOST score of 0 or 1) or partial response (ePOST drop ≥2 points from baseline but >1 at last follow-up). Results: Among 140 patients in the STAT database, 46 had skin involvement. The most frequent lesions were lupus pernio (n = 21 [46%]) and nodules (n = 20 [43%]). The median cutaneous severity score was 5 and/or 6 at baseline. Twenty-one patients were treated for skin involvement and 25 patients for visceral involvement. Reasons for initiating anti-TNF were failure or adverse effects of previous therapy in 42 patients (93%). Most patients received infliximab (n = 40 [87%]), with systemic steroids in 28 cases (61%) and immunosuppressants in 32 cases (69.5%). The median (range) follow-up was 45 (3-103) months. Of the 46 patients with sarcoidosis and skin involvement who were treated with anti-TNF were included, median (range) age was 50 (14-78) years, and 33 patients (72%) were women. The OCRR was 24% after 3 months, 46% after 6 months, and 79% after 12 months. Steroid sparing was significant. Treatment was discontinued because of adverse events in 11 patients (24%), and 21 infectious events occurred in 14 patients (30%). Infections were more frequent in patients treated for visceral involvement than in those treated for skin involvement (n = 12 of 25 [48%] vs n = 2 of 21 [9.5%], respectively; P = .02). The relapse rate was 44% 18 months after discontinuation of treatment. Relapses during treatment occurred in 35% of cases, mostly during anti-TNF or concomitant treatment tapering. Conclusions and Relevance: Anti-TNF agents are effective but suspensive in cutaneous sarcoidosis. The risk of infectious events must be considered.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/farmacologia , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Sarcoidose/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 47(2): 288-294, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392046

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The off-label use of TNF antagonists in refractory sarcoidosis is increasingly reported but data on their efficacy and safety are still insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To report on efficacy and safety of TNF antagonists in severe and refractory sarcoidosis. METHODS: Examination of retrospective demographic, clinical, therapeutic, and adverse event data on 132 sarcoidosis patients (58% women; mean (min-max) age = 45.5 (14-78) years) given TNF antagonists (mainly infliximab, 91%) and investigation of response-linked factors. RESULTS: The overall clinical response (complete and partial) rate was 64%. TNF-antagonist efficacy (i.e., significant decrease of the ePOST score) was noted in cases with neurologic, heart, skin, and upper respiratory tract involvements. No significant difference in efficacy was found between anti-TNF used alone and TNF with immunosuppressant. The use of anti-TNF allowed reducing prednisone dosage at end of follow-up (p < 0.001). Adverse events were observed in 52% of the patients; they included infections (36%) and allergic reactions (8%) and required treatment interruption in 31 cases (23%). When TNF antagonists were interrupted, 13 patients experienced relapses within 14 months on average (median follow-up: 20.5 months). CONCLUSION: TNF antagonists were efficacious in about two-thirds of patients with severe/refractory sarcoidosis but their use led to a high rate of adverse events.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(6): 767-775, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362954

RESUMO

Background: Although prognosis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) has greatly improved, few studies have focused on its long-term outcome. We studied the clinical course and sequelae of CGD patients diagnosed before age 16, at various adult time points. Method: Cross-sectional French nationwide retrospective study of patients screened through the National Reference Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies (CEREDIH) registry. Results: Eighty CGD patients (71 males [88.7%], 59 X-linked [73.7%], median age 23.9 years [minimum, 16.6; maximum, 59.9]) were included, Median ages at diagnosis and last follow-up were 2.52 and 23.9 years, respectively. Seven patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 553 infections requiring hospitalization occurred in 2017 patient-years. The most common site of infection was pulmonary (31%). Aspergillus spp. (17%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.7%) were the commonest pathogens. A total of 224 inflammatory episodes occurred in 71 patients, mainly digestive (50%). Their characteristics as well as their annual frequency did not vary before and after age 16. Main sequelae were a small adult height and weight and mild chronic restrictive respiratory failure. At age 16, only 53% of patients were in high school. After age 30 years, 9/13 patients were working. Ten patients died during adulthood. Conclusions: Adult CGD patients displayed similar characteristics and rates of severe infections and inflammatory episodes that those of childhood. The high rate of handicap has become a matter of medical and social consideration. Careful follow-up in centers of expertise is strongly recommended and an extended indication of curative treatment by HSCT should be considered.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Autoimunidade , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Fenótipo , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas
15.
J Virol ; 91(8)2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122982

RESUMO

Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonneutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) capable of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been identified as a protective immune correlate in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) also mediate ADCC in cell culture and rely on their Fc region for optimal efficacy in animal models. Here, we selected 9 monoclonal nnAbs and 5 potent bNAbs targeting various epitopes and conformations of the gp120/41 complex and analyzed the potency of the two types of antibodies to bind and eliminate HIV-1-infected cells in culture. Regardless of their neutralizing activity, most of the selected antibodies recognized and killed cells infected with two laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strains. Some nnAbs also bound bystander cells that may have captured viral proteins. However, in contrast to the bNAbs, the nnAbs bound poorly to reactivated infected cells from 8 HIV-positive individuals and did not mediate effective ADCC against these cells. The nnAbs also inefficiently recognize cells infected with 8 different transmitted-founder (T/F) isolates. The addition of a synthetic CD4 mimetic enhanced the binding and killing efficacy of some of the nnAbs in an epitope-dependent manner without reaching the levels achieved by the most potent bNAbs. Overall, our data reveal important qualitative and quantitative differences between nnAbs and bNAbs in their ADCC capacity and strongly suggest that the breadth of recognition of HIV-1 by nnAbs is narrow.IMPORTANCE Most of the anti-HIV antibodies generated by infected individuals do not display potent neutralizing activities. These nonneutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been identified as a protective immune correlate in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. However, in primate models, the nnAbs do not protect against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition. Thus, the role of nnAbs with ADCC activity in protection from infection remains debatable. In contrast, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) neutralize a large array of viral strains and mediate ADCC in cell culture. We analyzed the capacities of 9 nnAbs and 5 bNAbs to eliminate infected cells. We selected 18 HIV-1 strains, including virus reactivated from the reservoir of HIV-positive individuals and transmitted-founder isolates. We report that the nnAbs bind poorly to cells infected with primary HIV-1 strains and do not mediate potent ADCC. Overall, our data show that the breadth of recognition of HIV-1 by nnAbs is narrow.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
16.
J Virol ; 91(6)2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077644

RESUMO

The existence of HIV reservoirs in infected individuals under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) represents a major obstacle toward cure. Viral reservoirs are assessed by quantification of HIV nucleic acids, a method which does not discriminate between infectious and defective viruses, or by viral outgrowth assays, which require large numbers of cells and long-term cultures. Here, we used an ultrasensitive p24 digital assay, which we report to be 1,000-fold more sensitive than classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the quantification of HIV-1 Gag p24 production in samples from HIV-infected individuals. Results from ultrasensitive p24 assays were compared to those from conventional viral RNA reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)-based assays and from outgrowth assay readout by flow cytometry. Using serial dilutions and flow-based single-cell sorting, we show that viral proteins produced by a single infected cell can be detected by the ultrasensitive p24 assay. This unique sensitivity allowed the early (as soon as day 1 in 43% of cases) and more efficient detection and quantification of p24 in phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA)-stimulated CD4+ T cells from individuals under effective cART. When seven different classes of latency reversal agents (LRA) in resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected individuals were tested, the ultrasensitive p24 assay revealed differences in the extent of HIV reactivation. Of note, HIV RNA production was infrequently accompanied by p24 protein production (19%). Among the drugs tested, prostratin showed a superior capacity in inducing viral protein production. In summary, the ultrasensitive p24 assay allows the detection and quantification of p24 produced by single infected CD4+ T cells and provides a unique tool to assess early reactivation of infectious virus from reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals.IMPORTANCE The persistence of HIV reservoirs in infected individuals under effective antiretroviral treatment represents a major obstacle toward cure. Different methods to estimate HIV reservoirs exist, but there is currently no optimal assay to measure HIV reservoirs in HIV eradication interventions. In the present study, we report an ultrasensitive digital ELISA platform for quantification of the HIV-1 protein p24. This method was employed to assess the early reactivation of infectious virus from reservoirs in HIV-1-infected individuals. We found that viral proteins produced by a single infected cell can be detected by an ultrasensitive p24 assay. This unprecedented resolution showed major advantages in comparison to other techniques currently used to assess viral replication in reactivation studies. In addition, such a highly sensitive assay allows discrimination of drug-induced reactivation of productive HIV based on protein expression. The present study heralds new opportunities to evaluate the HIV reservoir and the efficacy of drugs used to target it.


Assuntos
Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/análise , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Virologia/métodos , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Anaerobe ; 43: 75-77, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940245

RESUMO

Actinobaculum schaalii is a rarely reported, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which role as uropathogen is emerging. We report here the case of a 47 year old HIV-1 infected woman presented with five recurrent episodes of obstructive pyelonephritis in the context of multiple renal stones. No bacteria was found until the fifth episode, during which prolonged urinary cultures as well as 16S rDNA sequencing allowed the diagnosis of A. schaalii infection. She had developed a life-threatening condition with severe renal failure. A right nephrectomy was performed and found that the intrarenal stones were attributed to the antiretroviral therapy. The renal parenchyma corresponded to an end-stage renal disease with chronic pyelonephritis without abcesses or granules. The situation improved after six months of amoxicillin therapy.


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Actinomycetales/diagnóstico por imagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Pielonefrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Actinomycetaceae/genética , Infecções por Actinomycetales/complicações , Infecções por Actinomycetales/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Actinomycetales/cirurgia , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Cálculos Renais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pielonefrite/complicações , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Pielonefrite/cirurgia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Recidiva , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 12(8): e1005774, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27509048

RESUMO

Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts). We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT) and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker) gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Separação Celular , Progressão da Doença , Citometria de Fluxo , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macaca , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Carga Viral/imunologia , Viremia/imunologia
20.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 5(1): 121-123, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27330781

RESUMO

Sunitinib is an increasingly used, orally administered targeted therapy, approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of various types of cancer, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor unresectable or metastatic disease, following disease progression or intolerance to imatinib, and advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma, progressive well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease. Sunitinib inhibits several tyrosine kinases, including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Tyrosine kinases inhibitor therapies are generally well-tolerated; nonetheless, they are not void of side effects. The majority of patients reported are grade 1 or 2, and include common and unspecific adverse events, including fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, skin discoloration, altered taste, cough and dyspnea. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, including bleeding and hemorrhage, are less frequent. The present study presented the first case of disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with the administration of sunitinib, shortly following the increase of sunitinib dosage.

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