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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many countries, an increased prevalence of obesity in pregnancy has coincided with a declining pubertal age. We aimed to explore the potential effect of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity on timing of puberty in sons and daughters. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2018, 15 819 of 22 439 invited children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, born 2000-03, provided half-yearly information from the age of 11 years on the pubertal milestones: Tanner stages, voice break, first ejaculation, menarche, acne and axillary hair. We estimated adjusted mean monthly differences (with 95% confidence intervals) in age at attaining the pubertal milestones for children exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥30.0 kg/m2] or overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) with normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) as reference. In mediation analysis, we explored whether childhood BMI at age 7 years mediated the associations. RESULTS: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with earlier age at attaining most pubertal milestones in sons, and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with earlier age at attaining all pubertal milestones in daughters. When combining all pubertal milestones, pre-pregnancy obesity [sons: -1.5 (-2.5, -0.4) months; daughters: -3.2 (-4.2, -2.1) months] and overweight [daughters only: -2.6 (-3.3, -1.8) months] were associated with earlier timing of puberty. The associations in sons were completely mediated by higher childhood BMI and partly so in daughters. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity appears to lower timing of puberty through childhood obesity in sons and mainly through other mechanisms in daughters.

3.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(8): 1314-1322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen (paracetamol), a medication commonly used in pregnancy, has hormonal effects, as has been suggested in experimental studies. Developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors could predispose individuals to weight gain. This study evaluated the associations between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and overweight in childhood. METHODS: A total of 30,127 (age 7) and 24,934 (age 11) children in the Danish National Birth Cohort born during 1996 to 2002 were studied. Mothers reported acetaminophen use in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy, and children's BMI and waist circumference were reported by parents at 7 and 11 years. Differences for BMI z score and waist circumference were estimated, as well as risk ratios for overweight in girls and boys adjusting for indications of use and other confounders. RESULTS: There were no consistent associations found for prenatal acetaminophen exposure and BMI z score or waist circumference in girls and boys at both ages. Prenatal acetaminophen exposure was associated with overweight in girls at age 11 (risk ratio 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56, if exposed in all three trimesters; P < 0.001 for cumulative weeks of exposure), but no association was found in boys. CONCLUSIONS: There was no strong association between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and childhood BMI, but the findings on frequent prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and overweight in girls warrant further investigation.

4.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2176, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092817

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal colonizer, but can also cause life-threatening invasive diseases such as empyema, bacteremia and meningitis. Genetic variation of host and pathogen is known to play a role in invasive pneumococcal disease, though to what extent is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of human and pathogen we show that human variation explains almost half of variation in susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis and one-third of variation in severity, identifying variants in CCDC33 associated with susceptibility. Pneumococcal genetic variation explains a large amount of invasive potential (70%), but has no effect on severity. Serotype alone is insufficient to explain invasiveness, suggesting other pneumococcal factors are involved in progression to invasive disease. We identify pneumococcal genes involved in invasiveness including pspC and zmpD, and perform a human-bacteria interaction analysis. These genes are potential candidates for the development of more broadly-acting pneumococcal vaccines.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Meningite Pneumocócica/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
6.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

9.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(17): 3113-3127, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931343

RESUMO

Prior studies suggest dental caries traits in children and adolescents are partially heritable, but there has been no large-scale consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date. We therefore performed GWAS for caries in participants aged 2.5-18.0 years from nine contributing centres. Phenotype definitions were created for the presence or absence of treated or untreated caries, stratified by primary and permanent dentition. All studies tested for association between caries and genotype dosage and the results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analysis included up to 19 003 individuals (7530 affected) for primary teeth and 13 353 individuals (5875 affected) for permanent teeth. Evidence for association with caries status was observed at rs1594318-C for primary teeth [intronic within ALLC, odds ratio (OR) 0.85, effect allele frequency (EAF) 0.60, P 4.13e-8] and rs7738851-A (intronic within NEDD9, OR 1.28, EAF 0.85, P 1.63e-8) for permanent teeth. Consortium-wide estimated heritability of caries was low [h2 of 1% (95% CI: 0%: 7%) and 6% (95% CI 0%: 13%) for primary and permanent dentitions, respectively] compared with corresponding within-study estimates [h2 of 28% (95% CI: 9%: 48%) and 17% (95% CI: 2%: 31%)] or previously published estimates. This study was designed to identify common genetic variants with modest effects which are consistent across different populations. We found few single variants associated with caries status under these assumptions. Phenotypic heterogeneity between cohorts and limited statistical power will have contributed; these findings could also reflect complexity not captured by our study design, such as genetic effects which are conditional on environmental exposure.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(6): 067004, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread persistent organic compounds that have been suggested to affect neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with IQ in children. METHODS: We studied 1,592 pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early gestation. Child IQ was assessed at 5 y of age using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) administered by trained psychologists. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the differences in child IQ scores according to PFAS concentration [per natural-log (ng/mL) unit increase or values categorized in quartiles]. RESULTS: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples, and five additional PFASs were quantified in >80% of the samples. Overall, we found no strong associations between a natural-log unit increase in each of the seven PFASs we evaluated and child IQ scores. A few positive and negative associations were found in the sex-stratified PFAS quartile analyses, but the patterns were inconsistent. CONCLUSION: Overall, we did not find consistent evidence to suggest prenatal exposure to PFASs to be associated with child IQ scores at 5 y of age in the DNBC. Some of the sex-specific observations warrant further investigation. Additional studies should examine offspring IQ at older ages and assess other functional cognitive and neuropsychiatric measures in addition to intelligence. Postnatal exposures to PFASs and mixture effects for PFASs and PFASs with other environmental pollutants should also be considered in future research. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2754.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(6): 1072-1077, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In longitudinal studies, women gain significant amounts of weight during young adulthood, pointing to pregnancy as an important trigger for weight gain. Studies examining the effect of parity vary in their findings and are complicated by multiple potential confounders. This study examines the association between parity and long-term weight gain in a cohort of young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). METHODS: A sample of 8,009 parous and nulliparous women was drawn from this cohort and allocated to one of six parity groups (0-5+). Weight gain and factors associated with BMI ≥ 25 over a 16-year period were identified by using generalized linear equations. RESULTS: Median BMI increased by between 2.95 and 4.9 units over 16 years, with women of parity 5 + showing the biggest gain. Associations between several variables and a BMI ≥ 25 (controlling for multiple demographic and behavioral factors) demonstrated no effect for parity but significant effects for survey year, no paid job, and depression. University education and high levels of physical activity were protective. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, parity was not associated with a BMI ≥ 25 over a 16-year period.

13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 97(4): 407-416, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415329

RESUMO

Longitudinal cohort studies can provide important evidence about preventable causes of disease, but the success relies heavily on the commitment of their participants, both at recruitment and during follow up. Initial participation rates have decreased in recent decades as have willingness to participate in subsequent follow ups. It is important to examine how such selection affects the validity of the results. In this article, we describe the conceptual framework for selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow up in cohort studies, using both a traditional epidemiological approach and directed acyclic graphs. Methods to quantify selection bias are introduced together with analytical strategies to adjust for the bias including controlling for covariates associated with selection, inverse probability weighting and bias analysis. We use several studies conducted in the Danish National Birth Cohort as examples of how to quantify selection bias and also understand the underlying selection mechanisms. Although women who chose to participate in this cohort were typically of higher social status, healthier and with less disease than all those eligible for study, differential selection was modest and the influence of selection bias on several selected exposure-outcome associations was limited. These findings are reassuring and support enrolling a subset of motivated participants who would engage in long-term follow up rather than prioritize representativeness. Some of the presented methods are applicable even with limited data on nonparticipants and those lost to follow up, and can also be applied to other study designs such as case-control studies and surveys.


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Viés de Seleção , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Ginecologia , Humanos , Obstetrícia
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(7): 1511-1519, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346474

RESUMO

A follow-up questionnaire on maternal health was distributed within the Danish National Birth Cohort (established in 1996-2002) 14 years after the index birth. Responses were obtained from 41,466 (53.2%) of 78,010 eligible mothers. To ensure the appropriate use of these data, the possibility of selection bias due to nonparticipation had to be evaluated. We estimated 4 selected exposure-outcome associations (prepregnancy weight-depression; exercise-degenerative musculoskeletal conditions; smoking-heart disease; and alcohol consumption-breast cancer). We adjusted for several factors associated with participation and applied inverse probability weighting. To estimate the degree of selection bias, we calculated relative odds ratios for the relationship between the baseline cohort and the subset participating in the Maternal Follow-up. Participating women were generally healthier, of higher social status, and older than the baseline cohort. However, selection bias in the chosen scenarios was limited; ratios of the odds ratios ranged from -14% to 5% after adjustment for age, parity, social status, and, if the variable was not the exposure variable, prepregnancy body mass index, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Applying inverse probability weighting did not further reduce bias. In conclusion, while participants differed somewhat from the baseline cohort, selection bias was limited after factors associated with participation status were accounted for.

15.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 315-320, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293997

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have linked coffee intake and smoking to foetal death, but a possible interaction between both exposures remains unknown. Methods: We studied, within the Danish National Birth Cohort, the potential interaction between smoking and coffee drinking while pregnant on the risk of foetal (early and late) death. The study included 90 086 pregnant women, with information about their smoking habit and coffee intake in early pregnancy, and several potential confounding factors. Interaction was studied by calculating both the hazard ratio (HR) in Cox's regression (linear and smoothed restricted cubic spline) and the interaction contrast ratio (ICR). Results: Women who neither smoked nor drank coffee were used as the reference group. Drinking more than 3 cups/d of coffee was associated with the highest risk of foetal death, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth for all smoking status (non-smoker, ≤10 or > 10 cigarettes/d). Among smokers, the combination with drinking <3 cups/d of coffee presented the lowest HRa for foetal death, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. The ICRs were negative when considering smokers who had a coffee intake up to 3 cups/d, but they were positive for those who had a higher coffee intake, suggesting the effect of coffee intake may be non-linear. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the combined effect of smoking and coffee intake during pregnancy on the risk of foetal death is coffee-dose-dependent. A low coffee intake may reduce the risk of foetal death associated with smoking while a high coffee intake increases the risk.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(4): 742-756, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309628

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal determinants of fetal growth. We meta-analysed data on up to 8.7 million SNPs in up to 86 577 women of European descent from the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium and the UK Biobank. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and analyses of mother-child pairs to quantify the separate maternal and fetal genetic effects. Maternal SNPs at 10 loci (MTNR1B, HMGA2, SH2B3, KCNAB1, L3MBTL3, GCK, EBF1, TCF7L2, ACTL9, CYP3A7) were associated with offspring birth weight at P < 5 × 10-8. In SEM analyses, at least 7 of the 10 associations were consistent with effects of the maternal genotype acting via the intrauterine environment, rather than via effects of shared alleles with the fetus. Variants, or correlated proxies, at many of the loci had been previously associated with adult traits, including fasting glucose (MTNR1B, GCK and TCF7L2) and sex hormone levels (CYP3A7), and one (EBF1) with gestational duration. The identified associations indicate that genetic effects on maternal glucose, cytochrome P450 activity and gestational duration, and potentially on maternal blood pressure and immune function, are relevant for fetal growth. Further characterization of these associations in mechanistic and causal analyses will enhance understanding of the potentially modifiable maternal determinants of fetal growth, with the goal of reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with low and high birth weights.

17.
Nutr Neurosci ; 21(5): 352-360, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early folic acid or multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HKD), treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and ADHD-like behaviors reported by parents participating in the DNBC for children at age 7. METHODS: HKD diagnosis and ADHD medication use data were obtained from the Danish National Hospital, Central Psychiatric and Pharmaceutical registers. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for HKD diagnosis and ADHD medication use and risk ratios (RRs) for parent-reported ADHD behavior collected with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), comparing children whose mothers took folic acid or multivitamin supplements early in pregnancy defined as starting periconceptionally (4 weeks prior to their last menstrual period (LMP)) through 8 weeks after their LMP (4-8 weeks), to children whose mothers indicated no supplement use for the same entire period. RESULTS: We identified 384 children (1.1%) with a hospital diagnosis for HKD and 642 children (1.8%) treated with ADHD medication. We found no association between risk of HKD diagnosis or intake of ADHD medication and early maternal folic acid use. However, early multivitamin use was associated with an approximately 30% reduction in risk for HKD diagnosis (aHR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.96) and 21% reduction in treatment with ADHD medication (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98). We observed a reduced risk in parent-reported ADHD behaviors, but these results were attenuated after adjustment. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that multivitamin use in early pregnancy may reduce risk for HKD diagnosis and treatment for ADHD in the offspring.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
19.
N Engl J Med ; 377(12): 1156-1167, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that genetic factors contribute to the duration of gestation and the risk of preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We used large data sets that included the gestational duration to determine possible genetic associations. METHODS: We performed a genomewide association study in a discovery set of samples obtained from 43,568 women of European ancestry using gestational duration as a continuous trait and term or preterm (<37 weeks) birth as a dichotomous outcome. We used samples from three Nordic data sets (involving a total of 8643 women) to test for replication of genomic loci that had significant genomewide association (P<5.0×10-8) or an association with suggestive significance (P<1.0×10-6) in the discovery set. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication data sets, four loci (EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, and WNT4) were significantly associated with gestational duration. Functional analysis showed that an implicated variant in WNT4 alters the binding of the estrogen receptor. The association between variants in ADCY5 and RAP2C and gestational duration had suggestive significance in the discovery set and significant evidence of association in the replication sets; these variants also showed genomewide significance in a joint analysis. Common variants in EBF1, EEFSEC, and AGTR2 showed association with preterm birth with genomewide significance. An analysis of mother-infant dyads suggested that these variants act at the level of the maternal genome. CONCLUSIONS: In this genomewide association study, we found that variants at the EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, WNT4, ADCY5, and RAP2C loci were associated with gestational duration and variants at the EBF1, EEFSEC, and AGTR2 loci with preterm birth. Previously established roles of these genes in uterine development, maternal nutrition, and vascular control support their mechanistic involvement. (Funded by the March of Dimes and others.).


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Proteína Wnt4/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
20.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 96(11): 1307-1314, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in the non-pregnant state, but little is known about insulin sensitivity in the pregnant state. Our objective was to compare insulin resistance in pregnant women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome and explore the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on body composition in offspring at birth and at three years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study including 2548 live-born singleton mother-child pairs residing in Odense municipality, Denmark, during 2010-2013. Of the 2548 women, 241 (9.4%) had polycystic ovary syndrome. RESULTS: Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance assessments were comparable in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the subgroup of overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome had significantly higher levels of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance than overweight women without polycystic ovary syndrome (mean ± 2 SD): 4.4 (3.1) vs. 3.6 (3.4), p = 0.004. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome did not affect offspring birthweight after accounting for age. However, polycystic ovary syndrome, adjusted for maternal body mass index, was associated with increased body mass index at three years of age (mean ± 2 SD): 16.0 (2.2) vs. 15.7 (2.1) kg/m2 , p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, maternal polycystic ovary syndrome was not associated with insulin resistance after correcting for body mass index and was not an independent predictor of offspring birthweight. However, both polycystic ovary syndrome and high maternal body mass index may increase risk of childhood obesity at three years of age.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
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