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1.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(3): 319-323, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414723

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim was to determine if the 17 June 2014 Tracey judgment regarding 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' decisions led to increases in the rate of in-hospital cardiac arrests resulting in a resuscitation attempt (IHCA) and/or proportion of resuscitation attempts deemed futile. METHOD: Using UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit data, the IHCA rate and proportion of resuscitation attempts deemed futile were compared for two periods (pre-judgment (01 July 2012 - 16 June 2014, inclusive) and post-judgment (01 July 2014 - 30 June 2016, inclusive)) using interrupted time series analyses. RESULTS: A total of 43,109 IHCAs (115 hospitals) were analysed. There were fewer IHCAs post- than pre-judgment (21,324 vs 21,785, respectively). The IHCA rate was declining over time before the judgment but there was an abrupt and statistically significant increase in the period immediately following the judgment (p<0.001). This was not sustained post-judgment. The proportion of resuscitation attempts deemed futile was smaller post-judgment than pre-judgment (8.2% vs 14.9%, respectively). The rate of attempts deemed futile decreased post-judgment (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The IHCA rate increased immediately after the Tracey judgment while the proportion of resuscitation attempts deemed futile decreased. The precise mechanisms for these changes are unclear.

2.
Resuscitation ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389599

RESUMO

AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on oxygenation and ventilation targets after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest in order to inform an update of international guidelines. METHODS: The review was performed according to PRISMA and registered on PROSPERO (ID: X). Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched on August 22, 2019. The population included both adult and pediatric patients with cardiac arrest. Two investigators reviewed abstracts, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analyses were performed for studies without excessive bias. Certainty of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. RESULTS: We included 7 trials and 36 observational studies comparing oxygenation or ventilation targets. Most of the trials and observational studies included adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There were 6 observational studies in children. Bias for trials ranged from low to high risk, with group imbalances and blinding being primary concerns. Bias for observational studies was rated as serious or critical risk with confounding and exposure classification being primary sources of bias. Meta-analyses including two trials comparing low vs high oxygen therapy and two trials comparing hypercapnia vs no hypercapnia were inconclusive. Point estimates of individual studies generally favored normoxemia and normocapnia over hyper- or hypoxemia and hyper- or hypocapnia. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a large number of studies related to oxygenation and ventilation targets in cardiac arrest. The majority of studies did not reach statistical significance and were limited by excessive risk of bias. Point estimates of individual studies generally favored normoxemia and normocapnia.

3.
Resuscitation ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since development of the Utstein style recommendations for the uniform reporting of cardiac arrest, increasing numbers of national and regional out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) registries have been established worldwide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) created the Research and Registries Working Group and aimed to systematically report data collected from these registries. METHODS: We conducted two surveys of voluntarily participating national and regional registries. The first survey aimed to identify which core elements of the current Utstein style for OHCA were collected by each registry. The second survey collected descriptive summary data from each registry. We chose the data collected for the second survey based on the availability of core elements identified by the first survey. RESULTS: Seven national and four regional registries were included in the first survey and nine national and seven regional registries in the second survey. The estimated annual incidence of emergency medical services (EMS)-treated OHCA was 30.0 to 97.1 individuals per 100,000 population. The combined data showed the median age varied from 64 to 79 years and more than half were male in all 16 registries. The provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and bystander automated external defibrillator (AED) use was 19.1% to 79.0% in all registries and 2.0% to 37.4% among 11 registries, respectively. Survival to hospital discharge or 30-day survival after EMS-treated OHCA was 3.1% to 20.4% across all registries. Favourable neurological outcome at hospital discharge or 30 days after EMS-treated OHCA was 2.8% to 18.2%. Survival to hospital discharge or 30-day survival after bystander witnessed shockable OHCA ranged from 11.7% to 47.4% and favourable neurological outcome from 9.9% to 33.3%. CONCLUSION: This report from ILCOR describes data on systems of care and outcomes following OHCA from nine national and seven regional registries across the world. We found variation in reported survival outcomes and other core elements of the current Utstein style recommendations for OHCA across nations and regions.

4.
Resuscitation ; 151: 166-172, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304804

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To explore whether variation in in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survival can be explained by differences in resuscitation service provision across UK acute hospitals. METHODS: We linked information on key clinical practices with patient data of adults who had a cardiac arrest on a general hospital ward or emergency admissions unit in 2016/17. We used multi-level Bayesian models to explore associations between system quality indicators (number of resuscitation officers, audits time to first shock, review unexpected non-survivors, arrest team meets at handover, hot debrief, cold debrief, real-time audio-visual feedback, frequency of mock arrest provision) and adjusted hospital survival. RESULTS: We received survey responses from 110 out of 180 eligible hospitals (response rate 61%) relating to 12,285 cardiac arrest cases. Variation across trusts was observed in the number of resuscitation officers (median 0.7 (interquartile range 0.5, 0.9) per 750 clinical staff employed. Key system quality indicators were undertaken infrequently: audit of time to first shock (44.7%), arrest team meeting at handover (28.9%), mock arrests ≥ monthly (22.4%), and use of CPR feedback devices (18.4%). The probability that the system quality indicators had a positive effect on hospital survival ranged from 10% to 89%. However, there was uncertainty in the estimated odds ratios and we cannot exclude the possibility of a clinical benefit. Findings were consistent across secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified variation in implementation of system quality indicators. Amongst hospitals that responded to our survey, the probability that individual factors increase the odds of hospital survival ranges from 10 to 89%.

5.
Resuscitation ; 151: 59-66, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There may be a risk of COVID-19 transmission to rescuers delivering treatment for cardiac arrest. The aim of this review was to identify the potential risk of transmission associated with key interventions (chest compressions, defibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation) to inform international treatment recommendations. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review comprising three questions: (1) aerosol generation associated with key interventions; (2) risk of airborne infection transmission associated with key interventions; and (3) the effect of different personal protective equipment strategies. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 database on 24th March 2020. Eligibility criteria were developed individually for each question. We assessed risk of bias for individual studies, and used the GRADE process to assess evidence certainty by outcome. RESULTS: We included eleven studies: two cohort studies, one case control study, five case reports, and three manikin randomised controlled trials. We did not find any direct evidence that chest compressions or defibrillation either are or are not associated with aerosol generation or transmission of infection. Data from manikin studies indicates that donning of personal protective equipment delays treatment delivery. Studies provided only indirect evidence, with no study describing patients with COVID-19. Evidence certainty was low or very low for all outcomes. CONCLUSION: It is uncertain whether chest compressions or defibrillation cause aerosol generation or transmission of COVID-19 to rescuers. There is very limited evidence and a rapid need for further studies. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42020175594.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) Outcomes project is a national research registry. One of its aims is to explore sources of variation in OHCA survival outcomes. This study reports the development and validation of risk prediction models for return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at hospital handover and survival to hospital discharge. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included OHCA patients who were treated during 2014 and 2015 by emergency medical services (EMS) from 7 English National Health Service ambulance services. The 2014 data were used to identify important variables and to develop the risk prediction models, which were validated using the 2015 data. Model prediction was measured by area under the curve (AUC), Hosmer-Lemeshow test, Cox calibration regression and Brier score. All analyses were conducted using mixed effects logistic regression models. Important factors included age, gender, witness/bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) combined, aetiology and initial rhythm. Interaction effects between witness/bystander CPR with gender, aetiology and initial rhythm and between aetiology and initial rhythm were significant in both models. The survival model achieved better discrimination and overall accuracy compared with the ROSC model (AUC=0.86 vs 0.67, Brier score=0.072 vs 0.194, respectively). Calibration tests showed over- and under-estimation for the ROSC and survival models, respectively. A sensitivity analysis individually assessing Index of Multiple Deprivation scores and location in the final models substantially improved overall accuracy with inconsistent impact on discrimination. CONCLUSION: Our risk prediction models identified and quantified important pre-EMS intervention factors determining survival outcomes in England. The survival model had excellent discrimination.

7.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(5): 954-962, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of the intravenous (IV) and intraosseous (IO) routes for drug administration in adults with a cardiac arrest enrolled in the Pre-Hospital Assessment of the Role of Adrenaline: Measuring the Effectiveness of Drug Administration in Cardiac Arrest (PARAMEDIC2) randomised, controlled trial. METHODS: Patients were recruited from five National Health Service Ambulance Services in England and Wales from December 2014 through October 2017. Patients with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were unresponsive to initial resuscitation attempts were randomly assigned to 1 mg adrenaline or matching placebo. Intravascular access was established as soon as possible, and IO access was considered if IV access was not possible after two attempts. RESULTS: Among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 3631 received adrenaline and 3686 received placebo. Amongst these, 1116 (30.1%) and 1121 (30.4%) received the study drug via the IO route. The odds ratios were similar in the IV and IO groups for return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at hospital handover [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.07 (95% CI 3.42-4.85) and (aOR 3.98 (95% CI 2.86-5.53), P value for interaction 0.90]; survival to 30 days [aOR 1.67 (1.18-2.35) versus 0.9 (0.4-2.05), P = 0.18]; and favourable neurological outcome [aOR 1.39 (0.93-2.06) versus 0.62 (0.23-1.67), P = 0.14]. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in treatment effect (adrenaline versus placebo) on ROSC at hospital handover between drugs administered by the intraosseous route or by the intravenous route. We could not detect any difference in the treatment effect between the IV and IO routes on the longer term outcomes of 30-day survival or favourable neurological outcome at discharge (ISRCTN73485024).

9.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(3): 426-436, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912202

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the time to drug administration in patients with a witnessed cardiac arrest enrolled in the Pre-Hospital Assessment of the Role of Adrenaline: Measuring the Effectiveness of Drug Administration in Cardiac Arrest (PARAMEDIC2) randomised controlled trial. METHODS: The PARAMEDIC2 trial was undertaken across 5 NHS ambulance services in England and Wales with randomisation between December 2014 and October 2017. Patients with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were unresponsive to initial resuscitation attempts were randomly assigned to 1 mg intravenous adrenaline or matching placebo according to treatment packs that were identical apart from treatment number. Participants and study staff were masked to treatment allocation. RESULTS: 8016 patients were enrolled, 4902 sustained a witnessed cardiac arrest of whom 2437 received placebo and 2465 received adrenaline. The odds of return of spontaneous circulation decreased in both groups over time but at a greater rate in the placebo arm odds ratio (OR) 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95) compared with the adrenaline arm OR 0.96 (95% CI 0.95-0.97); interaction OR: 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p = 0.005. By contrast, although the rate of survival and favourable neurological outcome decreased as time to treatment increased, the rates did not differ between the adrenaline and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: The rate of return of spontaneous circulation, survival and favourable neurological outcomes decrease over time. As time to drug treatment increases, adrenaline increases the chances of return of spontaneous circulation. Longer term outcomes were not affected by the time to adrenaline administration. (ISRCTN73485024).

10.
Resuscitation ; 146: 138-144, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is common and associated with high mortality. Frailty is increasingly recognized as a predictor of worse prognosis among critically ill patients, but its association with outcomes and resource utilization following IHCA is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis (2013-2016) of a prospectively collected registry from two hospitals of consecutive hospitalized adult patients with IHCA occurring on the hospital wards. We defined frailty using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score ≥5. CFS scores were based on validated medical review criteria. The primary outcome is hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes include return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), discharge to long-term care, and hospital costs. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for known confounders. RESULTS: We included 477 patients, and 124 (26.0%) had frailty. Frailty was associated with increased odds of hospital death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.91 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.37-3.48) and discharge to long-term care (aOR 1.94 [95% CI: 1.57-2.32]). Compared with patients without frailty, patients with frailty had decreased odds of ROSC following IHCA (aOR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.41-0.93]). No difference in mean total costs was demonstrated between patients with and without frailty ($50,799 vs. $45,849). Frail patients did have higher cost-per-survivor ($947,546 vs. $161,550). CONCLUSIONS: Frail individuals who experience an IHCA are more likely to die in hospital or be discharged to long-term care, and less likely to achieve ROSC in comparison with individuals who are not frail. The hospital costs per-survivor of IHCA are increased when frailty is present.

12.
BMJ ; 367: l6373, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between important pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 4 February 2019. Primary, unpublished data from the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit database. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: English language studies that investigated pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. DATA EXTRACTION: PROGRESS (prognosis research strategy group) recommendations and the CHARMS (critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies) checklist were followed. Risk of bias was assessed by using the QUIPS tool (quality in prognosis studies). The primary analysis pooled associations only if they were adjusted for relevant confounders. The GRADE approach (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) was used to rate certainty in the evidence. RESULTS: The primary analysis included 23 cohort studies. Of the pre-arrest factors, male sex (odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.95, moderate certainty), age 60 or older (0.50, 0.40 to 0.62, low certainty), active malignancy (0.57, 0.45 to 0.71, high certainty), and history of chronic kidney disease (0.56, 0.40 to 0.78, high certainty) were associated with reduced odds of survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Of the intra-arrest factors, witnessed arrest (2.71, 2.17 to 3.38, high certainty), monitored arrest (2.23, 1.41 to 3.52, high certainty), arrest during daytime hours (1.41, 1.20 to 1.66, high certainty), and initial shockable rhythm (5.28, 3.78 to 7.39, high certainty) were associated with increased odds of survival. Intubation during arrest (0.54, 0.42 to 0.70, moderate certainty) and duration of resuscitation of at least 15 minutes (0.12, 0.07 to 0.19, high certainty) were associated with reduced odds of survival. CONCLUSION: Moderate to high certainty evidence was found for associations of pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors with survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018104795.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Adulto , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Resuscitation ; 144: 166-177, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536777

RESUMO

Utstein-style reporting templates provide a structured framework with which to compare systems of care for cardiac arrest. The 2004 Utstein reporting template encompassed both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest. A 2015 update of the Utstein template focused on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which makes this update of the in-hospital template timely. Representatives of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation developed an updated in-hospital Utstein reporting template iteratively by meeting face-to-face, by teleconference, and by online surveys between 2013 and 2018. Data elements were grouped by hospital factors, patient variables, pre-event factors, cardiac arrest and postresuscitation processes, and outcomes. Elements were classified as core or supplemental by use of a modified Delphi process. Variables were described as core if they were considered essential. Core variables should enable reasonable comparisons between systems and are considered essential for quality improvement programs. Together with core variables, supplementary variables are considered useful for research.

14.
Circulation ; 140(18): e746-e757, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522544

RESUMO

Utstein-style reporting templates provide a structured framework with which to compare systems of care for cardiac arrest. The 2004 Utstein reporting template encompassed both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest. A 2015 update of the Utstein template focused on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which makes this update of the in-hospital template timely. Representatives of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation developed an updated in-hospital Utstein reporting template iteratively by meeting face-to-face, by teleconference, and by online surveys between 2013 and 2018. Data elements were grouped by hospital factors, patient variables, pre-event factors, cardiac arrest and postresuscitation processes, and outcomes. Elements were classified as core or supplemental by use of a modified Delphi process. Variables were described as core if they were considered essential. Core variables should enable reasonable comparisons between systems and are considered essential for quality improvement programs. Together with core variables, supplementary variables are considered useful for research.

15.
Resuscitation ; 142: 175-181, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Witnessing traumatic experiences can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The true impact on healthcare staff of attending in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) has not been studied. This cross-sectional study examined cardiac arrest debriefing practices and the burden of attending IHCAs on nursing and medical staff. METHODS: A 33-item questionnaire-survey was sent to 517 doctors (of all grades), nurses and health-care assistants (HCAs) working in the emergency department, the acute medical unit and the intensive care unit of a district general hospital between April and August 2018. There were three sections: demographics; cardiac arrest and debriefing practices; trauma-screening questionnaire (TSQ). RESULTS: The response rate was 414/517 (80.1%); 312/414 (75.4%) were involved with IHCAs. Out of 1463 arrests, 258 (17.6%) were debriefed. Twenty-nine of 302 (9.6%) staff screened positively for PTSD. Healthcare assistants and Foundation Year 1 doctors had higher TSQ scores than nurses or more senior doctors (p = 0.02, p = 0.02, respectively). Debriefing was not associated with PTSD risk (p = 0.98). Only 8/67 (11.9%) of resuscitation leaders had prior debriefing training. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 10% of acute care staff screened positively for PTSD as a result of attending an IHCA, with junior staff being most at risk of developing trauma symptoms. Very few debriefs occurred, possibly because of a lack of debrief training amongst cardiac arrest team leaders. More support is required for acute care nursing and medical staff following an IHCA.

16.
Resuscitation ; 141: 19-23, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199943

RESUMO

AIM: Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) can be used to categorise neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. There is no consensus on what information sources can be used to derive the CPC. This study describes the information sources used by hospitals participating in the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) and their impact on the CPC reported for individuals surviving an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). METHODS: Data on the CPCs and on the information source used to assess the CPC (either case note review, communication with clinical team or direct patient assessment) were abstracted for individual adult patients who survived to discharge following an IHCA in an acute hospital participating in NCAA between 1 May 2014 and 30 April 2016. RESULTS: Data for 33,114 IHCAs (in 31,783 patients) from 195 hospitals were reported to NCAA, of whom 6093 (18.4%) survived to hospital discharge. Of these hospital survivors, 5492 (90.1%) had both the CPC and information source reported: case note review (3989 patients, 72.6%), communication with the clinical team (1053 patients, 19.2%); and direct patient assessment (450 patients, 8.2%). Most (96.6%) survivors were reported to have had a good neurological outcome (CPC 1 or 2). There were small differences in the CPC reported derived from the different information sources but these differences were not clinically important. CONCLUSION: In the UK IHCA audit, the most commonly used information source for CPC assessment is case notes. Most survivors of IHCA are reported as having a CPC score of 1 or a good outcome (CPC scores 1 or 2).

17.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(9): 1283-1287, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240348
19.
Resuscitation ; 140: 55-63, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous research suggests there may be differences in the effects of adrenaline related to the initial cardiac arrest rhythm. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adrenaline compared with placebo according to whether the initial cardiac arrest rhythm was shockable or non-shockable. METHODS: Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival and neurological outcomes according to the initial arrest rhythm were compared amongst patients enrolled in the PARAMEDIC-2 randomised, placebo controlled trial. The results of the PARAMEDIC-2 and PACA out of hospital cardiac arrest trials were combined and meta-analysed. RESULTS: The initial rhythm was known for 3929 (98.2%) in the placebo arm and 3919 (97.6%) in the adrenaline arm. The effect on the rate of ROSC of adrenaline relative to placebo was greater in patients with non-shockable cardiac rhythms (1002/3003 (33.4%) versus 222/3005 (7.4%), adjusted OR: 6.5, (95% CI 5.6-7.6)) compared with shockable rhythms 349/716 (48.7%) versus (208/702 (29.6%), adjusted OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.9-2.9)). The adjusted odds ratio for survival at discharge for non-shockable rhythms was 2.5 (1.3, 4.8) and 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) for shockable rhythms (P value for interaction 0.065) and 1.8 (0.8-4.1) and 1.1 (0.8-1.6) respectively for neurological outcome at discharge (P value for interaction 0.295). Meta-analysis found similar results. CONCLUSION: Relative to placebo, the effects of adrenaline ROSC are greater for patients with an initially non-shockable rhythm than those with a shockable rhythms. Similar patterns are observed for longer term survival outcomes and favourable neurological outcomes, although the differences in effects are less pronounced. ISRCTN73485024.

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