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3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-12, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246520

RESUMO

The multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, 4CMenB, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive MenB disease in infants and in controlling MenB outbreaks. The need for/timing of additional booster doses is not yet established. We reviewed eight studies that evaluated antibody persistence and booster following primary 4CMenB vaccination of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Putative seroprotective hSBA titers for ≥1 vaccine antigen were maintained by 76-100% of children 24-36 months after priming during infancy and in 84-100% after priming in the second year of life. hSBA levels were higher in vaccinees at 4 and 7.5 years following priming during adolescence than in vaccine-naïve individuals of a similar age. Antibodies persisted at higher levels to NHBA and NadA than to PorA or fHbp. Booster vaccination induced robust anamnestic responses, demonstrating effective priming by 4CMenB across age-groups. These data can inform decision-making to optimize vaccination strategies.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(6): 643-650, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of the meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in children primed as toddlers with MenC vaccine. METHODS: This open, multicenter extension study enrolled children 84-95 months of age who had received one dose of the combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine (HibMenC group) or Hib-TT and monovalent MenC (MCC)-CRM197 vaccines (Hib+MCC group) at 12-18 months of age, in the primary study. All participants received one dose of MenACWY-TT. We assessed immunogenicity against MenA, MenC, MenW and MenY at 1 month and 2 years postvaccination by serum bactericidal assay using baby rabbit complement (rSBA). Safety and reactogenicity were evaluated. RESULTS: Six years post-MenC vaccination, <20% of children retained rSBA-MenC titers ≥1:8. At 1 month post-MenACWY-TT vaccination, vaccine response rates against all serogroups were high for both groups with ≥97.1% of children having rSBA ≥1:8. Two years postvaccination, ≥63.6% of children retained rSBA-MenA ≥1:8, and ≥87.9% for other serogroups. Geometric mean titers for all serogroups declined at 2 years post-MenACWY-TT vaccination, but remained ≥13 times higher than prevaccination levels. For both groups, pain (≤58.5%), redness (≤51.4%) and fatigue (≤27.0%) were the most frequently reported adverse events. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: One dose of MenACWY-TT boosts protection against MenC in primed children, is safe and extends protection against MenA, MenW and MenY. Immunogenicity and safety were comparable in infants vaccinated with conjugated vaccine (HibMenC-TT) or the separate vaccines (Hib-TT and MCC-CRM197).

5.
Med J Aust ; 210(10): 454-462, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess variations by time of year and hospital in the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccinations by pregnant women in Victoria; to identify factors associated with vaccination uptake. DESIGN, SETTING: Retrospective analysis of data in the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection (VPDC), a population surveillance system for obstetric conditions, procedures, and pregnancy and birth outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Women whose pregnancies ended in a live or stillbirth during July 2015 - June 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Influenza and pertussis vaccinations during pregnancy. RESULTS: 153 980 pregnancies in 67 hospitals ended during July 2015 - June 2017; 59 968 pregnant women (39.0%) were vaccinated against influenza and 98 583 (64.0%) against pertussis. Coverage varied by pregnancy end date, rising for influenza during winter and spring, but for pertussis rising continuously across the two years from 37.5% to 82.2%. Differences between hospitals in coverage were marked. Factors associated with vaccination included greater maternal age, primigravidity, early antenatal care, and GP-led care. The odds of vaccination were statistically significantly lower for women born overseas and those who smoked during pregnancy; the odds of vaccination were also lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis vaccination of pregnant women in Victoria has increased, but influenza vaccination rates remain moderate and variable. Structural changes at the system level may improve maternal vaccination rates. Embedding the delivery of maternal vaccination programs in antenatal care pathways should be a priority.

6.
Vaccine ; 37(9): 1209-1218, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on duration of protection against invasive meningococcal disease post-vaccination with the recombinant, 4-component, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) are limited. We evaluated bactericidal activity persistence in adolescents/young adults up to 7.5 years post-primary vaccination with 4CMenB, and response to a booster dose compared with vaccine-naïve controls. METHODS: This open-label, multicenter study (NCT02446743) enrolled 15-24 year-old-previously vaccinated participants from Canada, Australia (group Primed_4y) 4 years post-priming with 4CMenB (2 doses; 0,1-month schedule), and Chile (Primed_7.5y) 7.5 years after priming with 4CMenB (2 doses; 0,1/0,2/0,6-month schedule) and vaccine-naïve participants of similar age (Naïve_4y and Naïve_7.5y groups). Primed participants received a booster dose; vaccine-naïve participants received 2 catch-up doses of 4CMenB, 1 month apart. We evaluated antibody persistence and immune responses using hSBA in terms of geometric mean titers and percentages of participants with hSBA titers ≥4, the kinetics of bactericidal activity post-booster (previously vaccinated) or post-2 doses (vaccine-naïve), and safety. RESULTS: Antibody levels declined at 4 (Primed_4y) and 7.5 (Primed_7.5y) years post-primary vaccination, but remained higher than in vaccine-naïve participants at baseline (≤44% vs ≤ 13% [fHbp]; ≤84% vs ≤ 24% [NadA]; ≤29% vs ≤ 14% [PorA]) for all vaccine antigens except NHBA (≤81% vs ≤ 79%). One month post-booster and post-second dose, 93-100% of primed and 79-100% of vaccine-naïve participants had hSBA titers ≥4 for all antigens. Kinetics of the antibody response were similar across groups with an early robust response observed 7 days post-booster/second dose. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. CONCLUSION: For all antigens except NHBA, a higher proportion of primed participants had hSBA titers ≥4, at 4 and 7.5 years post-vaccination, compared with vaccine-naïve participants. A more robust immune response after booster compared to a first dose in vaccine-naïve individuals, showed effective priming in an adolescent/young adult population. No safety or new reactogenicity issues were identified.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the use of data linkage by Australian state and territory communicable disease control units, and to identify barriers to and enablers of data linkage to inform communicable disease surveillance and control activities. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with one key informant from communicable disease control units in all eight Australian states and territories between October 2017 and January 2018. RESULTS: Key informants from all Australian states and territories participated in the interview. A variety of existing practices were identified, with few jurisdictions making systematic use of available data linkage infrastructure. Key barriers identified from the review included: a lack of perceived need; system factors; and resources. Existing regulatory tools enable data linkage to enhance communicable disease surveillance and control. CONCLUSIONS: We identified considerable variation in the use of data linkage to inform communicable disease surveillance and control activities between jurisdictions. We suggest that routinely collected, disparate data are systematically integrated into existing surveillance and response policy cycle to improve communicable disease prevention and control efforts. Implications for public health: Existing gaps in communicable disease surveillance data may affect prevention and control efforts. Data linkage is recognised as a valuable method to close surveillance gaps and should be used to enhance the value of publicly held health data.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475988

RESUMO

Background: Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and pertussis vaccination are recommended in pregnancy. Limited safety data exist for women who received IIV vaccine during the first trimester of pregnancy or received both vaccines in pregnancy. We assessed adverse birth outcomes between vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnancies. Methods: Among prospectively enrolled Australian "FluMum" participants (2012-2015), primary exposure was receipt and timing of IIV during pregnancy. Primary outcomes included preterm birth, low birthweight at term (LBWT), and small for gestational age (SGA). We compared birth outcomes for IIV in pregnancy with women unvaccinated in pregnancy using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjusted HRs (aHRs) controlled for potential confounding variables. Sensitivity analyses were conducted in a subgroup of women who received pertussis vaccination during pregnancy to assess whether associations between IIV and adverse outcomes were maintained after adjusting for pertussis vaccination. Results: Among 8827 participants in our study, women who received IIV in pregnancy did not have an elevated risk of an adverse birth outcome compared with unvaccinated pregnant women: preterm births (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, .92-1.31]; P = .28); LBWT (HR, 1.05 [95% CI, .76-1.44]; P = .77); or SGA (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, .86-1.15]; P = .94). Adjustment for pertussis vaccination during pregnancy yielded similar results: preterm births (aHR, 1.05 [95% CI, .82-1.34]; P = .69); LBWT (aHR, 0.81 [95% CI, .50-1.29]; P = .37); SGA (aHR, 0.92 [95% CI, .74-1.14]; P = .43). There was no evidence of elevated risk by trimester of IIV. Conclusions: No significant associations were found between maternal IIV or pertussis vaccination in pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, regardless of the trimester of pregnancy a vaccination was given compared to unvaccinated pregnancies.

12.
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 172(11): 1045-1052, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208475

RESUMO

Importance: An alternative option to maternal vaccination to prevent severe pertussis in infants is vaccination at birth. Data are needed on the immunogenicity and safety of a birth dose of monovalent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine. Objective: To compare IgG antibody responses to vaccine antigens at 6, 10, 24, and 32 weeks of age between newborn infants receiving the aP vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) or HBV alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted at 4 sites in Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Perth) between June 11, 2010, and March 14, 2013, among 440 healthy term (>36 weeks' gestation) infants aged less than 5 days at recruitment. Statistical analysis was performed from March 1, 2015, to June 2, 2016. Intervention: Newborns received HBV and, after stratification by maternal receipt of adult-formulated aP-containing vaccine (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and pertussis antigen content [Tdap]) prior to pregnancy, were block randomized to receive the aP vaccine (without diphtheria or tetanus) within 5 days of birth or not. At 6, 16, and 24 weeks, infants received a hexavalent vaccine with pediatric-formulated diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens (DTaP), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), HBV, and polio vaccine, as well as the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detectable (>5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units per milliliter) and geometric mean concentrations of IgG antibody to pertussis toxin (PT), pertactin, and filamentous hemagglutinin at 6, 10, and 24 weeks stratified by maternal Tdap history, and antibody at 32 weeks to HBV, Hib, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pneumococcal serotypes. The primary outcome was detectable IgG to both PT and pertactin at 10 weeks. Results: A total of 440 infants (207 girls and 233 boys; median gestation, 39.2 weeks) were randomized to receive the aP vaccine plus HBV (n = 221) or HBV only (control group; n = 219). At 10 weeks, 192 of 206 infants who received the aP vaccine (93.2%) had detectable antibodies to both PT and pertactin vs 98 of 193 infants in the control group (50.8%) (P < .001), with the geometric mean concentration for PT IgG 4-fold higher among the group that received the aP vaccine. At age 32 weeks, all infants (n = 181 with sera available for testing) who received the aP vaccine at birth had detectable PT IgG and significantly lower IgG geometric mean concentrations for Hib, hepatitis B, diphtheria, and tetanus antibodies. Local and systemic adverse events were similar between both groups at all time points. Conclusions and Relevance: The monovalent aP vaccine is immunogenic and safe in neonates and, if licensed and available, would be valuable for newborns whose mothers did not receive the Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. Trial Registration: http://anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609000905268.

14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195995

RESUMO

The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization advises WHO on global policies for vaccines. In April, 2016, SAGE issued recommendations on the use of the first licenced dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV. In November, 2017, a retrospective analysis of clinical trial data, stratifying participants according to their dengue serostatus before the first vaccine dose, showed that although in high seroprevalence settings the vaccine provides overall population benefit, there was an excess risk of severe dengue in seronegative vaccinees. SAGE's working group on dengue vaccines met to discuss the new data and mainly considered two vaccination strategies: vaccination of populations with dengue seroprevalence rates above 80% or screening of individuals before vaccination, and vaccinating only seropositive individuals. We report on the deliberations that informed the recommendation of the pre-vaccination screening strategy, in April, 2018. Important research and implementation questions remain for CYD-TDV, including the development of a highly sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic test to determine serostatus, simplified immunisation schedules, and assessment of the need for booster doses.

15.
Vaccine ; 36(14): 1908-1916, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 1 and 2 doses of quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) given alone or co-administered with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in toddlers. METHODS: In this phase III, open-label, controlled, multicentre study (NCT01939158), healthy toddlers aged 12-14 months were randomised into 4 groups to receive 1 dose of MenACWY-TT at month (M) 0 (ACWY_1), 2 doses of MenACWY-TT at M0 and M2 (ACWY_2), MenACWY-TT and PCV13 at M0 (Co-ad), or PCV13 at M0 and MenACWY-TT at M2 (PCV13/ACWY). Immune responses were assessed 1 month post-each vaccination. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms were recorded for 4 and 31 days post-each vaccination, respectively; serious adverse events (SAEs) and new onset of chronic illnesses (NOCIs) up to M9 from first vaccination. RESULTS: 802 toddlers were vaccinated. Post-dose 1 of MenACWY-TT, ≥92.8% of toddlers had rSBA titres ≥1:8, and ≥62.5% had hSBA titres ≥1:4 for each meningococcal serogroup. Post-dose 2 of MenACWY-TT, rSBA titres ≥1:8 were observed in ≥98.0% and hSBA titres ≥1:4 in ≥95.3% of toddlers. Percentages of toddlers with hSBA titres ≥1:4 were higher after 2 doses versus 1 dose of MenACWY-TT for MenW (97.1% versus 62.5-68.9%) and MenY (95.3% versus 64.3-67.6%). Non-inferiority of immune responses to co-administered MenACWY-TT and PCV13 over their separate administration was demonstrated. AEs incidence was comparable among groups. SAEs were reported for 4.9%, 5.1%, 5.5% and 7.5%, and NOCIs for 2.0%, 3.0%, 0.5% and 3.5% of toddlers in the ACWY_1, ACWY_2, Co-ad and PCV13/ACWY groups, respectively; 4 SAEs reported in 3 toddlers were vaccine-related. Two fatal vaccine-unrelated SAEs were reported. CONCLUSION: MenACWY-TT was immunogenic when administered as a single dose at 12-14 months of age. A second dose in toddlers increased hSBA responses against MenW and MenY. MenACWY-TT and PCV13 can be co-administered without impairing the immunogenicity or safety profile of either vaccine.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Meningocócicas/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/efeitos adversos , Vacinação
16.
Paediatr Drugs ; 19(4): 313-324, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510067

RESUMO

Maternal immunization has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, as women and healthcare providers accept and recognize the benefits of this strategy not only for the pregnant woman but also for the developing fetus and young infant. This article reviews the evidence for active immunization during pregnancy, with an emphasis on perinatal and infant outcomes. Current recommendations for immunization during pregnancy are presented, with particular focus on the routinely recommended vaccines during pregnancy: influenza and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis). We discuss future research directions, maternal vaccines in development, and considerations for optimizing and advancing this underutilized strategy.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Difteria/imunologia , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Tétano/imunologia , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/imunologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
17.
J Infect ; 74(1): 29-41, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better population data on respiratory viruses in children in tropical and southern hemisphere countries is needed. METHODS: The epidemiology of respiratory viruses among healthy children (6 months to <10 years) with influenza-like illness (ILI) was determined in a population sample derived from an influenza vaccine trial (NCT01051661) in 17 centers in eight countries (Australia, South East Asia and Latin America). Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year (between February 2010 and August 2011), with PCR analysis of nasal and throat swabs. RESULTS: 6266 children were included, of whom 2421 experienced 3717 ILI episodes. Rhinovirus/enterovirus had the highest prevalence (41.5%), followed by influenza (15.8%), adenovirus (9.8%), parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (both 9.7%), coronavirus (5.6%), human metapneumovirus (5.5%) and human bocavirus (HBov) (2.0%). Corresponding incidence per 100 person-years was 29.78, 11.34, 7.03, 6.96, 6.94, 4.00, 3.98 and 1.41. Except for influenza, respiratory virus prevalence declined with age. The incidence of medically-attended ILI associated with viral infection ranged from 1.03 (HBov) to 23.69 (rhinovirus/enterovirus). The percentage of children missing school or daycare ranged from 21.4% (HBov) to 52.1% (influenza). CONCLUSIONS: Active surveillance of healthy children provided evidence of respiratory illness burden associated with several viruses, with a substantial burden in older children.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância da População , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/virologia
18.
Vaccine ; 34(41): 4991-4997, 2016 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before pandemic H1N1 vaccines were available, the potential benefit of existing seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) against influenza due to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain was investigated, with conflicting results. This study assessed the efficacy of seasonal IIV3s against influenza due to 2008 and 2009 seasonal influenza strains and against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. METHODS: This observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolled adults aged 18-64years during 2008 and 2009 in Australia and New Zealand. Participants were randomized 2:1 to receive IIV3 or placebo. The primary objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of IIV3 against laboratory-confirmed influenza. Participants reporting an influenza-like illness during the period from 14days after vaccination until 30 November of each study year were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Over a study period of 2years, 15,044 participants were enrolled (mean age±standard deviation: 35.5±14.7years; 54.4% female). Vaccine efficacy of the 2008 and 2009 IIV3s against influenza due to any strain was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30%, 52%), whereas vaccine efficacy against influenza due to the vaccine-matched strains was 60% (95% CI: 44%, 72%). Vaccine efficacy of the 2009 IIV3 against influenza due to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain was 38% (95% CI: 19%, 53%). No vaccine-related deaths or serious adverse events were reported. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were more frequent in IIV3 recipients than placebo recipients (local: IIV3 74.6% vs placebo 20.4%, p<0.001; systemic: IIV3 46.6% vs placebo 39.1%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The 2008 and 2009 IIV3s were efficacious against influenza due to seasonal influenza strains and the 2009 IIV3 demonstrated moderate efficacy against influenza due to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Funded by CSL Limited, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00562484.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 52(3): 296-302, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26697950

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to identify key socioeconomic and health factors that are associated with a child's likelihood of being retained in kindergarten prior to commencing first year of school in Australian children. METHODS: We used data linked from the School Entrant Health Questionnaire administered to children commencing school in 2012 (N = 42 002). Kindergarten retention here is defined by children accessing a second year of funded kindergarten prior to commencing school. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the strength of associations between a range of socioeconomic and health factors to the likelihood of kindergarten retention. RESULTS: Of the 25 289 children included in our analysis, 903 (3.6%) had a second year of funded kindergarten prior to commencing school. In comparison, 1680 children out of 42 002 in the Kinder-School Entrant Health Questionnaire dataset had a second year of funded kindergarten (4.0%). From our final regression model, the highest association was found in children whose parents reported a history of speech and language difficulties (odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval (1.91-2.66)) (adjusting for a range of demographic, health and developmental factors). Similarly, children from an indigenous background were twice as likely to be retained in kindergarten compared with those with a non-indigenous background (odds ratio 2.06 (1.17-3.64)). CONCLUSION: This analysis adds to the evidence base that children who are more socially disadvantaged as well as children with health difficulties, particularly speech and language difficulties, are more likely to be retained in kindergarten.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Austrália , Cuidado da Criança/economia , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Creches/economia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória
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