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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 11(3): 196-203, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19215277

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) is a natural inhibitor of cytokine and insulin signalling pathways and may also play a role in obesity. In addition, SOCS1 is considered a candidate gene in the pathogenesis of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective was to perform mutation analysis of SOCS1 and to test the identified variations for association to T2D-related quantitative traits, T2D or T1D. METHODS: Mutation scanning was performed by direct sequencing in 27 white Danish subjects. Genotyping was carried out by TaqMan allelic discrimination. A total of more than 8100 individuals were genotyped. RESULTS: Eight variations were identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) region. Two of these had allele frequencies below 1% and were not further examined. The six other variants were analysed in groups of T1D families (n = 1461 subjects) and T2D patients (n = 1430), glucose tolerant first-degree relatives of T2D patients (n = 212) and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects. The rs33977706 polymorphism (-820G > T) was associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.004). In a second study (n = 4625 NGT subjects), significant associations of both the rs33977706 and the rs243330 (-1656G > A) variants to obesity were found (p = 0.047 and p = 0.015) respectively. The rs33977706 affected both binding of a nuclear protein to and the transcriptional activity of the SOCS1 promoter, indicating a relationship between this polymorphism and gene regulation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrates that functional variations in the SOCS1 promoter may associate with alterations in BMI in the general white population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo
2.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 145(3): 480-4, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16907917

RESUMO

We studied whether serum interferon (IFN)-gamma or interleukin (IL)-10 levels and their corresponding functional polymorphic genotypes are associated with partial remission of type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multi-centre study was undertaken in patients with newly diagnosed T1D and matched controls. T1D patients were followed for 3 months and characterized for remission status. Partial clinical remission was defined as a daily insulin dose

Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Remissão Espontânea , Tamanho da Amostra
3.
Genes Immun ; 7(4): 316-21, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16691186

RESUMO

Type II diabetes is caused by a failure of the pancreatic beta-cells to compensate for insulin resistance leading to hyperglycaemia. There is evidence for an essential role of an increased beta-cell apoptosis in type II diabetes. High glucose concentrations induce IL-1beta production in human beta-cells, Fas expression and concomitant apoptosis owing to a constitutive expression of FasL. FASL and FAS map to loci linked to type II diabetes and estimates of insulin resistance, respectively. We have tested two functional promoter polymorphisms, FAS-670 G>A and FASL-844C>T as well as a microsatellite in the 3' UTR of FASL for association to type II diabetes in 549 type II diabetic patients and 525 normal-glucose-tolerant (NGT) control subjects. Furthermore, we have tested these polymorphisms for association to estimates of beta-cell function and insulin resistance in NGT subjects. We found significant association to type II diabetes for the allele distribution of the FASL microsatellite (P-value 0.02, Bonferroni corrected). The FAS-670G>A was associated with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index and body mass index (P-values 0.02 and 0.02). We conclude that polymorphisms of FASL and FAS associate with type II diabetes and estimates of insulin resistance in Danish white subjects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose , Dinamarca , Proteína Ligante Fas , Feminino , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Receptor fas
4.
Genes Immun ; 6(8): 699-706, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16163374

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens and tissue injury. Defective apoptosis of activated immune cells leads to the development of autoantibodies in SLE. FasL initiated apoptosis is central for peripheral tolerance. Fas deficiencies in humans and mice predispose toward systemic autoimmunity. SLE is conferred by many genes. The genetic effects may be concentrated by familial clustering or by stratifying of subphenotypes. We have tested polymorphisms and haplotypes in FAS and FASL for association to SLE or subphenotypes in 126 multiplex American SLE pedigrees and found association of the FAS codon214 AC(C/T) as well as the FAS-670G>A'-codon214 AC(C/T)' haplotype to thrombocytopenia in SLE. Furthermore we have functionally characterized the FAS/FASL promoter polymorphisms associated with SLE in other populations and demonstrate that the activity depends on the allelic variants as well as on the haplotype. The presence of FAS-670G, which affects STAT1 binding, leads to the highest activity. FASL-844C activity is modified by the cis acting -478A and, hence, the haplotype and not the individual variant, determines the promoter activity. We conclude that the FAS/FASL promoter haplotypes are functional and that polymorphisms in FAS may contribute to thrombocytopenia in SLE.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Receptor fas/genética , Afro-Americanos , Alelos , Apoptose , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Códon , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína Ligante Fas , Genes Reporter , Variação Genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Luciferases/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Estados Unidos , Receptor fas/imunologia
5.
Diabetologia ; 48(2): 251-60, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15645209

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an essential regulator of the acute phase response associated with insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Three polymorphisms at positions -597, -572, and -174 of the IL6 promoter have been reported to influence IL6 transcription. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the IL6 promoter polymorphisms were associated with features of the WHO-defined metabolic syndrome and related quantitative traits in 7,553 Caucasian Danes. METHODS: Using analysis of PCR-generated primer extension products by mass spectrometry we examined -597 G/A, -572 G/C, and -174 G/C IL6 variants in the population-based Inter99 study cohort of middle-aged people (n=6,164) and in a group of type 2 diabetic patients (n=1,389). RESULTS: The -174 G/C and -597 G/A polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium (R(2)=0.95). In the Inter99 cohort the -174 G-allele was associated with insulin resistance (p<0.02) and dyslipidaemia (p<0.007) whereas the C-allele of the -572 polymorphism was associated with increased serum insulin release during an OGTT (p<0.0005). Composite genotype or haplotype analyses of all 3 IL6 promoter variants showed associations with type 2 diabetes (p<0.002), obesity (p<0.02), and the metabolic syndrome (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present studies suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms and composite genotypes or haplotypes of the IL6 promoter may be associated with several features of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasians.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Primers do DNA , Dinamarca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
6.
Diabetologia ; 47(7): 1273-1277, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15249995

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell loss in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus may result from apoptosis and necrosis induced by inflammatory mediators. The suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 is a natural inhibitor of cytokine signalling and also influences insulin signalling. SOCS3 could therefore be a candidate gene in the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Mutation analysis of the SOCS3 gene was performed in 21 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and in seven healthy subjects. An identified promoter variant was examined in (i) 250 families with Type 1 diabetic family members (1097 individuals); (ii) 212 glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients; and (iii) 370 population-based young, healthy subjects who were unrelated. RESULTS: Three mutations were identified in the promoter region, but none in the coding region or the 3'UTR. Two of the three mutations had allele frequencies below 1% whereas the C -920-->A substitution had a minor allele frequency of 8%. In the group of young healthy subjects the insulin sensitivity index was higher among homozygous carriers of the A-allele than among heterozygous and wild-type subjects ( p=0.027, uncorrected). The same trend was found in the group of first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients. No association or linkage was found to Type 1 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Homozygosity for the A-allele of the C -920-->A promoter polymorphism of the SOCS3 gene may be associated with increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, but deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Insulina/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Primers do DNA , Família , Humanos , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina
7.
Diabetologia ; 45(1): 134-9, 2002 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11845233

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is the result of a T-cell regulated selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells. There is evidence that the apoptosis inducing T-cell effector, Fas ligand (FasL) could be involved in the pathogenesis of Type I diabetes, probably because FasL-mediated apoptosis is important in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance and in down-regulating an immune response. We therefore evaluated the human FasL gene FASL on chromosome 1q23 as a candidate susceptibility gene for Type I diabetes. METHODS: The entire FASL (promoter, exons 1-4 and 3'UTR) was scanned for polymorphisms using single strand conformational polymorphism-heteroduplex analysis and direct sequencing. RESULTS: We identified two novel polymorphisms, a g-C843T and a g-A475T, in a negative regulatory region of the promoter. A Danish Type I diabetes family collection of 1143 subjects comprising 257 families (420 affected and 252 unaffected offspring) was typed for the g-C843T polymorphism and for a FASL microsatellite. Haplotypes were established and data were analysed using the extended transmission disequilibrium test. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: We found no overall evidence for linkage in the presence of association of the FASL polymorphism to Type I diabetes and conclude that FASL does not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to Type I diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Ligação Genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Dinamarca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Éxons , Proteína Ligante Fas , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Núcleo Familiar , Ácidos Nucleicos Heteroduplexes/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Valores de Referência
8.
Immunogenetics ; 52(1-2): 107-11, 2000 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11132145

RESUMO

Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes is a complex trait. The region harboring the ICAM1 gene on 19p13 links to type 1 diabetes, and a growing body of evidence indicates that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) could play a role in type 1 diabetes development. Recently, association studies of an ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism in type 1 diabetes populations have reported conflicting results. Hence, we performed a transmission disequilibrium test analysis of the ICAM-1 K469E variations in 253 Danish type 1 diabetes families. Linkage and association was not found between the ICAM-1 K469E variation and type 1 diabetes in Danish patients (P(tdt)> or =0.48), and our data did not indicate an interaction between ICAM1 and IDDM1 in predisposition to type 1 diabetes in Danes (P=0.78). We did not observe significant association with late-onset type 1 diabetes (P(tdt)> or =0.12) or differences in transmission patterns between groups of affected offspring stratified for age at onset (P> or =0.19), as suggested in Japanese patients. Combined analysis of the present and previously reported transmission data comprising 728 affected offspring of Romanian, Finnish, and Danish ancestry suggested association between the ICAM-1 E469 allele and type 1 diabetes (P(tdt)=0.013), but association was not found in the combined Scandinavian material. In conclusion, we found no association of the ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism with type 1 diabetes or its subsets stratified for age at onset and HLA risk in Danish patients. Analysis of ICAM-1 K469E transmissions reported in three populations suggested association to type 1 diabetes, but also demonstrated heterogeneity between populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Diabetologia ; 43(6): 800-8, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10907126

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The human Fas gene (FAS) on chromosome 10q24.1 encoding a cell surface receptor involved in apoptosis was evaluated as a candidate susceptibility gene for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Apoptosis mediated by Fas is important in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance and in down-regulating the immune response and could have a role in immune-mediated beta-cell destruction. METHODS: We did a molecular scan of the entire human FAS (promoter, exons 1-9 including exon-intron boundaries and the 3'UTR) using single strand conformational polymorphism-heteroduplex analysis. RESULTS: We identified 15 mutations, of which 11 are new. Of these a g-1194A-->T and a g-295Ains give rise to alterations of transcription-factor-binding consensus sequences for c-Myb, SP-1 and NF-kappa B, respectively. A total of 1068 people from a Danish family collection comprising 138 Type I diabetic sib-pair families (289 affected and 121 unaffected offspring) and 103 Type I diabetic parent-offspring multiplex families (103 affected and 112 unaffected offspring) were typed for the three most frequent polymorphisms with high heterozygosity indices and for a FAS microsatellite. Haplotypes were established and data analysed using the extended transmission disequilibrium test, ETDT. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: We found no overall evidence for linkage of the FAS polymorphisms to Type I diabetes. We conclude that it is unlikely that the Fas gene does contribute to genetic susceptibility for Type I diabetes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Mutação , Receptor fas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Primers do DNA , Dinamarca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Éxons , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Núcleo Familiar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
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