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1.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a better understanding of leukemic cell characteristics after treatment would help to design specific therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing clinical relapse. Gene arrays have become a powerful approach to perform gene expression profiling; nevertheless, to work with residual cells entails an intensive labor. The aim of this study was to set forth an effective gene expression approach to analyze residual leukemic cells. METHODS: Leukocytes from CLL patient's samples were sorted by flow cytometry using a 6-color panel. The quality and quantity of RNA isolated from different inputs of cells were compared by two silica column protocols: RNeasy Micro and RNeasy Mini. RNA amplifications were carried out according to two manufacturer's protocols: Ovation Pico SL and Ovation Pico WTA. A total of 3.5 µg of cDNA was labeled and hybridized to Human Gene 2.0 ST arrays. RESULTS: RNA extracted from low number of input cells by RNeasy Micro showed similar RNA integrity number to that obtained from RNeasy Mini; however, the RNA quantity was higher using the RNeasy Micro Kit. In addition, those RNA samples obtained with RNeasy Micro and amplified with Ovation Pico WTA showed good quality to proceed for a gene array study, independently of the number of input cells (range: 1 × 104 -5 × 105 cells). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that this workflow is a feasible approach to obtain genomic material extracted from leukemic cells as little as 1 × 104 cells and it can be useful to carry out gene expression profile experiments to characterize residual leukemic cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1044, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098966

RESUMO

The inclusion of familial myeloid malignancies as a separate disease entity in the revised WHO classification has renewed efforts to improve the recognition and management of this group of at risk individuals. Here we report a cohort of 86 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) families with 49 harboring germline variants in 16 previously defined loci (57%). Whole exome sequencing in a further 37 uncharacterized families (43%) allowed us to rationalize 65 new candidate loci, including genes mutated in rare hematological syndromes (ADA, GP6, IL17RA, PRF1 and SEC23B), reported in prior MDS/AML or inherited bone marrow failure series (DNAH9, NAPRT1 and SH2B3) or variants at novel loci (DHX34) that appear specific to inherited forms of myeloid malignancies. Altogether, our series of MDS/AML families offer novel insights into the etiology of myeloid malignancies and provide a framework to prioritize variants for inclusion into routine diagnostics and patient management.

4.
Blood ; 135(5): 371-380, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826241

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITDs) have poor outcomes, in particular AML with a high (≥0.5) mutant/wild-type allelic ratio (AR). The 2017 European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations defined 4 distinct FLT3-ITD genotypes based on the ITD AR and the NPM1 mutational status. In this retrospective exploratory study, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of the NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes categorized according to the 2017 ELN risk groups in patients randomized within the RATIFY trial, which evaluated the addition of midostaurin to standard chemotherapy. The 4 NPM1/FLT3-ITD genotypes differed significantly with regard to clinical and concurrent genetic features. Complete ELN risk categorization could be done in 318 of 549 trial patients with FLT3-ITD AML. Significant factors for response after 1 or 2 induction cycles were ELN risk group and white blood cell (WBC) counts; treatment with midostaurin had no influence. Overall survival (OS) differed significantly among ELN risk groups, with estimated 5-year OS probabilities of 0.63, 0.43, and 0.33 for favorable-, intermediate-, and adverse-risk groups, respectively (P < .001). A multivariate Cox model for OS using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission as a time-dependent variable revealed treatment with midostaurin, allogeneic HCT, ELN favorable-risk group, and lower WBC counts as significant favorable factors. In this model, there was a consistent beneficial effect of midostaurin across ELN risk groups.

7.
Clin Case Rep ; 7(7): 1395-1398, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360496

RESUMO

We report a de novo aleukemic form of MCL with a complex monosomic karyotype with LOH for multiple chromosomes and TP53 mutation. Additionally, whereas D816V KIT was not found, the c-Kit transmembrane domain p.M541L variant was detected which is the most common SNP of KIT gene in humans with controversial pathogenic role. In these cases, it is crucial to perform a rapid broad molecular study for an accurate diagnosis which could help to initiate targeted therapy.

8.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(11): 815-819, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340073

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an essential tool in contemporary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) protocols, being used for therapeutic decisions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in high-risk patients. However, a significant proportion of adult ALL patients with negative MRD still relapse suggesting that other factors (ie, molecular alterations) must be considered in order to identify those patients with high risk of disease progression. We have identified partial IKZF1 gene deletions and CDKN2A/B deletions as markers of disease recurrence and poor survival in a series of uniformly treated adolescent and adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell progenitor ALL patients treated according to the Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología protocols. Importantly, CDKN2A/B deletions showed independent significance of MRD at the end of induction, which points out the need for treatment intensification in these patients despite being MRD-negative after induction therapy.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/metabolismo , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B , Prognóstico , Recidiva
9.
Eur J Haematol ; 103(3): 208-214, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased levels of Wilms' tumor (WT1) mRNA have been used to establish risk categories in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Raised values of WT1 have been associated with progression in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the available bone marrow (BM) samples from 115 patients with myeloid neoplasms obtained before and during treatment with 5-azacytidine. A threshold of 100 copies in BM was used to define risk groups: group 1: patients with WT1 levels always below < 100 copies; group 2: cases with initial WT1 levels greater than 100 copies but with a conversion to sustained levels below 100; and group 3: cases with follow-up WT1 levels greater than 100. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included in group 1, 17 in group 2, and 78 in group 3. Survival analysis showed statistically significant differences in terms of OS between groups (p: 0.016). Patients in group 2 showed the best 5-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only the cytogenetic risk category and receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) independently predicted the survival. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to assess whether BM WT1 levels could be useful to predict the survival of patients with myeloid neoplasms treated with 5-azacytidine.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Proteínas WT1/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/metabolismo , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/patologia , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas WT1/metabolismo
10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00772, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human TET2 gene plays a pivotal role in the epigenetic regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Somatic TET2 mutations have been repeatedly identified in age-related clonal hematopoiesis and in myeloid neoplasms ranging from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, there have been no attempts to systematically explore the structural and functional consequences of the hundreds of TET2 missense variants reported to date. METHODS: We have sequenced the TET2 gene in 189 Spanish AML patients using Sanger sequencing and NGS protocols. Next, we performed a thorough bioinformatics analysis of TET2 protein and of the expected impact of all reported TET2 missense variants on protein structure and function, exploiting available structure-and-function information as well as 3D structure prediction tools. RESULTS: We have identified 38 TET2 allelic variants in the studied patients, including two frequent SNPs: p.G355D (10 cases) and p.I1762V (28 cases). Four of the detected mutations are reported here for the first time: c.122C>T (p.P41L), c.4535C>G (p.A1512G), c.4760A>G (p.D1587G), and c.5087A>T (p.Y1696F). We predict a complex multidomain architecture for the noncatalytic regions of TET2, and in particular the presence of well-conserved α+ß globular domains immediately preceding and following the actual catalytic unit. Further, we provide a rigorous interpretation of over 430 missense SNVs that affect the TET2 catalytic domain, and we hypothesize explanations for ~700 additional variants found within the regulatory regions of the protein. Finally, we propose a systematic classification of all missense mutants and SNPs reported to date into three major categories (severe, moderate, and mild), based on their predicted structural and functional impact. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed classification of missense TET2 variants would help to assess their clinical impact on human neoplasia and may guide future structure-and-function investigations of TET family members.

11.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 19(7): 571-578, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179776

RESUMO

Introduction: Immunoglobulin rearrangement studies by molecular methods are routinely used to detect clonality and to follow up patients with lymphoid malignancies. The design of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel using a comprehensive pool of primers, the establishment of a straightforward analytical protocol, a bioinformatic pipeline and the availability of the results of clinical studies have allowed the Clonoseq platform to be licensed as the first assay to measure minimal residual disease (MRD) both in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in multiple myeloma (MM). Areas covered: An extensive literature review (Pubmed search) on the applicability of the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach in lymphoid malignancies was conducted. This review discusses recent data in the field and compares this emerging molecular technique with standardized technologies. Expert Opinion: Real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR and multiparametric flow cytometry (MPFC) are still the gold standard methods of minimal residual disease assessment. New HTS methods as Clonoseq show a high concordance with the above-mentioned techniques and at the same time it provides potential advantages to detect clonal changes. Clonoseq could be helpful to optimize risk-stratification and adjusting treatments in lymphoid malignancies. Moreover, HTS could also be applied to the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) on the plasma in lymphomas.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 186(2): 263-268, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916384

RESUMO

The prognostic significance of low-hypodiploidy has not been extensively evaluated in minimal residual disease (MRD)-oriented protocols for adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We analysed the outcome of hypodiploid adult ALL patients treated within Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología (PETHEMA) protocols. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) of low-hypodiploid B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL was significantly higher than that of high-hypodiploids (52% vs. 12%, P = 0.013). Low-hypodiploid BCP-ALL patients aged ≤35 years showed superior survival (71% vs. 21%, P = 0.026) and lower 5-year CIR (17% vs. 66%, P = 0.090) than low-hypodiploids aged >35 years. Older adults and elderly low-hypodiploid BCP-ALL patients show dismal prognosis although achieving an end-induction good MRD response.

14.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(4): 1030-1035, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322324

RESUMO

Out of 956, there were 95 (10%) CD56+ APL patients treated with PETHEMA ATRA and chemotherapy. CD56+ expression was associated with high WBC, BCR3 isoform, and co-expression of CD2, CD34, CD7, HLA-DR, CD15, and CD117 antigens. CD56+ vs CD56- APL presented higher induction death rate (16% vs 8%, p = .02) and 5-years cumulative incidence of relapse (33% versus 10%, p = .006), irrespectively of the Sanz score (low-risk 47% versus 5%, p < .001; intermediate 23% versus 7%, p < .001; and high-risk 42% versus 21%, p = .007). In the multivariate analysis, CD56 + (p < .0001), higher relapse-risk score (p = .001), and male gender (p = .05) retained the independent predictive value. CD56+ APL also showed a greater risk of CNS relapse (6% versus 1%, p < .001) and lower 5-year OS (75% versus 83%, p = .003). The AIDA-based LPA2012 trial, with an intensified consolidation schedule for CD56+ APL, will elucidate whether an intensified consolidation schedule could mitigate the relapse rate in this setting.

15.
Haematologica ; 104(2): 288-296, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093399

RESUMO

A high proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia who achieve minimal residual disease negative status ultimately relapse because a fraction of pathological clones remains undetected by standard methods. We designed and validated a high-throughput sequencing method for minimal residual disease assessment of cell clonotypes with mutations of NPM1, IDH1/2 and/or FLT3-single nucleotide variants. For clinical validation, 106 follow-up samples from 63 patients in complete remission were studied by sequencing, evaluating the level of mutations detected at diagnosis. The predictive value of minimal residual disease status by sequencing, multiparameter flow cytometry, or quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was determined by survival analysis. The sequencing method achieved a sensitivity of 10-4 for single nucleotide variants and 10-5 for insertions/deletions and could be used in acute myeloid leukemia patients who carry any mutation (86% in our diagnostic data set). Sequencing-determined minimal residual disease positive status was associated with lower disease-free survival (hazard ratio 3.4, P=0.005) and lower overall survival (hazard ratio 4.2, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that minimal residual disease positive status determined by sequencing was an independent factor associated with risk of death (hazard ratio 4.54, P=0.005) and the only independent factor conferring risk of relapse (hazard ratio 3.76, P=0.012). This sequencing-based method simplifies and standardizes minimal residual disease evaluation, with high applicability in acute myeloid leukemia. It is also an improvement upon flow cytometry- and quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based prediction of outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and could be incorporated in clinical settings and clinical trials.

16.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 96(2): 143-148, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of CLL is supported by a typical morphology and immunophenotype and usually does not present difficulties. Nevertheless, some patients with CLL can show an atypical phenotype, this raising the possibility of a lymphoproliferative disorder other than CLL. It has been recently shown that the expression of CD200 could be a rather consistent marker for CLL. METHODS: The expression of CD200 was investigated in 120 consecutive patients with B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPD) (65 cases diagnosed as typical CLL, 16 atypical CLL, and 39 non-CLL before entering the study) by using multiparametric flow cytometry with four color combinations. CD200 was analyzed as percentage of positive cells (≥30%) and MFIR expression. ROC curves were used to determine the cut-off for the CD200 MFIR. Matutes score (MS) was used as comparator. RESULTS: All 81 (100%) patients classified as CLL and 25 of 39 (64.1%) classified as non-CLL expressed high CD200 expression (≥30%). CD200 expression showed a high sensitivity (100%) and a low specificity (35.9%), and the accuracy was similar to that of Matutes score markers (range: 79.2%-86.7%); except SmIg that was 59.1%. The addition of CD200 to the Matutes score correctly identified 74 of 81 (91.4%) CLL cases including 9 of 16 atypical CLL cases. As per non CLL cases, 37 of 39 (94.9%) were correctly diagnosed by the modified system. Altogether, CD200 improved the diagnostic accuracy of Matutes score from 86.7% to 92.5% (P < .01). CONCLUSION: These results show that CD200 is a valuable, albeit not specific, CLL diagnostic marker. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(11)2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428571

RESUMO

In recent years, several attempts have been made to identify novel prognostic markers in patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (IR-AML), to implement risk-adapted strategies. The non-receptor tyrosine kinases are proteins involved in regulation of cell growth, adhesion, migration and apoptosis. They associate with metastatic dissemination in solid tumors and poor prognosis. However, their role in haematological malignancies has been scarcely studied. We hypothesized that PTK2/FAK, PTK2B/PYK2, LYN or SRC could be new prognostic markers in IR-AML. We assessed PTK2, PTK2B, LYN and SRC gene expression in a cohort of 324 patients, adults up to the age of 70, classified in the IR-AML cytogenetic group. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that PTK2B, LYN and PTK2 gene expression are independent prognostic factors in IR-AML patients. PTK2B and LYN identify a patient subgroup with good prognosis within the cohort with non-favorable FLT3/NPM1 combined mutations. In contrast, PTK2 identifies a patient subgroup with poor prognosis within the worst prognosis cohort who display non-favorable FLT3/NPM1 combined mutations and underexpression of PTK2B or LYN. The combined use of these markers can refine the highly heterogeneous intermediate-risk subgroup of AML patients, and allow the development of risk-adapted post-remission chemotherapy protocols to improve their response to treatment.

18.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 18(11): 737-742, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the clinical stage maintains prognostic significance over time and can be considered as a surrogate for the response to therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data from 229 CLL patients were retrospectively evaluated. The main aims of the study were to describe the changes in clinical stage during the course of CLL as a result of the response to treatment and to determine the time to next therapy (TTNT) and overall survival (OS) according to those changes, in particular, among the heterogeneous International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) partial response (PR) category. RESULTS: Among the patients in the IWCLL PR category, differences were found in TTNT and OS according to the clinical stage at the response evaluation. With a median follow-up period of 91 months (range, 2-390 months), patients with a PR- Binet A at the response evaluation had significantly longer TTNT and OS compared with those with PR-Binet B/C (median TTNT, 26 vs. 11 months; P = .00; median OS, 63 vs. 43 months; P = .047). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study have shown that for patients with CLL, the Binet clinical stages are good outcome predictors throughout the disease course and also suggest that changes in Binet clinical stage could be useful as response surrogates and to divide the IWCLL PR category into different prognostic subgroups.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(10): 2394-2404, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390924

RESUMO

In intermediate-risk cytogenetic acute myeloid leukemia (IRC-AML) patients, novel biomarkers to guide post-remission therapy are needed. We analyzed with high-density arrays 40 IRC-AML patients who received a non-allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation-based post-remission therapy, and identified a signature that correlated with early relapse. Subsequently, we analyzed selected 187 genes in 49 additional IRC-AML patients by RT-PCR. BAALC, MN1, SPARC and HOPX overexpression correlated to refractoriness. BAALC or ALDH2 overexpression correlated to shorter overall survival (OS) (5-year OS: 33 ± 8.6% vs. 73.7 ± 10.1%, p = .006; 32 ± 9.3% vs. 66.4 ± 9.7%, p = .016), whereas GPR44 or TP53INP1 overexpression correlated to longer survival (5-year OS: 66.7 ± 10.3% vs. 35.4 ± 9.1%, p = .04; 58.3 ± 8.2% vs. 23.1 ± 11.7%, p = .029). A risk-score combining these four genes expression distinguished low-risk and high-risk patients (5-year OS: 79 ± 9% vs. 30 ± 8%, respectively; p = .001) in our cohort and in an independent set of patients from a public repository. Our 4-gene signature may add prognostic information and guide post-remission treatment in IRC-AML patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(10): 2383-2393, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345176

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) stimulates leukemia cell proliferation and survival, and promotes angiogenesis. We studied VEGFC expression in bone marrow samples from 353 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and its relationship with several clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular variables. We also studied the expression of 84 genes involved in VEGF signaling in 24 patients. We found that VEGFC expression was higher in AML patients with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) than in patients with non-AML-MRC. We also found an association between VEGFC expression and the patient cytogenetic risk group, with those with a worse prognosis having higher VEGFC expression levels. No correlation was observed between VEGFC expression and survival or complete remission. VEGFC expression strongly correlated with expression of the VEGF receptors FLT1, KDR, and NRP1. Thus, in this series, VEGFC expression was increased in AML-MRC and in subgroups with a poorer prognosis, but has no impact on survival.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Medula Óssea/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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