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2.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4): 346-349, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047206

RESUMO

Na nova era da Medicina de Precisão, a inteligência artificial (IA) - um conjunto de sistemas e programas que permitem às máquinas serem capazes de executar tarefas que habitual mente exigiriam a participação humana - emerge como ferramenta capaz de criar novas maneiras de analisar as imagens médicas além dos parâmetros morfológicos convencionais. Embora ainda não estejam completamente disponíveis para o uso clínico, essa nova abordagem tem grande potencial de aplicação na prática clínica e de pesquisa médica. A discussão dos conceitos básicos, potenciais aplicações e limitações das novas técnicas de IA no diagnóstico por imagem é importante para a interpretação adequada do potencial efeito que essa tecnologia teria na medicina, contrapondo-se à excessiva ansiedade despertada por abordagens superficiais e apressadas. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma visão equilibrada e atual sobre o tema, com especial foco no presente e no futuro da imagenologia cardíaca


In the new era of Precision Medicine, artificial intelligence (AI) - a set of systems and programs that enable machines to be able to perform cognitive tasks that would usually require human participation emerges as a tool that can create new ways of analyzing images beyond the conventional morphological parameters. Although not yet ready for clinical use, these tools have a potential effect on clinical and research practice. The discussion of the basic concepts, potential applications and limitations of new AI techniques in imaging diagnosis is important for a balanced interpretation of their results, as opposed to the excessive anxiety recently observed among professionals dealing with the subject. In this brief article, we aim to take a balanced and attentive look on this subject, with special focus on the horizon of modern cardiac imaging


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Informática Médica/métodos , Cardiologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina
4.
Radiol Bras ; 52(3): 193-197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210695

RESUMO

Coronary arteries originating from the contralateral (noncoronary) sinus and having an interarterial course, in which they run from the ascending aorta to the pulmonary trunk, is a potentially fatal anomaly. Computed tomography (CT) angiography facilitates the recognition and therapeutic planning of such anomalies because of its ability to acquire high-resolution images of the entire course of the coronary artery, as well as of the accompanying atherosclerotic involvement. The right coronary artery originating from the left coronary sinus is the most prevalent anomaly of this type and usually implies a better prognosis, the interarterial course being classified as "high" or "low", depending on whether it is above or below the level of the pulmonary valve, with consequent stratification of the risk and the treatment. However, it is known that there is a high risk of sudden death among patients with a left coronary artery of anomalous origin from the right sinus. In such cases, surgical treatment is recommended, regardless of whether there are symptoms or evidence of ischemia. Given the importance of those aspects, which can be identified on CT of the chest or CT angiography of the aorta, this pictorial essay aims to illustrate such anomalies to facilitate their recognition and description by radiologists who are not specialists in cardiac imaging.

5.
Insights Imaging ; 10(1): 62, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide clinical validation of a recent 2D SENSE-based accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequence (accelerated k-t SENSE), investigating whether this technique accurately quantifies left ventricle (LV) volumes, function, and mass as compared to 2D cine steady-state free precession (2D-SSFP). METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 16) and consecutive heart failure patients (n = 26) were scanned using a 1.5 T MRI system. Two LV short axis (SA) stacks were acquired: (1) accelerated k-t SENSE (5-6 breath-holds; temporal/spatial resolution: 37 ms/1.82 × 1.87 mm; acceleration factor = 4) and (2) standard 2D-SSFP (10-12 breath-holds; temporal/spatial resolution: 49 ms/1.67 × 1.87 mm, parallel imaging). Ascending aorta phase-contrast was performed on all volunteers as a reference to compare LV stroke volumes (LVSV) and validate the sequences. An image quality score for SA images was used, with lower scores indicating better quality (from 0 to 18). RESULTS: There was a high agreement between accelerated k-t SENSE and 2D-SSFP for LV measurements: bias (limits of agreement) of 2.4% (- 5.4% to 10.1%), 6.9 mL/m2 (- 4.7 to 18.6 mL/m2), - 1.5 (- 8.3 to 5.2 mL/m2), and - 0.2 g/m2 (- 11.9 to 12.3 g/m2) for LV ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume index, end-systolic volume index, and mass index, respectively. LVSV by accelerated k-t SENSE presented good agreement with aortic flow. Interobserver and intraobserver variabilities for all LV parameters were also high. CONCLUSION: The accelerated k-t SENSE CMR sequence is clinically feasible and accurately quantifies LV volumes, function, and mass, with short acquisition time and good image quality.

6.
Radiol. bras ; 52(3): 193-197, May-June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012936

RESUMO

Abstract Coronary arteries originating from the contralateral (noncoronary) sinus and having an interarterial course, in which they run from the ascending aorta to the pulmonary trunk, is a potentially fatal anomaly. Computed tomography (CT) angiography facilitates the recognition and therapeutic planning of such anomalies because of its ability to acquire high-resolution images of the entire course of the coronary artery, as well as of the accompanying atherosclerotic involvement. The right coronary artery originating from the left coronary sinus is the most prevalent anomaly of this type and usually implies a better prognosis, the interarterial course being classified as "high" or "low", depending on whether it is above or below the level of the pulmonary valve, with consequent stratification of the risk and the treatment. However, it is known that there is a high risk of sudden death among patients with a left coronary artery of anomalous origin from the right sinus. In such cases, surgical treatment is recommended, regardless of whether there are symptoms or evidence of ischemia. Given the importance of those aspects, which can be identified on CT of the chest or CT angiography of the aorta, this pictorial essay aims to illustrate such anomalies to facilitate their recognition and description by radiologists who are not specialists in cardiac imaging.


Resumo O trajeto interarterial das artérias coronárias com origem em seio contralateral/não coronariano é uma anomalia potencialmente fatal caracterizada pelo trajeto das coronárias entre a aorta ascendente e o tronco da artéria pulmonar. A angiotomografia auxilia no reconhecimento e planejamento terapêutico dessas alterações, em virtude da sua capacidade em adquirir imagens de alta resolução de todo o trajeto coronariano, assim como do envolvimento aterosclerótico associado. A artéria coronária direita originada no seio coronariano esquerdo costuma ser mais prevalente e relacionada a um melhor prognóstico, sendo classificada em curso interarterial "alto" ou "baixo" de acordo com a altura do seu trajeto em relação à valva pulmonar, com consequente estratificação de risco e tratamento distintos. Sabe-se, entretanto, que há um elevado risco de morte súbita entre pacientes com artéria coronária esquerda de origem anômala a partir do seio direito, sendo recomendado tratamento cirúrgico, independentemente de sintomas ou evidência de isquemia. Em razão da importância desses achados que podem ser encontrados em exames de tomografia de tórax e angiotomografias de aorta, o presente ensaio tem por objetivo ilustrar as anomalias de trajeto das artérias coronárias, para facilitar seu reconhecimento e sua descrição por médicos radiologistas não especialistas em imagem cardíaca.

7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 59: 173-183, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection (UGTI) has become the method of choice in the treatment of pseudoaneurysm caused by endovascular procedures because it is minimally invasive, costs less, and effective, with short hospitalization time. The objective was identify the morphological aspects of femoral pseudoaneurysms and clinical aspects of patients that may lead to the failure of UGTI in femoral pseudoaneurysms after cardiac catheterization. POPULATION AND METHOD: From December 2012 to December 2016, 60 patients with pseudoaneurysms caused by cardiac catheterization were referred to the interventional radiology unit to be treated with UGTI. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for comorbidities, use of antiplatelet agents, anticoagulation, indication of cardiac catheterization, and so forth. Morphological aspects of the pseudoaneurysms such as volume, diameter (anteroposterior, laterolateral, and longitudinal), length, and diameter of the neck were analyzed. RESULTS: Technical success of UGTI was achieved in 100%. No clinical aspects of the patients were statistically significant for UGTI failure in occlusion of the pseudoaneurysms. For morphological aspects of pseudoaneurysm: anteroposterior (P = 0.029), longitudinal (P = 0.020), and neck diameters (P = 0.004) were statistically significant for UGTI failure. Logistic regression analysis for longitudinal diameter showed that for each centimeter, there was a 2.66 chance of failure of pseudoaneurysm thrombosis in a single thrombin injection session (95% confidence interval: 1.33-5.30). For longitudinal and neck diameters greater than 1.8 cm and 0.55 cm, respectively, there is a greater probability of needing more than one UGTI session for complete thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among variables, the longitudinal dimension was more significant, and in a larger diameter, the treatment with thrombin injection presented greater complexity.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/tratamento farmacológico , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/etiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Masculino , Punções , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombina/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia
8.
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.243-253.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009339
9.
Radiol Bras ; 51(5): 321-327, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369660

RESUMO

The diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) involves a multidisciplinary scenario in which the radiologist assumes a key role. The latest (2013) update of the IIP classification by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society proposed some important changes to the original classification of 2002. The novelties include the addition of a new disease (idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis) and the subdivision of the IIPs into four main groups: chronic fibrosing IIPs (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia); smoking-related IIPs (desquamative interstitial pneumonia and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease); acute or subacute IIPs (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia); rare IIPs (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis); and the so-called "unclassifiable" IIPs. In this study, we review the main clinical, tomographic, and pathological characteristics of each IIP.

10.
Radiol. bras ; 51(5): 321-327, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-976739

RESUMO

Abstract The diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) involves a multidisciplinary scenario in which the radiologist assumes a key role. The latest (2013) update of the IIP classification by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society proposed some important changes to the original classification of 2002. The novelties include the addition of a new disease (idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis) and the subdivision of the IIPs into four main groups: chronic fibrosing IIPs (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia); smoking-related IIPs (desquamative interstitial pneumonia and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease); acute or subacute IIPs (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia); rare IIPs (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis); and the so-called "unclassifiable" IIPs. In this study, we review the main clinical, tomographic, and pathological characteristics of each IIP.


Resumo O diagnóstico das pneumonias intersticiais idiopáticas (PIIs) envolve um cenário multidisciplinar no qual o radiologista assume papel fundamental. A última atualização (2013) da classificação das PIIs pela American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society propõe algumas mudanças importantes em relação à classificação original de 2002. Dentre as novidades, destacam-se o acréscimo de uma nova doença (fibroelastose pleuroparenquimatosa idiopática) e a subdivisão das PIIs em quatro grupos principais: PIIs crônicas fibrosantes (fibrose pulmonar idiopática e pneumonia intersticial não específica); PIIs relacionadas ao tabagismo (pneumonia intersticial descamativa e bronquiolite respiratória com doença intersticial pulmonar); PIIs agudas/subagudas (pneumonia em organização e pneumonia intersticial aguda); PIIs raras (pneumonia intersticial linfocítica e fibroelastose pleuroparenquimatosa idiopática); além das ditas "inclassificáveis". Foram revisadas, de forma didática neste estudo, as principais características clínicas, tomográficas e patológicas de cada uma das PIIs.

11.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 12(4): 312-315, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of bolus tracking (BT) regarding total effective radiation dose (ERD) in the era of advanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been ignored. We aimed to investigate whether adjusting BT parameters reduces ERD. METHODS: Adults consecutively referred to CTA (n = 289) in a 320 detector-row scanner were distributed into four BT protocols according to delay time and time between intermittent scans, as follows: A (n = 70, delay 10s, intermittent scans 1s); B (n = 79, delay 10s, intermittent scans 2s); C (n = 68, delay 15s, intermittent scans 1s); and D (n = 72, delay 15s, intermittent scans 2s). Image quality was assessed. RESULTS: The overall ERD in BT and AP were 0.32 ±â€¯0.14 mSv and 6.06 ±â€¯0.66 mSv, respectively. ERD in BT was different among protocols (A:0.44 ±â€¯0.14 mSv; B:0.32 ±â€¯0.10 mSv; C:0.28 ±â€¯0.14 mSv; D:0.23 ±â€¯0.09 mSv; p < 0.001), with no loss in image quality. Adjusted for potential confounders (heart rate, tube current and acquisition window), protocol D provided the highest reduction in total ERD (ß = -0.33, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Delaying initiation of BT images (and acquiring them less frequently) reduces radiation dose and does not impair image quality.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur Radiol ; 28(6): 2665-2674, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite advances in non-invasive myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) evaluation, computed tomography (CT) multiphase MPI protocols have not yet been compared with the highly accurate rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (82RbPET) MPI. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate agreement between 82RbPET and 320-detector row CT (320-CT) MPI using a multiphase protocol in suspected CAD patients. METHODS: Forty-four patients referred for MPI evaluation were prospectively enrolled and underwent dipyridamole stress 82RbPET and multiphase 320-CT MPI (five consecutive volumetric acquisitions during stress). Statistical analyses were performed using the R software. RESULTS: There was high agreement for recognizing summed stress scores ≥ 4 (kappa 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-0.98, p < 0.001) and moderate for detecting SDS ≥ 2 (kappa 0.51, 95% CI 0.23-0.80, p < 0.001). In a per segment analysis, agreement was high for the presence of perfusion defects during stress and rest (kappa 0.75 and 0.82, respectively) and was moderate for impairment severity (kappa 0.58 and 0.65, respectively). The 320-CT protocol was safe, with low radiation burden (9.3 ± 2.4 mSv). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant agreement between dipyridamole stress 320-CT MPI and 82RbPET MPI in the evaluation of suspected CAD patients of intermediate risk. The multiphase 320-CT MPI protocol was feasible, diagnostic and with relatively low radiation exposure. KEY POINTS: • Rubidium-82 PET and 320-MDCT can perform MPI studies for CAD investigation. • There is high agreement between rubidium-82 PET and 320-MDCT for MPI assessment. • Multiphase CT perfusion protocols are feasible and with low radiation. • Multiphase CT perfusion protocols can identify image artefacts.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Radioisótopos de Rubídio , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Dipiridamol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
13.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 12(1): 122, 2017 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of peri-procedural myocardial infarction is complex, especially after the emergence of high-sensitivity markers of myocardial necrosis. METHODS: In this study, patients with normal baseline cardiac biomarkers and formal indication for elective on-pump coronary bypass surgery were evaluated. Electrocardiograms, cardiac biomarkers, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement were performed before and after procedures. Myocardial infarction was defined as more than ten times the upper reference limit of the 99th percentile for troponin I and for creatine kinase isoform (CK-MB) and by the findings of new late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. We assessed the release of cardiac biomarkers in patients with no evidence of myocardial infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance. RESULTS: Of 75 patients referred for on-pump coronary bypass surgery, 54 (100%) did not have evidence of myocardial infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance. However, all had a peak troponin I above the 99th percentile; 52 (96%) had an elevation 10 times higher than the 99th percentile. Regarding CK-MB, 54 (100%) patients had a peak CK-MB above the 99th percentile limit, and only 13 (24%) had an elevation greater than 10 times the 99th percentile. The median value of troponin I peak was 3.15 (1.2 to 3.9) ng/mL, which represented 78.7 times the 99th percentile. CONCLUSION: In this study, different from CK-MB findings, troponin was significantly increased in the absence of myocardial infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance. Thus, CK-MB was more accurate than troponin I for excluding procedure-related myocardial infarction. These data suggest a higher troponin cutoff for the diagnosis of coronary bypass surgery related myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN09454308 . Registered 08 May 2012.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Gadolínio , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Necrose/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 90(1): 87-93, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the amount and pattern of cardiac biomarker release after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients without evidence of a new myocardial infarction (MI) after the procedure as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). BACKGROUND: The release of myocardial necrosis biomarkers after PCI frequently occurs. However, the correlation between biomarker release and the diagnosis of procedure-related MI type 4a has been controversial. METHODS: Patients with normal baseline cardiac biomarkers who were referred for elective PCI were prospectively included. CMR with LGE was performed in all of the patients before and after the intervention. Measurements of troponin I (TnI) and creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) were systematically performed before and after the procedure. Patients with a new LGE on the post-procedure CMR were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 56 patients with no evidence of a procedure-related MI as assessed by CMR after the PCI, 48 (85.1%) exhibited an elevation of TnI above the 99th percentile. In 32 patients (57.1%), the peak was greater than five times this limit. Additionally, 17 patients (30.4%) had a CK-MB peak above the 99th percentile limit, but this peak was greater than five times the 99th percentile in only two patients (3.6%). The median peak release of TnI was 0.290 (0.061-1.09) ng/mL, which was 7.25-fold higher than the 99th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to CK-MB, an abnormal release of TnI often occurs after an elective PCI procedure, despite the absence of a new LGE on CMR.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Compostos Heterocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Necrose , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(6): e6053, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28178154

RESUMO

The release of myocardial necrosis biomarkers after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) frequently occurs. However, the correlation between biomarker release and the diagnosis of procedure-related myocardial infarction (MI) (type 5) has been controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the amount and pattern of cardiac biomarker release after elective OPCAB in patients without evidence of a new MI on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE).Patients with normal baseline cardiac biomarkers referred for elective OPCAB were prospectively included. CMR with LGE was performed in all patients before and after interventions. Measurements of troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) were systematically performed before and after the procedure. Patients with new LGE on the postprocedure CMR were excluded.All of the 53 patients without CMR evidence of a procedure-related MI after OPCAB exhibited a cTnI elevation peak above the 99th percentile. In 48 (91%), the peak value was >10 times this threshold. However, 41 (77%) had a CK-MB peak above the limit of the 99th percentile, and this peak was >10 times the 99th percentile in only 7 patients (13%). The median peak release of cTnI was 0.290 (0.8-3.7) ng/mL, which is 50-fold higher than the 99th percentile.In contrast with CK-MB, considerable cTnI release often occurs after an elective OPCAB procedure, despite the absence of new LGE on CMR.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 130-133, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-786996

RESUMO

Introdução: A medida acurada do tamanho do anel valvar aórtico tem importância fundamental para o planejamento do implante percutâneo de prótese valvar aórtica transcateter (TAVI) em pacientes comestenose valvar aórtica grave. Embora haja recomendação de se realizar a medida na sístole, pouco se sabe sobre a importância das diferenças entre as dimensões sistólica e diastólica do anel. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivos referidos para TAVI foram avaliados com tomografia computadorizada para medida do anel valvar na sístole e na diástole. Área, circunferência, diâmetros máximo e mínimo, e seus diâmetros médios derivados foram obtidos em ambas as fases do ciclo cardíaco. Gráficos de Bland Altman foram construídos para se avaliarem as diferenças entre as medidas.Resultados: Foram incluídos na análise 41 pacientes com estenose aórtica grave. As médias da área, circunferência e diâmetros médios foram discretamente maiores na sístole. No entanto, em 35% dos pacientes, as dimensões diastólicas foram maiores. Essas diferenças, embora estatisticamente significantes, foram pequenas (a maior diferença de 0,6 mm no diâmetro médio). Gráficos de Bland Altman revelaram bons níveis de concordância entre as medidas sistólicas e diastólicas em todos os parâmetros avaliados.Conclusões: Observamos pequenas diferenças nas dimensões sistólicas e diastólicas no anel valvar aórtico à tomografia computadorizada, as quais, embora estatisticamente significantes, provavelmente não impactam na seleção da prótese e nem no resultado do procedimento.


Background: Accurate aortic valve annulus sizing has critical importance for the planning of percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Although there is a recommendation to perform the measurement during systole, little is known about the importance of the differences between systolic and diastolic dimensions of the annulus. Methods: Consecutive patients referred for TAVI were evaluated with computed tomography for valve annulus sizing during systole and diastole. Area, circumference, minimum and maximum diameters, and their mean derived diameters were obtained in both phases of the cardiac cycle. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to evaluate the differences between the measures. Results: The analysis included 41 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Mean area, circumference, and diameters were slightly greater in systole. However, in 35% of patients, diastolic dimensions were greater.These differences, although statistically significant, were small (the greatest difference of 0.6 mm in mean diameter). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between systolic and diastolic measurements on all parameters evaluated Conclusions: Small differences were observed in the systolic and diastolic dimensions of the aortic valve annulus with computed tomography scan, which, although statistically significant, probably do not impact the selection of prosthesis or the procedure outcome.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diástole/fisiologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Implantação de Prótese , Análise Estatística
17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 101(6): 2202-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of a correlation between myocardial necrosis biomarkers and electrocardiographic abnormalities after revascularization procedures has resulted in a change in the myocardial infarction (MI) definition. METHODS: Patients with stable multivessel disease who underwent percutaneous or surgical revascularization were included. Electrocardiograms and concentrations of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase (CK)-MB were assessed before and after procedures. Cardiac magnetic resonance and late gadolinium enhancement were performed before and after procedures. MI was defined as more than five times the 99th percentile upper reference limit for cTnI and 10 times for CK-MB in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), respectively, and new late gadolinium enhancement for cardiac magnetic resonance. RESULTS: Of the 202 patients studied, 69 (34.1%) underwent on-pump CABG, 67 (33.2%) off-pump CABG, and 66 (32.7%) PCI. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed the accuracy of cTnI for on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and PCI patients was 21.7%, 28.3%, and 52.4% and for CK-MB was 72.5%, 81.2%, and 90.5%, respectively. The specificity of cTnI was 3.6%, 9.4%, and 42.1% and of CK-MB was 73.2%, 86.8%, and 96.4%, respectively. Sensitivity of cTnI was 100%, 100%, and 100% and of CK-MB was 69.2%, 64.3%, and 44.4%, respectively. The best cutoff of cTnI for on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and PCI was 6.5 ng/mL, 4.5 ng/mL, and 4.5 ng/mL (162.5, 112.5, and 112.5 times the 99th percentile upper reference limit) and of CK-MB was 37.5 ng/mL, 22.5 ng/mL, and 11.5 ng/mL (8.5, 5.1, and 2.6 times the 99th percentile upper reference limit), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with cardiac magnetic resonance, CK-MB was more accurate than cTnI for diagnosing MI. These data suggest a higher troponin cutoff for the diagnosis of procedure-related MI.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.253-266.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-971540
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(6): 614-624, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-769542

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) (stenosis ≥ 70%) as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Methods: Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution’s ethics committee. Results: The patients’ mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001). The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB.


Resumo Fundamentos: Testes funcionais possuem limitada acurácia para identificar isquemia miocárdica em pacientes com bloqueio de ramo esquerdo (BRE). Objetivo: Utilizando tomógrafo com 320 detectores foi avaliado a acurácia diagnóstica da perfusão miocárdica de estresse com dipiridamol pela tomografia (PMT) em pacientes com BRE utilizando a angiografia coronária quantitativa invasiva (QCA) (estenose ≥ 70%) como referência. Procurou-se também investigar o valor adicional da PMT sobre a angiotomografia coronariana (ATC) comparando a acurácia com a cintilografia perfusional miocárdica (SPECT). Métodos: Trinta pacientes com BRE e SPECT prévio em investigação de doença arterial coronariana foram encaminhados para realização do protocolo de estresse na tomografia. Observadores independentes realizaram avaliação por paciente e por território coronariano. Todos os pacientes assinaram um termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição. Resultados: A média de idade foi 62 ± 10 anos. A dose média de radiação do protocolo de tomografia foi 9,3 ± 4,6 mSv. Em relação a PMT, na análise por paciente, a sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e acurácia foram, respectivamente, 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, 83% p = 0,001. Na análise por território os valores foram, respectivamente, 63%, 86% a 65%, 84%, 79% p < 0,001. Em ambas as análises, a adição da PMT a ATC determinou maior acurácia diagnóstica para detecção de isquemia miocárdica quando comparado com o SPECT (p < 0,001). Conclusão: O uso do protocolo de estresse na tomografia é viável e tem boa acurácia diagnóstica na pesquisa de isquemia miocárdica nos pacientes com BRE.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio de Ramo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Dipiridamol , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Vasodilatadores , Bloqueio de Ramo , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(6): 614-24, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) (stenosis ≥ 70%) as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. METHODS: Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution's ethics committee. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001). The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB.


Assuntos
Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Dipiridamol , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Vasodilatadores , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
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