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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Damage induced by lipid peroxidation has been associated with impaired glucose homeostasis. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) competitively reacts with lipid peroxyl radicals to mitigate oxidative damage, and forms oxidized vitamin E metabolites. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the associations between α-TOH metabolites (oxidized and enzymatic) in both circulation and urine and measures of glucose homeostasis in the general middle-aged population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was embedded in the population-based Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) Study. α-TOH metabolites in blood (α-TOH and α-CEHC-SO3) and urine [sulfate (SO3) and glucuronide (GLU) of both α-TLHQ (oxidized) and α-CEHC (enzymatic)] were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Measures of glucose homeostasis (HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, Insulinogenic index and Matsuda index) were obtained from fasting and postprandial blood samples. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of α-TOH metabolites and measures of glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: We included 498 participants (45% men) with mean (SD) age of 55.8 (6.1) years who did not use glucose-lowering medication. While blood α-TOH was not associated with measures of glucose homeostasis, urinary oxidized metabolites (α-TLHQ-SO3/GLU) were associated with HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. For example, a one-SD higher α-TLHQ-SO3 was associated with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.97) fold lower HOMA-IR and 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) fold higher Matsuda index, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the urinary α-TLHQ to α-CEHC ratio as a measure of oxidized-over-enzymatic conversion of α-TOH. CONCLUSION: Higher urinary levels of oxidized α-TOH metabolites as well as higher oxidized-to-enzymatic α-TOH metabolite ratio, but not circulating α-TOH or enzymatic metabolites, were associated with lower insulin resistance. Rather than circulating α-TOH, estimates of the conversion of α-TOH might be informative in relation to health and disease.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(1): 45-54, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, observational studies have identified associations between higher levels of dietary-derived antioxidants and lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas randomized clinical trials showed no reduction in CHD risk following antioxidant supplementation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible causal associations between dietary-derived circulating antioxidants and primary CHD risk using 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms for circulating antioxidants (vitamins E and C, retinol, ß-carotene, and lycopene), assessed as absolute levels and metabolites, were retrieved from the published data and were used as genetic instrumental variables. Summary statistics for gene-CHD associations were obtained from 3 databases: the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (60,801 cases; 123,504 control subjects), UK Biobank (25,306 cases; 462,011 control subjects), and FinnGen study (7,123 cases; 89,376 control subjects). For each exposure, MR analyses were performed per outcome database and were subsequently meta-analyzed. RESULTS: Among an analytic sample of 768,121 individuals (93,230 cases), genetically predicted circulating antioxidants were not causally associated with CHD risk. For absolute antioxidants, the odds ratio for CHD ranged between 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 1.41) for retinol and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.10) for ß-carotene per unit increase in ln-transformed antioxidant values. For metabolites, the odds ratio ranged between 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.06) for γ-tocopherol and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95 to 1.08) for ascorbate per 10-fold increase in metabolite levels. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from our study did not support a protective effect of genetic predisposition to high dietary-derived antioxidant levels on CHD risk. Therefore, it is unlikely that taking antioxidants to increase blood antioxidants levels will have a clinical benefit for the prevention of primary CHD.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500576

RESUMO

Recent studies consider lifestyle risk score (LRS), an aggregation of multiple lifestyle exposures, in identifying association of gene-lifestyle interaction with disease traits. However, not all cohorts have data on all lifestyle factors, leading to increased heterogeneity in the environmental exposure in collaborative meta-analyses. We compared and evaluated four approaches (Naïve, Safe, Complete and Moderator Approaches) to handle the missingness in LRS-stratified meta-analyses under various scenarios. Compared to "benchmark" results with all lifestyle factors available for all cohorts, the Complete Approach, which included only cohorts with all lifestyle components, was underpowered due to lower sample size, and the Naïve Approach, which utilized all available data and ignored the missingness, was slightly inflated. The Safe Approach, which used all data in LRS-exposed group and only included cohorts with all lifestyle factors available in the LRS-unexposed group, and the Moderator Approach, which handled missingness via moderator meta-regression, were both slightly conservative and yielded almost identical p values. We also evaluated the performance of the Safe Approach under different scenarios. We observed that the larger the proportion of cohorts without missingness included, the more accurate the results compared to "benchmark" results. In conclusion, we generally recommend the Safe Approach, a straightforward and non-inflated approach, to handle heterogeneity among cohorts in the LRS based genome-wide interaction meta-analyses.

4.
Metabolites ; 10(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256233

RESUMO

Metabolomics studies have seen a steady growth due to the development and implementation of affordable and high-quality metabolomics platforms. In large metabolite panels, measurement values are frequently missing and, if neglected or sub-optimally imputed, can cause biased study results. We provided a publicly available, user-friendly R script to streamline the imputation of missing endogenous, unannotated, and xenobiotic metabolites. We evaluated the multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN) analyses implemented in our script by simulations using measured metabolites data from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (n = 599). We simulated missing values in four unique metabolites from different pathways with different correlation structures in three sample sizes (599, 150, 50) with three missing percentages (15%, 30%, 60%), and using two missing mechanisms (completely at random and not at random). Based on the simulations, we found that for MICE, larger sample size was the primary factor decreasing bias and error. For kNN, the primary factor reducing bias and error was the metabolite correlation with its predictor metabolites. MICE provided consistently higher performance measures particularly for larger datasets (n > 50). In conclusion, we presented an imputation workflow in a publicly available R script to impute untargeted metabolomics data. Our simulations provided insight into the effects of sample size, percentage missing, and correlation structure on the accuracy of the two imputation methods.

5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199855

RESUMO

We aimed to obtain reliable reference charts for sleep duration, estimate the prevalence of sleep complaints across the lifespan and identify risk indicators of poor sleep. Studies were identified through systematic literature search in Embase, Medline and Web of Science (9 August 2019) and through personal contacts. Eligible studies had to be published between 2000 and 2017 with data on sleep assessed with questionnaires including ≥100 participants from the general population. We assembled individual participant data from 200,358 people (aged 1-100 years, 55% female) from 36 studies from the Netherlands, 471,759 people (40-69 years, 55.5% female) from the United Kingdom and 409,617 people (≥18 years, 55.8% female) from the United States. One in four people slept less than age-specific recommendations, but only 5.8% slept outside of the 'acceptable' sleep duration. Among teenagers, 51.5% reported total sleep times (TST) of less than the recommended 8-10 h and 18% report daytime sleepiness. In adults (≥18 years), poor sleep quality (13.3%) and insomnia symptoms (9.6-19.4%) were more prevalent than short sleep duration (6.5% with TST < 6 h). Insomnia symptoms were most frequent in people spending ≥9 h in bed, whereas poor sleep quality was more frequent in those spending <6 h in bed. TST was similar across countries, but insomnia symptoms were 1.5-2.9 times higher in the United States. Women (≥41 years) reported sleeping shorter times or slightly less efficiently than men, whereas with actigraphy they were estimated to sleep longer and more efficiently than man. This study provides age- and sex-specific population reference charts for sleep duration and efficiency which can help guide personalized advice on sleep length and preventive practices.

6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2252-2261, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Outdoor temperature and bright sunlight may directly and/or indirectly modulate systemic metabolism. We assessed the associations between outdoor temperature and bright sunlight duration with metabolomics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken in non-diabetic individuals from the Oxford BioBank (OBB; N = 6368; mean age 47.0 years, males 44%) and the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO; N = 5916; mean age 55.6 years, males 43%) study. Data on mean outdoor bright sunlight and temperature were collected from local weather stations in the week prior to blood sampling. Fasting serum levels of 148 metabolites, including 14 lipoprotein subclasses, were measured using NMR spectroscopy. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between mean outdoor temperature and bright sunlight duration with metabolomics adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, season and either outdoor temperature or bright sunlight. A higher mean outdoor temperature was associated with increased serum concentrations of lipoprotein (sub)particles (ß (SE) = 0.064 (0.018) SD per 5 °C, p = 5.03e-4) and certain amino acids such as phenylalanine (0.066 (0.016) SD, p = 6.44e-05) and leucine (0.111 (0.018) SD, p = 1.25e-09). In contrast, longer duration of bright sunlight was specifically associated with lower concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein (sub)particles (e.g., VLDL cholesterol (-0.024 (0.005) SD per 1-h bright sunlight, p = 8.06e-6)). The direction of effects was generally consistent between the OBB and NEO, although effect sizes were generally larger in the OBB. CONCLUSIONS: Increased bright sunlight duration is associated with an improved metabolic profile whilst higher outdoor temperature may adversely impact cardiometabolic health.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002693, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations in response to a meal is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate the genetics of the postprandial TG response through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). METHODS: Participants of the NEO (Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity) study (n=5630) consumed a liquid mixed meal after an overnight fast. GWAS of fasting and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes were performed. To identify genetic variation of postprandial TG independent of fasting TG, we calculated the TG response at 150 minutes by the residuals of a nonlinear regression that predicted TG at 150 minutes as a function of fasting TG. Association analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and principal components in a linear regression model. Next, using the identified variants as determinants, we performed linear regression analyses on the residuals of the postprandial response of 149 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolite measures. RESULTS: GWAS of fasting TG and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes resulted in completely overlapping loci, replicating previous GWAS. From GWAS of the TG response, we identified rs7350789-A (allele frequency=0.36), mapping to hepatic lipase (LIPC), to be associated with a smaller increase in TG concentrations at 150 minutes (ß=-0.11; P-value=5.1×10-8). Rs7350789-A was associated with responses of 33 metabolite measures (P-value <1.34×10-3), mainly smaller increases of the TG-component in almost all HDL (high-density lipoprotein) subparticles (HDL-TG), a smaller decrease of HDL diameter and smaller increases of most components of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) subparticles. CONCLUSIONS: GWAS of the TG response identified a variant near LIPC as a main contributor to postprandial TG metabolism independent of fasting TG concentrations, resulting in smaller increases of HDL-TG and VLDL subparticles.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002772, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake influences plasma lipid levels, and such effects may be moderated by genetic variants. We aimed to characterize the role of aggregated rare and low-frequency protein-coding variants in gene by alcohol consumption interactions associated with fasting plasma lipid levels. METHODS: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, fasting plasma triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 34 153 individuals with European ancestry from 5 discovery studies and 32 277 individuals from 6 replication studies. Rare and low-frequency functional protein-coding variants (minor allele frequency, ≤5%) measured by an exome array were aggregated by genes and evaluated by a gene-environment interaction test and a joint test of genetic main and gene-environment interaction effects. Two dichotomous self-reported alcohol consumption variables, current drinker, defined as any recurrent drinking behavior, and regular drinker, defined as the subset of current drinkers who consume at least 2 drinks per week, were considered. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 21 gene-lipid associations at 13 known lipid loci through the joint test. Eight loci (PCSK9, LPA, LPL, LIPG, ANGPTL4, APOB, APOC3, and CD300LG) remained significant after conditioning on the common index single-nucleotide polymorphism identified by previous genome-wide association studies, suggesting an independent role for rare and low-frequency variants at these loci. One significant gene-alcohol interaction on triglycerides in a novel locus was significantly discovered (P=6.65×10-6 for the interaction test) and replicated at nominal significance level (P=0.013) in SMC5. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study applied new gene-based statistical approaches and suggested that rare and low-frequency genetic variants interacted with alcohol consumption on lipid levels.

9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(8): 1306-1314, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the present study, we assessed the extent of mediation by low-grade systemic inflammation and adipokines in the association between abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, total body fat (TBF) was measured in all (n = 5772) participants who did not have missing data and neither used glucose-lowering medication, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (aSAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by MRI in a random subgroup (n = 2448). C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, and leptin were considered as potential mediators, and insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Mediation by CRP, adiponectin, and leptin was studied by including the mediators to the fully adjusted linear regression model. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 56 (6) years, TBF of 36 (9) %, VAT of 119 (61) cm2 and aSAT of 300 (111) cm2. Per SD of TBF, VAT and aSAT, HOMA-IR was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59-70), 33% (95%CI: 28-42) and 20% (95%CI: 14-26) higher, respectively. The association between aSAT and HOMA-IR fully disappeared after adjustment for leptin; the association between VAT and HOMA-IR attenuated after adjustment for leptin (22%) and adiponectin (15%). No mediation was observed by CRP, and mediation estimates were similar in men and women. CONCLUSION: Where leptin fully explained the aSAT-HOMA-IR association, the VAT-HOMA-IR association was only partly explained by leptin and adiponectin similarly in men and women.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1246-1256, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI)-associated loci are used to explore the effects of obesity using Mendelian randomization (MR), but the contribution of individual tissues to risks remains unknown. We aimed to identify tissue-grouped pathways of BMI-associated loci and relate these to cardiometabolic disease using MR analyses. METHODS: Using Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data, we performed overrepresentation tests to identify tissue-grouped gene sets based on mRNA-expression profiles from 634 previously published BMI-associated loci. We conducted two-sample MR with inverse-variance-weighted methods, to examine associations between tissue-grouped BMI-associated genetic instruments and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD), with use of summary-level data from published genome-wide association studies (T2DM: 74 124 cases, 824 006 controls; CAD: 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls). Additionally, we performed MR analyses on T2DM and CAD using randomly sampled sets of 100 or 200 BMI-associated genetic variants. RESULTS: We identified 17 partly overlapping tissue-grouped gene sets, of which 12 were brain areas, where BMI-associated genes were differentially expressed. In tissue-grouped MR analyses, all gene sets were similarly associated with increased risks of T2DM and CAD. MR analyses with randomly sampled genetic variants on T2DM and CAD resulted in a distribution of effect estimates similar to tissue-grouped gene sets. CONCLUSIONS: Overrepresentation tests revealed differential expression of BMI-associated genes in 17 different tissues. However, with our biology-based approach using tissue-grouped MR analyses, we did not identify different risks of T2DM or CAD for the BMI-associated gene sets, which was reflected by similar effect estimates obtained by randomly sampled gene sets.

11.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108476, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteomics is expected to provide novel insights in the underlying pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we aimed to identify and biochemically characterize proteins associated with diabetes mellitus in a Qatari population. METHODS: In a diabetes case-control study (175 cases, 164 controls; Arab, South Asian and Philippine ethnicities), we conducted a discovery study to screen 1141 blood protein levels for associations with diabetes mellitus. Additional analyses were done in controls in relation to Hb1Ac, and biochemical characterization of the main findings was performed with metabolomics (501 metabolites). We performed two-sample Mendelian Randomization to provide evidence of potential causality using data from European descent of the DIAGRAM consortium (74,124 cases of diabetes mellitus and 824,006 controls) for the identified proteins for T2D and Hb1Ac. RESULTS: After accounting for multiple testing, 30 protein levels were different (p-values<8.6e-5) between cases and controls. Of these, a higher Hb1Ac in controls was associated with a lower IGFBP-2 level (p-value = 4.1e-6). IGFBP-2 protein level was found lower among cases compared with controls across all ethnicities. In controls, IGFBP-2 was associated with 21 metabolite levels, but specifically connected to the metabolite citrulline in network analyses. We observed no evidence, however, that the association between IGFBP-2 and diabetes mellitus was causal. CONCLUSIONS: We specifically identified IGFBP-2 to be associated with diabetes mellitus, although with no evidence for causality, which was specifically connected to citrulline metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citrulina/sangue , Citrulina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372009

RESUMO

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
15.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225080

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of electrocardiogram (ECG)-based QT, QTc, JT, JTc, and QRS intervals with cognitive function and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in a cohort of older individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but free of known arrhythmias. We studied 4627 participants (54% female, mean age 75 years) enrolled in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Ten-second ECGs were conducted at baseline. Cognitive function was tested at baseline and repeated during a mean follow-up time of 3.2 years. Structural MRIs were conducted in a subgroup of 535 participants. Analyses were performed with multivariable (repeated) linear regression models and adjusted for cardiovascular risk-factors, co-morbidities, and cardiovascular drug use. At baseline, longer QT, JT, JTc-but not QTc and QRS intervals-were associated with a worse cognitive performance. Most notably, on the Stroop Test, participants performed 3.02 (95% CI 0.31; 5.73) seconds worse per standard deviation higher QT interval, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and medication use. There was no association between longer ventricular de- or repolarization and structural brain measurements. Therefore, specifically ventricular repolarization was associated with worse cognitive performance in older individuals at baseline but not during follow-up.

16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(10): e1900818, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271991

RESUMO

SCOPE: Abdominal obesity is one of the main modifiable risk factors of age-related cardiometabolic disease. Cardiometabolic disease risk and its associated high abdominal fat mass, cholesterol, and glucose concentrations can be reduced by a healthier lifestyle. Hence, the aim is to understand the relation between lifestyle-induced changes in body composition, and specifically abdominal fat, and accompanying changes in circulating metabolic biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Growing Old Together (GOTO) study was used, which is a single arm lifestyle intervention in which 164 older adults (mean age 63 years, BMI 23-35 kg/m2 ) changed their lifestyle during 13 weeks by 12.5% caloric restriction plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure. It is shown here that levels of circulating metabolic biomarkers, even after adjustment for body mass index, specifically associate with abdominal fat mass. The applied lifestyle intervention mainly reduces abdominal fat mass (-2.6%, SD = 3.0) and this reduction, when adjusted for general weight loss, is highly associated with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter. CONCLUSION: The lifestyle-induced reduction of abdominal fat mass is particularly associated, independent of body mass index or general weight loss, with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter.

17.
Metabolomics ; 16(3): 35, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several plasma metabolites have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify plasma metabolites associated with different indices of early disturbances in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a subsample of the Leiden Longevity Study comprising individuals without a history of diabetes mellitus (n = 233) with a mean age of 63.3 ± 6.7 years of which 48.1% were men. We tested for associations of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, Matsuda Index, Insulinogenic Index and glycated hemoglobin with metabolites (Swedish Metabolomics Platform) using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results were validated internally using an independent metabolomics platform (Biocrates platform) and replicated externally in the independent Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (Metabolon platform) (n = 545, mean age of 55.8 ± 6.0 years of which 48.6% were men). Moreover, in the NEO study, we replicated our analyses in individuals with diabetes mellitus (cases: n = 36; controls = 561). RESULTS: Out of the 34 metabolites, a total of 12 plasma metabolites were associated with different indices of disturbances in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in individuals without diabetes mellitus. These findings were validated using a different metabolomics platform as well as in an independent cohort of non-diabetics. Moreover, tyrosine, alanine, valine, tryptophan and alpha-ketoglutaric acid levels were higher in individuals with diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: We found several plasma metabolites that are associated with early disturbances in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity of which five were also higher in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 57: 100982, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733333

RESUMO

Among other mechanisms, oxidative stress has been postulated to play an important role in the rate of ageing. Oxidative damage contributes to the hallmarks of ageing and essential components in pathological pathways which are thought to drive multiple age-related diseases. Nonetheless, results from studies testing the hypothesis of oxidative stress in ageing and diseases showed controversial results. While observational studies mainly found detrimental effects of high oxidative stress levels on disease status, randomized clinical trials examining the effect of antioxidant supplementation on disease status generally showed null effects. However, re-evaluations of these counterinitiative observations are required considering the lack of reliability and specificity of traditionally used biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. To facilitate these re-evaluations, this review summarizes the basic knowledge of oxidative stress and the present findings regarding the role of oxidative damage in ageing and age-related diseases. Meanwhile, two approaches are highlighted, namely proper participants selection, together with the development of reliable biomarkers. We propose that oxidized vitamin E metabolites may be used to accurately monitor individual functional antioxidant level, which might serve as promising key solutions for future elucidating the impact of oxidative stress on ageing and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5121, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719535

RESUMO

Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery + replication) of 126,926 individuals from 5 different ancestry groups, when considering either long or short total sleep time interactions in joint analyses, we identify 49 previously unreported lipid loci, and 10 additional previously unreported lipid loci in a restricted sample of European-ancestry cohorts. In addition, we identify new gene-sleep interactions for known lipid loci such as LPL and PCSK9. The previously unreported lipid loci have a modest explained variance in lipid levels: most notable, gene-short-sleep interactions explain 4.25% of the variance in triglyceride level. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in sleep-associated adverse lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Lipídeos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569345

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the role of the amount of visceral fat and liver fat in the association between adult weight change and insulin resistance at middle age. In the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, adult weight change was calculated with recalled body weight at age 20 years and measured body weight at middle age. Measures of insulin resistance were calculated using both fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. Visceral fat was assessed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and liver fat by proton-MR spectroscopy (N = 1758). We examined the association between adult weight change and insulin resistance with linear regression, adjusted for confounding factors. To investigate mediation, we additionally adjusted for total body fat, visceral fat, and liver fat. In participants who gained ≥50% of body weight during adulthood, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 3.22 (95% CI 2.76; 3.77) times higher than in weight maintainers. In a joint model, total body fat mediated this association for 8.1% (95% CI -9.2; 25.4), visceral fat for 32.0% (18.6; 45.4%) and liver fat for 22.5% (15.0; 30.1). The association between adult weight gain and insulin resistance at middle age is largely mediated by both visceral fat and liver fat.

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