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1.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic (SBP)≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic (DBP)≥90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA =931, nAA= 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14210, nAA= 2480) and had SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5266, nAA= 1817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg) while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of SNPs with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P=1.1*10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P=1.5*10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278 OR=0.71[95% CI 0.6-0.8]). SNPs in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(18): 7329-7330, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514169
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

5.
Diabetologia ; 62(11): 2079-2087, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309263

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Circulating succinate and 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-diHOME) were recently shown to promote brown adipocyte thermogenesis and protect against metabolic disorders in rodents. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between plasma levels of these metabolites and adiposity and metabolic profile in humans. METHODS: Fasting plasma succinate and 12,13-diHOME levels were quantified using ultra HPLC-tandem MS in 2248 individuals (50% female, mean age 41.3 ± 5.9 years, mean BMI 26.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) in addition to fasting plasma biochemistry. Total and regional adiposity were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. An age- and sex-adjusted linear regression model was used to determine the associations between succinate and 12,13-diHOME levels and body composition and metabolic profile. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation was used to assess the associations between genetically determined BMI and metabolic traits with circulating plasma succinate and 12,13-diHOME. RESULTS: A one-SD higher plasma succinate and 12,13-diHOME concentration was associated with a 0.15 SD (95% CI 0.28, 0.03) and 0.08 SD (0.15, 0.01) lower total fat mass respectively. Additionally, a one-SD higher plasma 12,13-diHOME level was associated with a 0.09 SD (0.16, 0.02) lower fasting plasma insulin and 0.10 SD (0.17, 0.04) lower plasma triacylglycerol. In Mendelian randomisation analyses, genetically determined higher BMI, fasting hyperinsulinaemia and elevated lipid levels were not associated with changes in either plasma succinate or plasma 12,13-diHOME concentrations. No indications of bias due to directional pleiotropy were detected in the Mendelian randomisation analyses. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings tentatively suggest that plasma succinate and 12,13-diHOME may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and brown adipose tissue activation in humans. Further studies encompassing direct assessment of brown adipose tissue activity and dietary supplementation are necessary to investigate the potential beneficial effects of these metabolites on systemic metabolism.

6.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(8): 311-322, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199196

RESUMO

Obesity is a causal risk factor for the development of age-related disease conditions, which includes Type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and dementia. In genome-wide association studies, genetic variation in FTO is strongly associated with obesity and has been described across different ethnic backgrounds and life stages. To date, much work has been devoted on determining the biological mechanisms via which FTO affects body weight regulation and ultimately contributes to age-related cardiometabolic and brain disease. The main hypotheses of the involved biological mechanisms include the involvement of FTO in habitual food intake and energy expenditure. In this narrative review, our overall aim is to provide an overview on how FTO gene variants could increase the risk of developing age-related disease conditions. Specifically, we will discuss the state of the literature based on the different hypotheses how FTO regulates body weight and ultimately contributes to cardiometabolic disease and brain disease.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Metabolomics ; 15(2): 23, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify novel metabolite and lipid signatures connected with the metabolic syndrome in a Dutch middle-aged population. METHODS: 115 individuals with a metabolic syndrome score ranging from 0 to 5 [50 cases of the metabolic syndrome (score ≥ 3) and 65 controls] were enrolled from the Leiden Longevity Study, and LC/GC-MS metabolomics and lipidomics profiling were performed on fasting plasma samples. Data were analysed with principal component analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) to study metabolite/lipid signatures associated with the metabolic syndrome. In addition, univariate analyses were done with linear regression, adjusted for age and sex, for the study of individual metabolites/lipids in relation to the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Data was available on 103 metabolites and 223 lipids. In the OPLS model with metabolic syndrome score (Y-variable), 9 metabolites were negatively correlated and 26 metabolites (mostly acylcarnitines, amino acids and keto acids) were positively correlated with the metabolic syndrome score. In addition, a total of 100 lipids (mainly triacylglycerides) were positively correlated and 10 lipids from different lipid classes were negatively correlated with the metabolic syndrome score. In the univariate analyses, the metabolic syndrome (score) was associated with multiple individual metabolites (e.g., valeryl carnitine, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, alanine) and lipids [e.g., diglyceride(34:1), diglyceride(36:2)]. CONCLUSION: In this first study on metabolomics/lipidomics of the metabolic syndrome, we identified multiple novel metabolite and lipid signatures, from different chemical classes, that were connected to the metabolic syndrome and are of interest to cardiometabolic disease biology.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2903-2910, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759251

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Seasonal variation in cold and light exposure may influence metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the associations of bright sunlight and outdoor temperature with measures of glucose and lipid metabolism in two populations of middle-aged European subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two population-based European cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: Middle-aged nondiabetic subjects from the Oxford Biobank (OBB; N = 4327; mean age, 41.4 years) and the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (N = 5899; mean age, 55.6 years). INTERVENTIONS: Data on outdoor bright sunlight and temperature collected from local weather stations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Insulin resistance and fasting lipid levels. Multivariable regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, percentage body fat, season, and either outdoor temperature or bright sunlight. RESULTS: In the OBB cohort, increased bright sunlight exposure was associated with lower fasting insulin [-1.27% (95% CI, -2.09 to -0.47%) per extra hour of bright sunlight], lower homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (-1.36%; 95% CI, -2.23 to -0.50), lower homeostatic model assessment for ß-cell function (-0.80%; 95% CI, -1.31 to -0.30), and lower triglyceride (-1.28%; 95% CI, -2.07 to -0.50) levels. In the NEO cohort generally unidirectional but weaker associations were observed. No associations between outdoor temperature and measures of glucose or lipid metabolism were detected following adjustment for bright sunlight. CONCLUSIONS: Bright sunlight, but not outdoor temperature, might be associated with increased insulin sensitivity and lower triglyceride levels.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1033-1054, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698716

RESUMO

A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 × 10-6) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10-8 using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5141, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510157

RESUMO

Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420679

RESUMO

According to the current dogma, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) decreases high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) and increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C. However, detailed insight into the effects of CETP on lipoprotein subclasses is lacking. Therefore, we used a Mendelian randomization approach based on a genetic score for serum CETP concentration (rs247616, rs12720922 and rs1968905) to estimate causal effects per unit (µg/mL) increase in CETP on 159 standardized metabolic biomarkers, primarily lipoprotein subclasses. Metabolic biomarkers were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in 5672 participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Higher CETP concentrations were associated with less large HDL (largest effect XL-HDL-C, P = 6 × 10-22) and more small VLDL components (largest effect S-VLDL cholesteryl esters, P = 6 × 10-6). No causal effects were observed with LDL subclasses. All these effects were replicated in an independent cohort from European ancestry (MAGNETIC NMR GWAS; n ~20,000). Additionally, we assessed observational associations between ELISA-measured CETP concentration and metabolic measures. In contrast to results from Mendelian randomization, observationally, CETP concentration predominantly associated with more VLDL, IDL and LDL components. Our results show that CETP is an important causal determinant of HDL and VLDL concentration and composition, which may imply that the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib decreased cardiovascular disease risk through specific reduction of small VLDL rather than LDL. The contrast between genetic and observational associations might be explained by a high capacity of VLDL, IDL and LDL subclasses to carry CETP, thereby concealing causal effects on HDL.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321297

RESUMO

Candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies found that genetic variation in APOE is robustly associated with multiple age-related diseases and longevity. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an apolipoprotein that plays an important role in triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. In literature, especially the ApoE ɛ4 isoform has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as compared to the "neutral" ApoE ɛ3 isoform. There are, however, large differences in the deleterious effects of the ApoE ɛ4 isoform between ancestries and populations, which might be explained by differences in environmental and lifestyle exposures. In this respect, poor nutrition and physical inactivity are two important lifestyle factors that have been associated with increased risks for AD and CVD. Therefore, in this narrative review, we discuss how omega-3 fatty acid intake and physical activity may modify the impact of ApoE ɛ4 on AD and CVD risk.

17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(10): 1651-1658, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in middle-aged individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, participants underwent anthropometry and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for assessing short sleep duration (as sex-specific age-adjusted percentiles) and poor quality (PSQI > 5). VAT was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in a random subgroup. We performed linear regression analyses to examine associations of short sleep and poor sleep with measures of body fat, adjusted for confounding, including total body fat in models with VAT. RESULTS: A total of 5,094 participants (52% women; mean age of 56 [SD 6] years), 1,947 of whom had VAT measurements, were analyzed. The difference in VAT between poor sleep (PSQI > 5) and good sleep (PSQI ≤ 5) was 7.2cm2 (95% CI: 1.2-13.8) in women and 16.1cm2 (95% CI: 6.2-26.0) in men. These differences attenuated toward the null after the adjustment for total body fat. Similar patterns of associations were observed for short sleep (lowest 10% compared with median 60%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that measures of sleep are not specifically associated with a higher amount of VAT.

18.
J Sleep Res ; : e12776, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324729

RESUMO

Short and long sleep duration and poor sleep quality may affect serum and hepatic lipid content, but available evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations of sleep duration and quality with serum and hepatic lipid content in a large population-based cohort of middle-aged individuals. The present cross-sectional study was embedded in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study and consisted of 4260 participants (mean age, 55 years; proportion men, 46%) not using lipid-lowering agents. Self-reported sleep duration and quality were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Outcomes of this study were fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL]-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol and triglycerides), postprandial triglyceride (response) levels, and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We performed multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for confounders and additionally for measures that link to adiposity (e.g. body mass index [BMI] and sleep apnea). We observed that relative to the group with median sleep duration (≈7.0 hr of sleep), the group with shortest sleep (≈5.0 hr of sleep) had 1.5-fold higher HTGC (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-2.2). The group with PSQI score ≥ 10 had a 1.1-fold (95% CI: 1.0-1.2) higher serum triglyceride level compared with the group with PSQI ≤ 5. However, these associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI and sleep apnea. Therefore, we concluded that previously observed associations of shorter sleep duration and poorer sleep quality with an adverse lipid profile, may be explained by BMI and sleep apnea, rather than by a direct effect of sleep on the lipid profile.

19.
Addiction ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209858

RESUMO

AIMS: To use the rs1229984 variant associated with alcohol consumption as an instrument for alcohol consumption to test the causality of the association of alcohol consumption with hay fever, asthma, allergic sensitization and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E. DESIGN: Observational and Mendelian randomization analyses using genetic variants as unbiased markers of exposure to estimate causal effects, subject to certain assumptions. SETTING: Europe. PARTICIPANTS: We included a total of 466 434 people aged 15-82 years from 17 population-based studies conducted from 1997 to 2015. MEASUREMENTS: The rs1229984 (ADH1B) was genotyped; alcohol consumption, hay fever and asthma were self-reported. Specific and total IgE were measured from serum samples. FINDINGS: Observational analyses showed that ever-drinking versus non-drinking, but not amount of alcohol intake, was positively associated with hay fever and inversely associated with asthma but not with allergic sensitization or serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E. However, Mendelian randomization analyses did not suggest that the observational associations are causal. The causal odds ratio (OR) per genetically assessed unit of alcohol/week was an OR = 0.907 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.806, 1.019; P = 0.101] for hay fever, an OR = 0.897 (95% CI = 0.790, 1.019; P = 0.095) for asthma, an OR = 0.971 (95% CI =  0.804, 1.174; P = 0.763) for allergic sensitization and a 4.7% change (95% CI = -5.5%, 14.9%; P = 0.366) for total IgE. CONCLUSIONS: In observational analyses, ever-drinking versus not drinking was positively associated with hay fever and negatively associated with asthma. However, the Mendelian randomization results were not consistent with these associations being causal.

20.
Peptides ; 107: 25-31, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076861

RESUMO

It is debated whether sex differences in adiponectin and leptin are due to sex differences in body fat distribution. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, associations of measures of body fat and sex with serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were examined using linear regression analysis (n = 6494, VAT: n = 2516). Sex differences were additionally adjusted for the measure of body fat that was most strongly associated with adiponectin or leptin concentrations. Median adiponectin concentrations in women and men were 10.5 mg/L (IQR, interquartile range: 7.7-13.9) and 6.1 mg/L (IQR: 4.5-8.2), mean difference 4.6 mg/L (95% CI: 4.3, 4.9). Median leptin concentrations in women and men were 19.2 µg/L (IQR: 11.5-30.0) and 7.1 µg/L (IQR: 4.6-11.1), mean difference 15.1 µg/L (95% CI: 14.4, 15.8). VAT was most strongly associated with adiponectin, total body fat percentage was most strongly associated with leptin. After adjustment for VAT, women had 3.8 mg/L (95% CI: 3.3, 4.3) higher adiponectin than men. After adjustment for total body fat percentage, leptin concentrations in women were 0.4 µg/L lower than in men (95% CI: -1.2, 2.0). One genetic variant (rs4731420) was associated with extreme leptin concentrations (>100 µg/L) in women: odds ratio 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.6). Total body fat percentage was strongly associated with leptin concentrations. Higher leptin concentrations in women than in men were completely explained by differences in total body fat percentage. Visceral fat was associated with adiponectin concentrations, and did not completely explain higher adiponectin concentrations in women than in men.

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