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PLoS Biol ; 17(4): e2006506, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978178


The differentiation of self-renewing progenitor cells requires not only the regulation of lineage- and developmental stage-specific genes but also the coordinated adaptation of housekeeping functions from a metabolically active, proliferative state toward quiescence. How metabolic and cell-cycle states are coordinated with the regulation of cell type-specific genes is an important question, because dissociation between differentiation, cell cycle, and metabolic states is a hallmark of cancer. Here, we use a model system to systematically identify key transcriptional regulators of Ikaros-dependent B cell-progenitor differentiation. We find that the coordinated regulation of housekeeping functions and tissue-specific gene expression requires a feedforward circuit whereby Ikaros down-regulates the expression of Myc. Our findings show how coordination between differentiation and housekeeping states can be achieved by interconnected regulators. Similar principles likely coordinate differentiation and housekeeping functions during progenitor cell differentiation in other cell lineages.

Linfócitos B/citologia , Genes myc , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/citologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Essenciais , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
PLoS One ; 6(4): e18248, 2011 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21490968


BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14)C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s) to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14)C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time) was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014). Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5). However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed) were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively), less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05), and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05) than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14)C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Estenose das Carótidas/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas
Int J Mol Med ; 27(6): 851-7, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21424112


New technologies to generate high-dimensional data provide unprecedented opportunities for unbiased identification of biomarkers that can be used to optimize pre-operative planning, with the goal of avoiding costly post-operative complications and prolonged hospitalization. To identify such markers, we studied the global gene expression profiles of three organs central to the metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis isolated from coronary artery disease (CAD) patients during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. A total of 198 whole-genome expression profiles of liver, skeletal muscle and visceral fat from 66 CAD patients of the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) cohort were analyzed. Of ~50,000 mRNAs measured in each patient, the mRNA levels of the anti-inflammatory gene, dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) correlated independently with post-operative stay, discriminating patients with normal (≤8 days) from those with prolonged (>8 days) hospitalization (p<0.004). To validate DUSP1 as a marker of risk for post-operative complications, we prospectively analyzed 181 patients undergoing CABG at Tartu University Hospital for DUSP1 protein levels in pre-operative blood samples. The pre-operative plasma levels of DUSP1 clearly discriminated patients with normal from those with prolonged hospitalization (p=2x10-13; odds ratio = 5.1, p<0.0001; receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.80). Taken together, these results indicate that blood levels of the anti-inflammatory protein DUSP1 can be used as a biomarker for post-operative complications leading to prolonged hospitalization after CABG and therefore merit further testing in longitudinal studies of patients eligible for CABG.

Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/enzimologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/enzimologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
PLoS Genet ; 5(12): e1000754, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19997623


Environmental exposures filtered through the genetic make-up of each individual alter the transcriptional repertoire in organs central to metabolic homeostasis, thereby affecting arterial lipid accumulation, inflammation, and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). The primary aim of the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study was to determine whether there are functionally associated genes (rather than individual genes) important for CAD development. To this end, two-way clustering was used on 278 transcriptional profiles of liver, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat (n = 66/tissue) and atherosclerotic and unaffected arterial wall (n = 40/tissue) isolated from CAD patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. The first step, across all mRNA signals (n = 15,042/12,621 RefSeqs/genes) in each tissue, resulted in a total of 60 tissue clusters (n = 3958 genes). In the second step (performed within tissue clusters), one atherosclerotic lesion (n = 49/48) and one visceral fat (n = 59) cluster segregated the patients into two groups that differed in the extent of coronary stenosis (P = 0.008 and P = 0.00015). The associations of these clusters with coronary atherosclerosis were validated by analyzing carotid atherosclerosis expression profiles. Remarkably, in one cluster (n = 55/54) relating to carotid stenosis (P = 0.04), 27 genes in the two clusters relating to coronary stenosis were confirmed (n = 16/17, P<10(-27 and-30)). Genes in the transendothelial migration of leukocytes (TEML) pathway were overrepresented in all three clusters, referred to as the atherosclerosis module (A-module). In a second validation step, using three independent cohorts, the A-module was found to be genetically enriched with CAD risk by 1.8-fold (P<0.004). The transcription co-factor LIM domain binding 2 (LDB2) was identified as a potential high-hierarchy regulator of the A-module, a notion supported by subnetwork analysis, by cellular and lesion expression of LDB2, and by the expression of 13 TEML genes in Ldb2-deficient arterial wall. Thus, the A-module appears to be important for atherosclerosis development and, together with LDB2, merits further attention in CAD research.

Movimento Celular/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Leucócitos/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suécia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
PLoS Genet ; 4(3): e1000036, 2008 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18369455


Despite the well-documented effects of plasma lipid lowering regimes halting atherosclerosis lesion development and reducing morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease and stroke, the transcriptional response in the atherosclerotic lesion mediating these beneficial effects has not yet been carefully investigated. We performed transcriptional profiling at 10-week intervals in atherosclerosis-prone mice with human-like hypercholesterolemia and a genetic switch to lower plasma lipoproteins (Ldlr(-/-)Apo(100/100)Mttp(flox/flox) Mx1-Cre). Atherosclerotic lesions progressed slowly at first, then expanded rapidly, and plateaued after advanced lesions formed. Analysis of lesion expression profiles indicated that accumulation of lipid-poor macrophages reached a point that led to the rapid expansion phase with accelerated foam-cell formation and inflammation, an interpretation supported by lesion histology. Genetic lowering of plasma cholesterol (e.g., lipoproteins) at this point all together prevented the formation of advanced plaques and parallel transcriptional profiling of the atherosclerotic arterial wall identified 37 cholesterol-responsive genes mediating this effect. Validation by siRNA-inhibition in macrophages incubated with acetylated-LDL revealed a network of eight cholesterol-responsive atherosclerosis genes regulating cholesterol-ester accumulation. Taken together, we have identified a network of atherosclerosis genes that in response to plasma cholesterol-lowering prevents the formation of advanced plaques. This network should be of interest for the development of novel atherosclerosis therapies.

Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteína B-100/genética , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética
Carcinogenesis ; 26(6): 1138-51, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15731167


A comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes may provide an insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase the knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analysed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls in a study involving Chernobyl clean-up workers [I.M. Jones, H.Galick, P.Kato et al. (2002) Radiat. Res., 158, 424-442]. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine-resistant mutants. Forty mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1-60 nt were identified. Ninety-four single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not been reported previously in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA [K.J.Burkhart-Schultz, C.L. Thompson and I.M. Jones (1996) Carcinogenesis, 17, 1871-1883] and two Swedish populations [A.Podlutsky, A.-M.Osterholm, S.-M.Hou, A. Hofmaier and B. Lambert (1998) Carcinogenesis, 19, 557-566; A.Podlutsky, S.M.Hou, F.Nyberg, G. Pershagen and B. Lambert (1999) Mutat. Res., 431, 325-39] revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pairwise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of W.T. Adams and T.R. Skopek [(1987) J. Mol. Biol., 194, 391-396] indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P = 0.007, 0.002), but not different from the USA spectrum (P = 0.07) when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was made (P < 0.008 required for significance). Age and smoking did not account for these differences. Other factors causing mutational differences need to be explored.

Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Linfócitos T/enzimologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Federação Russa , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Suécia , Estados Unidos