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1.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 68, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since different types of genetic variants, from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large chromosomal rearrangements, underlie intellectual disability, we evaluated the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) rather than chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-line genetic diagnostic test. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts with short-read WGS: (i) a retrospective cohort with validated copy number variants (CNVs) (cohort 1, n = 68), (ii) individuals referred for monogenic multi-gene panels (cohort 2, n = 156), and (iii) 100 prospective, consecutive cases referred to our center for CMA (cohort 3). Bioinformatic tools developed include FindSV, SVDB, Rhocall, Rhoviz, and vcf2cytosure. RESULTS: First, we validated our structural variant (SV)-calling pipeline on cohort 1, consisting of three trisomies and 79 deletions and duplications with a median size of 850 kb (min 500 bp, max 155 Mb). All variants were detected. Second, we utilized the same pipeline in cohort 2 and analyzed with monogenic WGS panels, increasing the diagnostic yield to 8%. Next, cohort 3 was analyzed by both CMA and WGS. The WGS data was processed for large (> 10 kb) SVs genome-wide and for exonic SVs and SNVs in a panel of 887 genes linked to intellectual disability as well as genes matched to patient-specific Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) phenotypes. This yielded a total of 25 pathogenic variants (SNVs or SVs), of which 12 were detected by CMA as well. We also applied short tandem repeat (STR) expansion detection and discovered one pathologic expansion in ATXN7. Finally, a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with uniparental disomy (UPD) was validated in the WGS data. Important positional information was obtained in all cohorts. Remarkably, 7% of the analyzed cases harbored complex structural variants, as exemplified by a ring chromosome and two duplications found to be an insertional translocation and part of a cryptic unbalanced translocation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall diagnostic rate of 27% was more than doubled compared to clinical microarray (12%). Using WGS, we detected a wide range of SVs with high accuracy. Since the WGS data also allowed for analysis of SNVs, UPD, and STRs, it represents a powerful comprehensive genetic test in a clinical diagnostic laboratory setting.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1013, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variable size deletions affecting 12q12 have been found in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and distinct facial and physical features. For many genetic loci affected by deletions in individuals with NDDs, reciprocal duplications have been described. However, for the 12q12 region, there are no detailed descriptions of duplication cases in the literature. METHODS: We report a phenotypic description of a family with monozygotic twins diagnosed with NDDs, carrying a 9 Mb duplication at 12q12, and five other individuals with overlapping duplications ranging from 4.54 Mb up to 15.16 Mb. RESULTS: The duplication carriers had language delays, cognitive delays, and were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, distinct facial features (e.g., high foreheads, deeply set eyes, short palpebral fissures, small ears, high nasal bridges, abnormalities of the nose tip, thin lips), large feet, and abnormalities in the digits were noted. We also describe incomplete penetrance of the NDD phenotypes among the individuals with 12q12 duplication. CONCLUSION: This case series expands our knowledge on this rare genetic aberration and suggests that large 12q12 duplications may increase the risk for developing NDDs.

3.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640433

RESUMO

Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) is a cytogenetic subtype associated with relapse and poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL). The biology behind the high relapse risk is unknown and the aim of this study was to further characterize the genomic and transcriptional landscape of iAMP21. Using DNA arrays and sequencing, we could identify rearrangements and aberrations characteristic for iAMP21. RNA sequencing revealed that only half of the genes in the minimal region of amplification (20/45) were differentially expressed in iAMP21. Among them were the top overexpressed genes (p < 0.001) in iAMP21 vs. BCP ALL without iAMP21 and three candidate genes could be identified, the tyrosine kinase gene DYRK1A and chromatin remodeling genes CHAF1B and SON. While overexpression of DYRK1A and CHAF1B is associated with poor prognosis in malignant diseases including myeloid leukemia, this is the first study to show significant correlation with iAMP21-positive ALL.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(18): 2722-2731, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519648

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in ETV6 have been associated with familial predisposition to thrombocytopenia and hematological malignancies, predominantly childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). In addition, overrepresentation of a high hyperdiploid subtype and older age at diagnosis have been reported among sporadic BCP-ALL cases with germline variants in ETV6 We studied a family with 2 second-degree relatives who developed childhood high hyperdiploid BCP-ALL at ages 8 and 12 years, respectively. A constitutional balanced reciprocal translocation t(12;14)(p13.2;q23.1) was discovered in both patients by routine karyotyping at diagnosis and, subsequently, in 7 healthy family members who had not experienced hematological malignancies. No carriers had thrombocytopenia. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the translocation, resulting in 2 actively transcribed but nonfunctional fusion genes, causing heterozygous loss and consequently monoallelic expression of ETV6 Whole-genome sequencing analysis of the affected female subjects' leukemia excluded additional somatic aberrations in ETV6 and RTN1 as well as shared somatic variants in other genes. Expression studies, performed to confirm decreased expression of ETV6, were not conclusive. We suggest that germline aberrations resulting in monoallelic expression of ETV6 contribute to leukemia susceptibility, whereas more severe functional deficiency of ETV6 is required for developing THC5. To our knowledge, this report is the first of a constitutional translocation disrupting ETV6 causing predisposition to childhood ALL.

6.
Stem Cell Res ; 39: 101518, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376723

RESUMO

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a complex developmental syndrome caused by heterozygous mutations in the Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 gene (ZEB2). We generated the first human iPSC lines from primary fibroblasts of two siblings with MWS carrying a heterozygous ZEB2 stop mutation (c.1027C > T; p.Arg343*) using the Sendai virus reprogramming system. Both iPSC lines were free from reprogramming vector genes, expressed pluripotency markers and showed potential to differentiate into the three germ layers. Genetic analysis confirmed normal karyotypes and a preserved stop mutation. These iPSC lines will provide a useful resource to study altered neural lineage fate and neuropathophysiology in MWS.

7.
Clin Genet ; 96(2): 118-125, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919936

RESUMO

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum is a group of rare genetic disorders with asymmetric overgrowth caused by somatic mosaic PIK3CA mutations. Here, we report clinical data and molecular findings from two patients with congenital muscular upper limb overgrowth and aberrant anatomy. During debulking surgery, numerous ectopic muscles were found in the upper limbs of the patients. DNA sequencing, followed by digital polymerase chain reaction, was performed on DNA extracted from biopsies from hypertrophic ectopic muscles and identified the somatic mosaic PIK3CA hotspot mutations c.3140A > G, p.(His1047Arg) and c.1624G > A, p.(Glu542Lys) in a male (patient 1) and a female (patient 2) patient, respectively. Patient 1 had four ectopic muscles and unilateral isolated muscular overgrowth while patient 2 had 13 ectopic muscles and bilateral isolated muscular overgrowth of both upper limbs, indicating that her mutation occurred at early pre-somitic mesoderm state. The finding of PIK3CA mutations in ectopic muscles highlights the importance of PIK3CA in cell fate in early human embryonic development. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that the disease phenotype depends on the timing of PIK3CA mutagenesis during embryogenesis and confirm the diagnostic entity PIK3CA-related muscular overgrowth with ectopic accessory muscles.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 583-590, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804514

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Heterozygous loss-of-function point mutations of miRNA genes are associated with several human congenital disorders1-5, but neomorphic (gain-of-new-function) mutations in miRNAs due to nucleotide substitutions have not been reported. Here we describe a neomorphic seed region mutation in the chondrocyte-specific, super-enhancer-associated MIR140 gene encoding microRNA-140 (miR-140) in a novel autosomal dominant human skeletal dysplasia. Mice with the corresponding single nucleotide substitution show skeletal abnormalities similar to those of the patients but distinct from those of miR-140-null mice6. This mutant miRNA gene yields abundant mutant miR-140-5p expression without miRNA-processing defects. In chondrocytes, the mutation causes widespread derepression of wild-type miR-140-5p targets and repression of mutant miR-140-5p targets, indicating that the mutation produces both loss-of-function and gain-of-function effects. Furthermore, the mutant miR-140-5p seed competes with the conserved RNA-binding protein Ybx1 for overlapping binding sites. This finding may explain the potent target repression and robust in vivo effect by this mutant miRNA even in the absence of evolutionary selection of miRNA-target RNA interactions, which contributes to the strong regulatory effects of conserved miRNAs7,8. Our study presents the first case of a pathogenic gain-of-function miRNA mutation and provides molecular insight into neomorphic actions of emerging and/or mutant miRNAs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 462-478, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677142

RESUMO

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, specific facial features, and marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction, especially with disturbances of regulating respiration and intestinal mobility. It is caused by variants in the transcription factor TCF4. Heterogeneity in the clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria and care practices has prompted a group of international experts to establish guidelines for diagnostics and care. For issues, for which there was limited information available in international literature, we collaborated with national support groups and the participants of a syndrome specific international conference to obtain further information. Here, we discuss the resultant consensus, including the clinical definition of PTHS and a molecular diagnostic pathway. Recommendations for managing particular health problems such as dysregulated respiration are provided. We emphasize the need for integration of care for physical and behavioral issues. The recommendations as presented here will need to be evaluated for improvements to allow for continued optimization of diagnostics and care.

10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(3): e549, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal malrotation is a potentially life-threatening congenital anomaly due to the risk of developing midgut volvulus. The reported incidence is 0.2%-1% and both apparently hereditary and sporadic cases have been reported. Intestinal malrotation is associated with a few syndromes with known genotype but the genetic contribution in isolated intestinal malrotation has not yet been reported. Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in many congenital anomalies, and hence we sought to investigate the potential contribution of rare CNVs in intestinal malrotation. METHODS: Analysis of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from 47 patients with symptomatic intestinal malrotation was performed. RESULTS: We identified six rare CNVs in five patients. Five CNVs involved syndrome loci: 7q11.23 microduplication, 16p13.11 microduplication, 18q terminal deletion, HDAC8 (Cornelia de Lange syndrome type 5 and FOXF1) as well as one intragenic deletion in GALNT14, not previously implicated in human disease. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we identified rare CNVs contributing pathogenic or potentially pathogenic alleles in five patients with syndromic intestinal malrotation, suggesting that CNV screening is indicated in intestinal malrotation with associated malformations or neurological involvements. In addition, we identified intestinal malrotation in two known syndromes (Cornelia de Lange type 5 and 18q terminal deletion syndrome) that has not previously been associated with gastrointestinal malformations.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/genética , Volvo Intestinal/genética , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Lange/patologia , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Volvo Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Williams/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Williams/patologia
12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007780, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419018

RESUMO

Clustered copy number variants (CNVs) as detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) are often reported as germline chromothripsis. However, such cases might need further investigations by massive parallel whole genome sequencing (WGS) in order to accurately define the underlying complex rearrangement, predict the occurrence mechanisms and identify additional complexities. Here, we utilized WGS to delineate the rearrangement structure of 21 clustered CNV carriers first investigated by CMA and identified a total of 83 breakpoint junctions (BPJs). The rearrangements were further sub-classified depending on the patterns observed: I) Cases with only deletions (n = 8) often had additional structural rearrangements, such as insertions and inversions typical to chromothripsis; II) cases with only duplications (n = 7) or III) combinations of deletions and duplications (n = 6) demonstrated mostly interspersed duplications and BPJs enriched with microhomology. In two cases the rearrangement mutational signatures indicated both a breakage-fusion-bridge cycle process and haltered formation of a ring chromosome. Finally, we observed two cases with Alu- and LINE-mediated rearrangements as well as two unrelated individuals with seemingly identical clustered CNVs on 2p25.3, possibly a rare European founder rearrangement. In conclusion, through detailed characterization of the derivative chromosomes we show that multiple mechanisms are likely involved in the formation of clustered CNVs and add further evidence for chromoanagenesis mechanisms in both "simple" and highly complex chromosomal rearrangements. Finally, WGS characterization adds positional information, important for a correct clinical interpretation and deciphering mechanisms involved in the formation of these rearrangements.

13.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(11): 2103-2110, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455901

RESUMO

Here, we report a novel mosaic mutation in the PORCN gene in a male Goltz syndrome patient. We also compare the phenotypes of all reported males with a confirmed molecular diagnosis. This report serves to further clarify the phenotype of Goltz syndrome and suggests that expression in males varies.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 553-567, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290151

RESUMO

The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is involved in intracellular vesicular transport, and is composed of eight subunits distributed in two lobes, lobe A (COG1-4) and lobe B (COG5-8). We describe fourteen individuals with Saul-Wilson syndrome, a rare form of primordial dwarfism with characteristic facial and radiographic features. All affected subjects harbored heterozygous de novo variants in COG4, giving rise to the same recurrent amino acid substitution (p.Gly516Arg). Affected individuals' fibroblasts, whose COG4 mRNA and protein were not decreased, exhibited delayed anterograde vesicular trafficking from the ER to the Golgi and accelerated retrograde vesicular recycling from the Golgi to the ER. This altered steady-state equilibrium led to a decrease in Golgi volume, as well as morphologic abnormalities with collapse of the Golgi stacks. Despite these abnormalities of the Golgi apparatus, protein glycosylation in sera and fibroblasts from affected subjects was not notably altered, but decorin, a proteoglycan secreted into the extracellular matrix, showed altered Golgi-dependent glycosylation. In summary, we define a specific heterozygous COG4 substitution as the molecular basis of Saul-Wilson syndrome, a rare skeletal dysplasia distinct from biallelic COG4-CDG.

15.
Clin Genet ; 94(6): 528-537, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221345

RESUMO

We have investigated 20 consanguineous families with multiple children affected by rare disorders. Detailed clinical examinations, exome sequencing of affected as well as unaffected family members and further validation of likely pathogenic variants were performed. In 16/20 families, we identified pathogenic variants in autosomal recessive disease genes (ALMS1, PIGT, FLVCR2, TFG, CYP7B1, ALG14, EXOSC3, MEGF10, ASAH1, WDR62, ASPM, PNPO, ERCC5, KIAA1109, RIPK4, MAN1B1). A number of these genes have only rarely been reported previously and our findings thus confirm them as disease genes, further delineate the associated phenotypes and expand the mutation spectrum with reports of novel variants. We highlight the findings in two affected siblings with splice altering variants in ALG14 and propose a new clinical entity, which includes severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, behavioral problems and mild dysmorphic features, caused by biallelic variants in ALG14.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1456-1467, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080953

RESUMO

Skeletal dysplasias are a diverse group of rare Mendelian disorders with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Here, we used targeted copy number variant (CNV) screening and identified intragenic exonic duplications, formed through Alu-Alu fusion events, in two individuals with skeletal dysplasia and negative exome sequencing results. First, we detected a homozygous tandem duplication of exon 9 and 10 in IFT81 in a boy with Jeune syndrome, or short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) (MIM# 208500). Western blot analysis did not detect any wild-type IFT81 protein in fibroblasts from the patient with the IFT81 duplication, but only a shorter isoform of IFT81 that was also present in the normal control samples. Complementary zebrafish studies suggested that loss of full-length IFT81 protein but expression of a shorter form of IFT81 protein affects the phenotype while being compatible with life. Second, a de novo tandem duplication of exons 2 to 5 in MATN3 was identified in a girl with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) type 5 (MIM# 607078). Our data highlights the importance of detection and careful characterization of intragenic duplication CNVs, presenting them as a novel and very rare genetic mechanism in IFT81-related Jeune syndrome and MATN3-related MED.

18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In genome-wide screening studies for de novo mutations underlying autism and intellectual disability, mutations in the ADNP gene are consistently reported among the most frequent. ADNP mutations have been identified in children with autism spectrum disorder comorbid with intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and deficits in multiple organ systems. However, a comprehensive clinical description of the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome is lacking. METHODS: We identified a worldwide cohort of 78 individuals with likely disruptive mutations in ADNP from January 2014 to October 2016 through systematic literature search, by contacting collaborators, and through direct interaction with parents. Clinicians filled in a structured questionnaire on genetic and clinical findings to enable correlations between genotype and phenotype. Clinical photographs and specialist reports were gathered. Parents were interviewed to complement the written questionnaires. RESULTS: We report on the detailed clinical characterization of a large cohort of individuals with an ADNP mutation and demonstrate a distinctive combination of clinical features, including mild to severe intellectual disability, autism, severe speech and motor delay, and common facial characteristics. Brain abnormalities, behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, epilepsy, hypotonia, visual problems, congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, short stature, and hormonal deficiencies are common comorbidities. Strikingly, individuals with the recurrent p.Tyr719* mutation were more severely affected. CONCLUSIONS: This overview defines the full clinical spectrum of individuals with ADNP mutations, a specific autism subtype. We show that individuals with mutations in ADNP have many overlapping clinical features that are distinctive from those of other autism and/or intellectual disability syndromes. In addition, our data show preliminary evidence of a correlation between genotype and phenotype.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193928, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529047

RESUMO

The detection of recurrent somatic chromosomal rearrangements is standard of care for most leukemia types. Even though karyotype analysis-a low-resolution genome-wide chromosome analysis-is still the gold standard, it often needs to be complemented with other methods to increase resolution. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of mate pair whole genome sequencing (MP-WGS) to detect structural chromosomal rearrangements in the diagnostic setting, we sequenced ten bone marrow samples from leukemia patients with recurrent rearrangements. Samples were selected based on cytogenetic and FISH results at leukemia diagnosis to include common rearrangements of prognostic relevance. Using MP-WGS and in-house bioinformatic analysis all sought rearrangements were successfully detected. In addition, unexpected complexity or additional, previously undetected rearrangements was unraveled in three samples. Finally, the MP-WGS analysis pinpointed the location of chromosome junctions at high resolution and we were able to identify the exact exons involved in the resulting fusion genes in all samples and the specific junction at the nucleotide level in half of the samples. The results show that our approach combines the screening character from karyotype analysis with the specificity and resolution of cytogenetic and molecular methods. As a result of the straightforward analysis and high-resolution detection of clinically relevant rearrangements, we conclude that MP-WGS is a feasible method for routine leukemia diagnostics of structural chromosomal rearrangements.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Medula Óssea , Biologia Computacional , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Éxons , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucemia/patologia
20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(1): 1-11, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307321

RESUMO

Hundreds of penetrant risk loci have been identified across different neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), and these often involve rare (<1% frequency) copy number variations (CNVs), which can involve one or more genes. Monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs are long thought to share 100% of their genomic information. However, genetic differences in the form of postzygotic somatic variants have been reported recently both in typically developing (TD) and in clinically discordant MZ pairs. We sought to investigate the contribution of rare CNVs in 100 twin pairs enriched for NDD phenotypes with a particular focus on postzygotic CNVs in MZ pairs discordant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Illumina Infinium PsychArray. In our sample, no postzygotic de novo CNVs were found in 55 MZ twin pairs, including the 13 pairs discordant for ASD. We did detect a higher rate of CNVs overlapping genes involved in disorders of the nervous system, such as a rare deletion affecting HNRNPU, in MZ pairs discordant and concordant for ASD in comparison with TD pairs (p = .02). Our results are in concordance with earlier findings that postzygotic de novo CNV events are typically rare in genomic DNA derived from saliva or blood, and suggests that the discordance of NDDs in our sample of twins is not explained by discordant CNVs. Still, studies investigating postzygotic variation in MZ discordant twins using DNA from different tissues and single cells and higher resolution genomics are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
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